presents is a good example of confrontational positions that social sense of belonging and social dominancy are in. Mukhuba (2005) draws attention to the imbroglio in South African countries where English is adopted as the official language, but where there are conflicting views about the candidate of a second official language among the native languages spoken by different tribes. This problem can only arrive at a solution if there is a general consensus on which language is planned to be the second official language. Bangeni and Kapp (2007), in their study on shifting languageattitudes in South Africa, emphasize that ideologies about language are not focused on languages alone; social situations, identity and power relations in societies are strictly tied to languageattitudes (p. 258-266). For instance, language shifts occur in South African societies because of the intensive use of English in university environments. It seems that although bilingual language communities try to preserve their native languages to retain their ethnic identities, they value dominant official languages for daily communicational purposes, which initiates a future language shift.
Surveys, in vogue since the late 19 th century as instruments for gathering linguistic data, are considered to be one of the very important means of collecting data on language in its socio-cultural setting. Among the data collection methods designed to tap the languageattitudes, perceptions and use in the community of practice, survey research, along with few others, is reputed to be reliable (Schilling, 2013). Also, Baker (1997) contends that surveys, although characterized by structured and systematic collection of data in the form of variables, are not necessarily ‗embedded‘ in positivism. The choice of survey method to collect data on language perceptions and attitudes of the Bondo tribal people, then, resonates with the philosophical bearings of the research design of this dissertation as maintaining conceptual distance from a dualistic understanding of reality. While survey method through questionnaire administration exhibits great rigor, from an anthropological perspective, however, relying solely on the former would yield a fractured assessment of the situation under study. Notwithstanding the above shortcoming, the usefulness of surveys in revealing regulatory patterns of the operational phenomenon being studied offsets its limited scope for an in-depth study. Therefore, a simultaneous or subsequent ethnographic appraisal of the output of survey research will only add to the reliability of the study. The same has been implemented in this study .The survey for this study work was conducted by means of a questionnaire. The design and development of the questionnaire is laid out in the following section.
This thesis attempted to examine the attitudes towards the use of English loanwords in Dutch advertisements and to investigate the reasons people have for such attitudes. The framework that was used for this research was mostly based on Baker’s (1992) and Gerritsen et al’s (2000) frameworks and proved useful in acquiring reliable results. This research was successful in finding evidence that languageattitudes was repeatedly affected by one’s age, as well as participants’ proficiency in the English language. The consulted literature (see sections 2.5.2 and 2.5.3) also supported the notion that age and proficiency were influential of languageattitudes, indicating that these results presented nothing new and were in accordance with previously conducted research. Therefore, in examining age and proficiency, this research was able to prove the salience of these two variables. Unfortunately no outstanding evidence was found to support that gender was a salient determiner of languageattitudes. Even in the earliest stages of this research, literature presented contradictory views on the influence of gender on languageattitudes (see section 2.5.2). In accordance with Gerritsen et al. (2000) this particular research did not find any evidence of age being a determining factor, but there were occasions where women responded differently towards loanwords than men did. However, as the gender differences were thus small, these could be neglected when comparing them to the differences and influences on basis of proficiency and age. In the reflection stage of this research, it was found that the small-scale nature of this research was the biggest hindrance, as more participants and loanwords would have made this research more credible in drawing conclusions about the influencing variables on languageattitudes. Therefore, as this small-sample research was successful in drawing conclusions which agreed with previously conducted research, the next step is to broaden the focus of this research by approaching more people, using more loanwords and establishing the significance of affecting variables on languageattitudes.
Using literature in English classes is reported to be multi-dimensional; it can improve students’ language proficiency, teach them some cultural points, help them have a deeper understanding of the language and context and many more (Maley, 1989; Mckay S., 1982; Preston W., 1982; Gajdusek L., 1988). Besides, literature, through its numerous merits, is capable of improving learners’ abilities to see from different eyes, to experience real and authentic pieces of language, to tap learners’ motivation and enthusiasm and to provide learners with more and more opportunities to enter the realms of unknown. On the other hand, learners’ attitudes toward a second language or toward the people who use that language are a key to their success in learning a second language. One of the goals of English teachers in their classes is to enhance learners’ second languageattitudes in order to accelerate students’ learning. To this end, teacher’s characteristics are not the only things which matter, rather the material which are taken to the class are an important part of the story. Literature have been tried to be beneficial from different perspectives, and it proved, in this study, that literature was able to give rise to learners’ attitudes toward their second language.
Our results suggest that these capital forces may lead eventually to language shift in the Greek-Cypriot community of London: the young report comparatively little use of the community codes. Despite this, however, the Cypriot community at large report a strong desire to maintain their language, identity and associations with their nation, asserting a desire to maintain boundaries between themselves and their host country. This finding comple- ments similar results and conclusions by Clyne (1982) in his investigation of Greeks in Australia, and Hadzidaki (1995) in her discussion of Greek communities internationally. Moreover, Smolicz (1984, 1985) argues that Greek immigrant communities are a typical example of migrant groups that consider language as constituting a core value (along with Orthodoxy and family values). According to his theory, communities have particular values that are held in high esteem and take longer to dissolve over time. Smolicz accounts thus for Greek immigrants maintaining their ethnic language in the host country to a greater extent and for longer than other immigrant groups.
speakers. 9 Moreover, they bring forward most of the minority language communities’ human capital. Consequently, ‘[l]anguage policy in education is integrally connected to patterns of language maintenance, language shift, and ultimately to group survival’. 10 However, while such legislation does have the potential to contribute strongly to the protection of endangered languages, in order to do so, it needs to take account of the attitudes of those who will be affected by it – because language planning is rarely effective without support at the grassroots level. 11 Yet it is unclear whether the planning measures proposed in Québec would indeed have the required attitudinal backing by adolescents in education institutions. The aim of this article is to elucidate this issue.
eighteenth-century normative grammars of English, a study of attitudes to the usage of phrasal verbs in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Wild 2010), and a study of attitudes to preposition stranding from 1500 to 1900 (Yáñez-Bouza 2015). It is important to bear in mind that these studies can be seen as dealing with different types of attitudes. The studies discussed in the previous paragraphs of this section concern the languageattitudes of speakers, and are often understood more generally (i.e. not necessarily related to prescriptive language ideology). The studies mentioned in this paragraph, however, use the term “attitudes” to refer to the attitudes to language standards, norms, correctness, or acceptability which are found in metalinguistic works such as normative grammars and usage guides. For instance, the attitudes to usage in Finegan (1980) are those found in books on language by lexicographers or language scholars from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the United States. Those that feature prominently as a research topic in historical sociolinguistic studies are the attitudes of grammarians or writers on language, and relate to the correctness or appropriateness of particular language features. This kind of division may suggest that such attitudes are different, but perhaps that is not the case. There are multiple reasons that the latter type of attitudes to usage form part of historical sociolinguistics, and some of these are related to the available sources of evidence. Historical sociolinguistic evidence on languageattitudes comes from written texts, and most of the written texts available are predominantly books on language, which were written in a period when modern linguistic science did not exist, and the predominant language ideology was tied to the superiority of the standard. The writers of these books were concerned with distinguishing between correct and incorrect usage from the point of view of the language standard. In essence, normative and prescriptive grammar writing was essentially an attempt to regulate language use. However, despite the fact that those books presented the normative views of a group of people, they may also reveal information about the attitudes to usage found among ordinary speakers. In this context, the relevance of a study of present-day prescriptivism lies in its potential to shed light precisely on the relationship between attitudes to language found in popular metalinguistic works such as usage guides and attitudes of ordinary speakers.
Chinese language was introduced as a subject of study at the faculty of arts in the early 1990, following the beginning of China’s big investments in Sudan. China’s transformation from an insular, agrarian society into a key force in the world economy forced the Chinese to send their companies to distant points in search of raw materials. Part of a broader push by china to expand trade and influence across Africa, its relationship with Sudan also shows China’s intense willingness to do business wherever it is possible to secure oil. In line with this policy to spread China’s influence around the world, the Chinese government encourages the use of Chinese language as an effective strategy (BBC report). By 2008, an estimated 120.000 students would travel to China to attend college both at graduate and undergraduate levels. Sudanese students have already taken their share in these Chinese government scholarships. Sudanese universities receive a number of scholarships for their potential staff to obtain MSc and PhD in different fields of study in China. Languageattitudes and reality
Ukrainian,” signaling that for him Ukrainian is considered the new “home” language, which he reiterates twice. Note that during this interview, Taras reports that he speaks Russian with his friends. Specifically, with his Ukrainian-speaking friends he continues using Russian when his friends communicate in Ukrainian. This participant notes that regardless of this language choice, he and his Ukrainian-speaking friends “understand each other perfectly fine.” Taras’s claim that Ukrainian is now his “home” and his native language, is clearly an “ideal” or a symbolic display of the participant’s shift in language ideology. It also shows how language practices and languageattitudes have real-world consequences in this participant’s life (as stressed by Pavlenko and Blackledge 12). Taras’s view of the “native language” or “ridna mova,” supports Friedman’s discussion that “[u]nlike the English term, ridna mova does not necessarily refer to one’s first language; rather, Ukrainians tend to use the term to refer to the language with which they most closely identify, which may be the result of personal associations . . . or ethnic affiliation” (168). Bilaniuk and Melnyk also point out that “often people will designate as ‘native’ the language that corresponds to their ethnic heritage, even if they know it poorly, in the belief that this is how things should be” (346).
Learning a foreign language requires mental, emotional and social interaction between teachers and learners. In the process of language learning, learners are as responsible as teachers and they can impose their own attitude toward effective teaching and also can improve teachers' profession. The present study attempts to investigate learners' perceptions and attitudes about effective teaching. The participants of this study are EFL learners from different language institutes in Tabriz who were requested to complete the questionnaire related to their ideas about effective EFL teachers. This questionnaire contains questions about different aspects of effective teacher including relational factors, environmental dynamic, knowledge of language, common standards, performance assessment, and classroom planning. The obtained findings revealed that all of these components are important in effective teaching from EFL learners' point of view.
computer and internet technology in SLA- was positive. There are some reasons for the role of computer and internet technology in classes: a) Technology helps teachers to make the instruction, individual through permitting students to learn in an environment which they feel more secure; b) It helps students to have access to different learning sources not only at the university, but also outside of it (Peck and Domcott, 1994, cited in, Al-Zaidiyeen, Mei, Fook, 2010). It can make the learning process more student- centered. Online learning is a natural extension of earlier forms of distance education. With regard to the second research question- factors which encourage to use technology in classes- computers have proven to be an effective tool for facilitating learning and practicing language skills. Other benefits of using computers is that it can keep a record of any and all communication that is taking place (Blake, 2006). Meanwhile, the findings of this research reinforced proven evidence of the usefulness of computer-based English learning for developing the basic skills including listening (Gruba, 2004), reading (Lee, 1998), and writing (Wang, 2008). Due to its convenience, appropriate difficulty level, and practicality, participants were generally satisfied with the content and learning materials of technology. These findings support the idea of Lam (2000) who stated that teachers take into consideration technology as a supporting tool in teaching and learning process. The involvement of the students in such authentic communication allowed them to reach communicative goals. According to Brown (2000),
Learning a second language is different from first language acquisition in several ways as this process is a “learnable school subject in that discrete elements of the communication code (e.g., grammatical rules and lexical items) can be taught explicitly, it is also socially and culturally bound, which makes language learning a deeply social event” (Dörnyei, 2003). This complex process becomes rather complicated for Arab students considering the language distance between English (SVO language) and Arabic (VSO language). The complex process require much more than just classroom teaching. It is strongly suggested that the attitudes of language learners play an important role in making this multifaceted process effective (Dörnyei, 2003). Brown (2000) has offered valuable insights regarding this unusual struggle of learning a foreign/second language suggesting that this complex process does not confine only to mastering the linguistics rules of a foreign/second language but actually “your whole person is affected as you struggle to reach beyond the confines of your first language and into a new language, a new culture, a new way of thinking, feeling, and acting” (p. 1). This discussion strongly suggests that in order to make the process of learning a foreign language smooth and effective it is not sufficient to control and correct the external factors related to ELT but investigating the learner‟s inner self is also extremely important in this regard.
As far as the types of motivations are concerned, the results showed that both instrumental and integrative motivations were important sources of the cadets' motivation toward learning English, supporting previous ESP studies (e.g., Alhuqbani, 2009; Al-Tamimi & Shuib, 2009). The significant correlation between almost all the instrumental and integrative variables provides evidence to the interdependence and integration of the two types of motivations. This in turn substantiates the importance of both types in the learning of English and that they are not separate entity, but complete each other (Alhuqbani, 2009). Despite they are not yet on the job, the cadets seem to be conscious of the instrumentality of their English learning in relation to their police work. This could be seen in the lower scores assigned to instrumental motivation no. 4 (it helps in the promotion to a higher military rank) and no. 9 (it helps me in the evaluation and examinations in my security job), which are not requirements in promotion and evaluations. This finding is consistent with Alhuqbani's (2009) finding that Saudi police officers on the job scored less on these two instrumental motivations because they did not see them as requirements. The findings also revealed that, possibly as a result of their high motivations, Saudi police cadets had positive attitudes toward both English learning and its culture. The cadets scored higher on the statements describing their positive attitudes and tended to score lower on statements describing negative attitudes which validate their positive attitudes toward both learning English and its culture. 9. Conclusion and pedagogical implications
6.1 Addressing the parent as a sophisticated consumer/skilled researcher Much of the literature reviewed by the discourse analysts presents childcare to the reader as a list of options (usually with pros and cons identified, questions to ask and issues to consider) from which they can select the “right choice”. For example, the ChildcareLink website 6 presents a list of seven types of childcare and each is briefly described. The SureStart booklet 7 presents a longer list of options with detailed descriptions. The choice of language immediately creates a problem for the reader, who is made to feel that there is a right and a wrong choice to be made.
Schulz (1996) studied students’ and teachers’ view on error correction and the role of grammar instruction in ESL. His study showed that many students have more positive attitude towards grammar instruction as opposed to their instructors. Students also believed that in order to master the language they have to study grammar. On the other hand, teachers believed it is better for students to get involved in real life situations and practice grammar in that way. Teachers were against explicit grammar instructions. Then, Ibsen (2004) in his research on the assessment of pupils’ skills in English in eight European countries 2002, in which he examined attitudes and skills in English by the end of 10th grade. According to his research Norwegian pupils exhibited good receptive skills, but they were not very good in spelling skills. The research also showed that the articles a and an, the future tense, unknown words, and cloze tests caused problems to the majority of the students. Media (TV) is the main source of English language for the students. Among different nationalities under the investigation Norwegians and Swedes did best on the tests. According to Ellis (2006:102) grammar has held and continues to hold a central place in language teaching. The zero grammar approach was flirted with but never really took hold, as is evident in both the current textbook materials emanating from publishing houses and in current theories of L2 acquisition. There is ample evidence to demonstrate that teaching grammar works. Furthermore, Mella (1998) has considered the role of grammar in EFL, whereby he carried out a quantitative research which distributed to 85 participants who attended 16 different schools, during 1993 and 1998. His research compared these different sets of data in evaluating how teachers teach grammar and their attitudes towards grammar teaching. He argued that teachers were generally very experienced in grammar teaching.
, English has been a compulsory course in the curriculum and the starting age for learning English has been reduced to fourth grade, demonstrating the importance that Turkish government gives to FL education. As a result of globalization and Turkey’s attempts to join EU increasing numbers of people are prioritizing FL learning. These changes are revealed in learners’ attitudes and motivation. Therefore, a good language teacher must have a positive attitude and motivation to enable his/her learners to develop their own motivation for success in the L2. Several suggestions can be derived from the research results. First, because the trainees who contributed to the present study showed mildly positive attitudes, further research is necessary to identify the factors that affect ELT teacher trainees’ attitudes. Second, the teachers’ attitudes toward ELT classroom teaching should be investigated in a follow-up study. Third, lower integrative motivation should be considered as an
Perhaps partly to mitigate the risk of negative evaluations of FA speech, L2 speakers often aspire to native-standards of speech (Derwing, 2003; Sasayama, 2013). Many tried and failed, such as Teresa Desiderio who remembers her attempts at getting rid of her Italian accent in English when joining an American university: “I was sent to the Speech Clinic to correct my speech (...). I learnt about dental, palatal, sibilant, fricative and affricative sounds, but I never lost my foreign accent. (...) I never got rid of my Italian accent, but I cannot say that I did not try” (2004, p. 28). She was convinced that her FA was a barrier that would stop her from becoming fully American (p. 17). A minority of foreign-accented speakers prefer, however, to retain the L2 identity that their speech signals (Yu, 2010). Sasayama (2013) found that while her 44 Japanese college students preferred American-accented speech rather than Japanese-accented English, they still wanted the latter variant to be accepted internationally. Particularly in countries or regions with strong historical or institutional ties with the English language, greater numbers of foreign- accented speakers express a preference for retaining their variety of English. For example, Li (2009) showed that approximately 20% of Hong Kong speakers surveyed preferred to retain their HK-accented English and identity, so long as they remained intelligible to others, rather than trying to imitate native ‘standards’. Researchers working in the area of lingua franca have argued that FA is not a problem as long as it does not impair communication (Jenkins, 2007; Seidlhofer, 2001).
accurately represented (Lippi-Green 1997; Dragojevic et al 2016). Within a classroom setting, van den Doel (2006:3) stated that there is ‘overemphasis in second language acquisition on the standard language,’ as the native English population is far from homogeneous. In an analysis of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) for English language teaching, Pitzl (2015:99) found that although the native speaker model was explicitly rejected, within the proposed goals for learners of English, the ‘benchmarks’ of language learning correlate to replicating particular native speaker standards. In other words, the English language is often externally synonymous to second language learners with these two particular varieties through both the curriculum and the media. With this in mind, any native deviation from this established norm is classed as ‘non-standard’ - and therefore may be classed as being ‘wrong.’ Thus, students’ pronunciation preferences may be influenced by a pre-established ‘correct’ way of reflecting the English ‘cultural identity.’ Asking for a change in what they are taught and shown may be seen as asking to be taught variants that are not ‘correct’ forms - and could internationally be evaluated as not being ‘good’ English (Geeslin & Long. 2014:258).