Irregularities in spelling names of other deities support this conclusion. Smith argues that the altars dedicated to Coventina (RIB 1522-1535), a Celtic goddess, at Carrawburgh (Brocolitia) have various spelling irregularities caused not so much by the difficulty of Romanizing the name, but by general sub-standard developments in the Latin of the Roman provinces. 116 In the dedications to Coventina where -ent- was shortened to -et- and in cases where the dative ending -ae was shortened to –e, the German and Latin speaking soldiers of the second cohort of Batavians demonstrated common sub-standard developments. The shift of -ent- to -ont- in Covontine (RIB 1533) is less common. 117 In two cases (RIB 1534-35), however, uncertainty over the sound may account for the first syllable spelled with a non-Latin vowel sound, Cou-. This case suggests that whoever produced the inscription was either proficient in Latin but attempting to represent a non- Latin sound, or that they were unfamiliar with Latin phonology and had an imperfect knowledge of Latin. 118 Dedications made to the Celtic war-god Belatucadrus which have irregularities caused by both sub-standard Latin developments as well as difficulties of transcribing Celtic sounds into Latin have more in common with the Veteres altars than the dedications to Coventina whose irregularities are attributed above to the language shifts of provincial Latin. There are 27 inscriptions in RIB dedicated to Belatucadrus, five of which are equated with Mars. One dedication to this god from Carvoran (RIB 1776) reads Do Blatucadro votu(m) s(olutum), “To the God Belatucadrus, a vow
Of the many studies consulted on the phonological assimilation of loanwords, only one was devoted specifically to the lack of assimilation. Oswalt (1985) reports that in English words are often used in Kashaya, a Native American language of California. However, they are unassimilated to Kashaya phonology, leading speakers to deny that they are borrowings (in contrast with the phonologically assimilated borrowings from Spanish). Two further studies (Ndiaye 1996, on the assimilation of French words into Wolof, and Shinohara 1996 on French loan phonology in Japanese) did not mention the retention of aspects of source languagephonology. Although it is not clear whether such phenomena do not exist in these contact situations, or whether the authors simply chose not to discuss them, two other papers explicitly deny the existence of phonologically unassimilated loans in borrowing. Bergsland (1992) attributes the phonological assimilation of Scandinavian borrowings into Southern Sami (or Lapp), a Finno-Ugric language, to active resistance to outide influences by community members. Yip (1993) argues that Cantonese speakers do not perceive all the distinctions that English speakers do, and subject the non-native input (English loanwords) to Cantonese well-formedness rules.
The ﬁnal article, ‘Translingual practice among African immigrants in the United States: Embra- cing the mosaicness of the English language ’ by James Kigamwa and Michael Ndemanu, is an exploration of the ‘need to embrace translingualism in order to avert covert tensions that emanate from the ascription of linguistic supremacy to “standard” English, especially among teachers of immigrant children ’. This essay is inspired in the 1974 resolutions of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) and the 1996 Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights (UDLR); both of these documents stress the importance of empowering students to ‘own’ their languages. To this end, Kigamwa and Ndemanu examine the diversity of world Englishes in the areas of orthography, grammar, lexis, and phonology. Africa, as a site of innumerable colonial situ- ations, is now home to a profusion of Indigenous and European languages. All of these have contrib- uted to the emergence of a wide variety of Englishes; as a result, African immigrants in the USA speak English with varying accents and pro ﬁciencies. A number of factors inﬂuence the translingual nature of English spoken by these immigrants, ranging from ‘medium of instruction in their countries of origin; duration of exposure to “standard” English; age at immigration to the US; and their willingness to yield to social pressure to speak English like mainstream Americans ’. The authors argue that linguistic diversity must be respected. Since the primary purpose of language is communication, there should be no dialect of English (or any other language) that is considered superior to any other. Throughout the article, both historical and contemporary sociolinguistic rea- lities of African immigrants ’ English speech are considered in terms of their ability to facilitate or impede African immigrants ’ acculturation to their host country.
The phonemic representations are minimally specified because some features or feature values are predictable. For example, in English all nasal consonants are voiced, so we don’t need to specify voicing in the phonemic feature matrix for nasals. Similarly, we don’t need to specify the feature round for non–low back vowels. If Table 7.5 was strictly phonemic, then instead of a + in the voice-row for m, n, and ŋ , the cells would be left blank, as would the cells in the round-row of Table 7.4 for u , ʊ, o , ɔ . Such underspecification reflects the redundancy in the phonology, which is also part of a speaker’s knowledge of the sound system. The phonemic representation should include only the nonpredictable, distinctive fea- tures of the phonemes in a word. The phonetic representation, derived by applying the phonological rules, includes all of the linguistically relevant phonetic aspects of the sounds. It does not include all of the physical properties of the sounds of an utterance, however, because the physical signal may vary in many ways that have little to do with the phonological system. The absolute pitch of the sound, the rate of speech, or its loudness is not linguistically significant. The phonetic transcription is therefore also an abstraction from the physical signal; it includes the nonvariant phonetic aspects of the utterances, those features that remain rel- atively constant from speaker to speaker and from one time to another.
While the research considered above describes the nature of bilingual acquisition and the effect of language exposure factors, research conducted within a sociolinguistic framework suggests that social identity factors are also important when explaining aspects of speech production. Previous sociolinguistic accounts of young people’s language typically describe a childhood phase, where the child’s use of linguistic features closely patterns with that of their care-giver once the system has been acquired. The implication behind this is that a child will complete most of their meaningful language acquisition via input form the caregiver so logically their language use will reflect this input (Kerswill 1996; Kerswill and Williams 2000; Foulkes et al. 2005; Smith et al. 2007, 2013). At some point in a child’s development into adolescence, the social and linguistic focus shifts from the caregiver to the peer group and young people begin to develop patterns of linguistic behaviour that are unique to themselves and divergent from their caregivers (Eckert 2008; Kirkham and Moore 2013). The timing at which this transition occurs may well vary from community to
6 Method and experiments We approach the task of PoS tagging using a fairly standard bi-directional LSTM architecture, based onPlank et al.(2016). The system is implemented using DyNet (Neubig et al.,2017). We train using the Adam optimisation algorithm (Kingma and Ba,2014) over a maximum of 10 epochs, using early stopping. We make two modifica- tions to the bi-LSTM architecture ofPlank et al. (2016). First of all, we do not use any atomic embedded word representations, but rather use only character-based word representations. This choice was made so as to encourage the model not to rely on language-specific vocabulary. Ad- ditionally, we concatenate a pre-trained language embedding to each word representation. That is to say, in the original bi-LSTM formulation of Plank et al.(2016), each wordwis represented as ~w+LST M c (w), where~wis an embedded word representation, andLST M c (w)is the final states of a character bi-LSTM running over the charac- ters in a word. In our formulation, each wordw in languagelis represented asLST M c (w) +~l, whereLST M c (w)is defined as before, and~lis an embedded language representation. We use a two-layer deep bi-LSTM, with 100 units in each layer. The character embeddings used also have 100 dimensions. We update the language repre- sentations,~l, during training. The language repre- sentations are 64-dimensional, and are initialised using the language embeddings from¨Ostling and Tiedemann(2017). All PoS tagging results re- ported are the average of five runs, each with dif- ferent initialisation seeds, so as to minimise ran-
intent on diminishing Catalan autonomy. Within days of the declaration of the dic- tatorship, laws were passed which banned the use of the Catalan language in public settings, all Catalan language publication was subject to government censorship and within two years, the Mancomunitat Catalana had been abolished altogether. How- ever, such oppression may not have been as detrimental to the Catalanist cause as one may think: in the face of a common enemy, the Catalan intelligentsia was gal- vanised into action, and literary output in Catalan increased, making extensive use of the new Fabrian standard. Most importantly, the dictatorship ultimately resulted in the declaration of the liberal Second Spanish Republic (1931-36), under which the Catalanist cause ourished, particularly in the initial bienni reformista period. The Catalan Generalitat (regional government) was re-established, an Autonomy Statute (1931) was ratied and approved, and progress was made to Catalanise and modernise the education system. On a linguistic-cultural level, Catalan book and newspaper production more than doubled in a period of six years, the presence of Catalan on the radio increased and Fabra's Diccionari General de la Llengua Catalana appeared (Costa Carreras 2009, 20-1). However, the Republic was beset with problems: the bienni reformista was followed by the bienni negre, a period of right-wing austerity, and then nally in 1936, power swung radically back to the left with the victory of the Frente Popular. Such constant political vacillation culminated in the Spanish Civil War (1936-9), sparked by the revolt of the Spanish garrison in Morocco headed by General Francisco Franco. In Catalonia itself, the mantle was taken up by the CNT- FAI (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo - Federación Anárquica Ibérica) anarchist confederation, in response to the political upheaval of the time. The war raged for just under three years, claiming approximately half a million lives and resulting in a Nationalist victory and ultimately, the Franco dictatorship.
The study reveals that phonological control which means accuracy of pronunciation, using allophones, employing word stress, demonstrating intonation is highly affected by teaching of phonology. Students who do not study phonology, they do not use word stress and intonation. It is also found that in terms of homophones, these students were not able to identify the difference. They also don’t make changes in the pronunciation while using derivation of root word, which means the word which is used as noun, adjective or verb is spoken by putting stress at the same place. Second major problem occurs in making different types of sentences by using voice modulation. These students do not differentiate between statement, imperative sentence and interrogative and exclamatory sentence, etc. they concentrate so much on sentence structure: implied meanings are ignored by them. While using rhetorical utterances they rely too much on language devices rather than on voice modulation.
In the studies summarized earlier, information is exchanged between a native speaker and a native listener as the control condition and a native/nonnative pair of interactants for the experimental condition. In this comparison the native/nonnative pair is consistently outperformed by the native/native control pairs. Note that the comparison does not involve pairs of interactants who are both nonnative speakers of the language used. Somewhat surprisingly, it has been observed that nonnative speakers may be more intelligible than native speakers when the listener is also nonnative. Indeed, second-language learners often report that the speech of a fellow nonnative talker is easier to understand than the speech of a native talker. Bent and Bradlow (2003) advanced two hypotheses with respect to this phenomenon. The ﬁrst hypothesis holds that a foreign talker of a language is more intelligible to any foreign listener of that language than a native speaker is. This is what Bent and Bradlow call the non-matched (or ‘‘mixed’’) interlanguage speech intelligibility beneﬁt (ISIB). Early evidence in support of this hypothesis has been provided by Nash (1969). The second, more restricted, hypothesis predicts that a foreign talker will be more intelligible to a foreign listener (than a native talker would be) only if the foreign talker and listener share the same mother tongue. This is what Bent and Bradlow call the matched (or ‘‘shared’’) interlanguage beneﬁt.
Eckert, Penelope and Sally McConnell-Ginet. 1995. "Constructing meaning, constructing selves: Snapshots of language, gender, and class from Belten High." In Hall, Kira and Mary Bucholtz (eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self. New York: Routledge. 469-507.
In the modern history of linguistics, Saussure, one of the founders of structural linguistics, studied the sound absolutely and abstractly. His distinction between langue and parole leads to distinct disciplines that study sounds and their linguistic function. The former studies sounds in speech acts from a physical point of view, and the latter focuses on the distinctions between the abstract phonemes from their functions within the linguistic system. He believed that phonetics would describe the actual sounds produced when one utters the form, but the form of a word, e.g. “bed”, as a unit of English does not depend on the nature of these actual sounds but on the distinctions which separate “bed” from” bet”, ”bad” ,”head”, etc. it is just phonology that is the study of these functional distinctions. Take the sound /i/in “lend” and “peel” in English for example, there’s a phonetic difference. Another example is the difference between two vowels in “feet” and “fit” is used to distinguish signs. The difference plays a very important role in the
In many cases the contact phenomena looked at are at the level of society, such as ‘propagated’ loans that have been accepted by speakers of a group (Croft, 2000). Prominent subfields include the studies of linguistic areas (e.g. Campbell et al., 1986), borrowing hierarchies (e.g. Moravcsik, 1978; Thomason & Kaufman, 1988; Matras, 2007), pidgins, creoles and mixed languages (e.g. Holm, 1988; Siegel, 2008) and types and processes of lexical and grammatical borrowing (e.g. Johanson, 2002; Heine & Kuteva, 2005; Matras & Sakel, 2007a, 2007b; Haspelmath & Tadmor, 2009). Some studies of languagecontact look at individual speakers and study languagecontact as it happens, not tending to take into account a diachronic perspective. Above all these include various studies of bilingualism (e.g. Grosjean, 2008; Clyne, 2003), in particular studies of code-switching (e.g. Gardner-Chloros, 2009; Muysken, 2000). Adding a diachronic perspective, Backus (2005) discussed how code- switching and borrowing can be located on a scale. It places code-switching by individual speakers at the early stages and borrowing within society at the later stages of the continuum, making the distinction between contact phenomena at the level of the individual versus that of society less clear-cut. Other recent studies furthermore include psycholinguistic findings on language processing (e.g. Matras, 2000; Matras & Sakel, 2007a).
The fundamental tenets of EP resonate with arguments made by the Neogrammarians, Otto Jespersen, Joseph Greenberg, and particularly Baudouin de Courtenay. These founding fathers of phonology were adamant that syn- chronic sound systems are best understood through the changes that produce them. Blevins also espouses this principle but differs from the tradition by rejecting teleology in sound change. For her, the only goal-directed processes that interact with pure phonological change are morphological analogy and the pressure to preserve paradigms where adhering to a regular sound change would cause paradigmatic contrasts to collapse. The elimination of teleology from phonology provides one way in which EP differs from the currently dominant paradigm in synchronic phonology, Optimality Theory (OT; Prince & Smolensky 1993).
Based on the well-known study of English by Phillipson (1992), this paper has aimed at analysing the existence of linguistic imperialism in the Caribbean. It has been shown that European languages do widely dominate over local varieties, although nowadays even prestigious official organizations such as the UNESCO participate in the promotion of creole languages, and numerous attempts are made to introduce creoles into official sectors of life. Obstacles to a successful promotion of creoles include at least four dimensions, which have been shown to be interrelated with each other: 1) The political dimension: Small European élites on the Caribbean islands have the power to determine language politics and thus also decide on issues concerning the respective creole languages. 2) The historic dimension: In many cases, an intense historical contact with the lexifier prevents the creole from developing into a language of its own. 3) The variational dimension: Most creoles have different variants which are spoken on the island, and thus it is difficult to establish a written standard. 4) The ideological dimension, which Phillipson (1992) also discusses for the promotion of English, and which seems to be the most decisive one in the Caribbean: The Standard (European) variety of a language is still the one associated with prestige, education and success, and this feeling is particularly widespread among the creole speakers themselves, who are often ashamed of being monolingual creole speakers and are convinced that only by speaking the Standard variety can they achieve a good life and job. In this paper, it has been shown how in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean the upper classes deliberately choose to speak a variety close to European Standard Spanish. These findings are in line with the argumentation of researchers like Davies, who, with regard to linguistic imperialism, poses the question “What if the dominated (...) wanted to adopt English (...)?” xxv , or
The notion of contrast has been resuscitated and addressed directly in several lines of research. Flemming (2005) argues that the relative markedness of a phoneme can only be judged in relation to other segments in the system. For example, he observes that in languages contrasting front vs. back vowels front rounded /y/ and back unrounded / µ/ are only added to the phonemic inventory after the more peripheral vowels /i/ and /u/ are chosen. But in vertical vowel systems that do not contrast front and back, the central vowel /i/ is the optimal high vowel. Recasting some of Bjorn Lindblom's ideas on vowel dispersion, Flemming models a vowel inventory in terms of competing constraints that balance articulatory effort with maximizing the number of contrasts along a phonetic dimension and maintaining sufficient phonetic distance between pairs of elements. Thus, if a language makes no contrast in the F2 dimension then minimizing articulatory effort will favor the central vowel /i/. But if a contrast is introduced, then the peripheral vowels /i/ and /u/ will be chosen first on grounds of phonetic distance. More vowels such as /y/ or / µ/ are added at the cost of decreasing the phonetic difference between contrasting pairs.
Backwards Phonology Backwards Phonology John Bear Artificial Intelligence Center SRI International A b s t r a c t T h i s p a p e r c o n s t i t u t e s an investigation into the gener ative capabil[.]