Regarding the effects of subgroup division on motor performance, we found that subgroups differed in motor performance: children with language disorders had bet- ter performance than children with speech disorders and children with both speech and language disorders on the ball-skills subtest and total test, and children with lan- guage disorders had better performance on the balance subtest than children with both speech and language disorders. Although the differences between children with language disorders and children with speech disor- ders were only significant for ball skills and the total test, it is worth mentioning that there was a tendency for the children with speech disorders to perform worse than children with language disorders and that their scores were going more in the direction of those obtained by the children with both speech and language disorders. In our study, only 14 children with speech disorders par- ticipated, so this is likely to account for the lack of significance. Thus, it seems that when speech production is affected, motor problems are more pronounced. The results are partly in line with the findings of Bishop. 2 She
In the context of neurodevelopmental disorders, it is essential that SLTs are clear about the anticipated outcomes of their work and the means of measuring progress. In the context of a health provider, discharge from treatment is often seen as the successful outcome of treatment, but, this may not be appropriate for children with long-term needs, as acknowledged by the NICE guidelines (Autism, Learning disability, ADHD, prematurity etc) which recommend life- long access to services. In the past, a focus on discharge as a metric of success may have resulted in SLT services prioritising children whose difficulties are likely to resolve with small amounts of input. In a resource limited environment, this could result in reduced access for children with severe and persistent disorders and disabilities. Our view is that such children, who are likely to make the least progress without SLT, should be prioritised, particularly where there is an impact on daily functioning. A key question therefore is how SLT services can provide high quality intervention for children with severe and complex communication and language disorders which adapts to the changing needs of the individual and their family. Conclusions
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It is well documented that children with developmental language disorders (DLDs) 1 and autism spectrum dis- orders (ASDs) are vulnerable to various diﬃculties beyond their immediate symptoms (Simonoﬀ et al., 2013; Yew & O’Kearney, 2013). Together these may adversely impact on their well-being in numerous ways. Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in children with DLD and ASD provides an opportunity to comprehensively capture and com- pare how these children are functioning in everyday life. Although there are some shared areas of diﬃcultly in children and young people with DLD and ASD (Williams, Botting, & Boucher, 2008) with both groups, for example, having more diﬃculties with com- munication than their typical peers; there are also areas of diﬀerence (notwithstanding the heterogeneity seen in both groups). Children and young people with ASD have greater diﬃculty in understanding emotions and internal states and also higher levels of rigid and routi- nised behaviours. Children and young people with DLD all have impaired language ability, which is also seen in some but not all children and young people with ASD. By comparing these two groups, this study aims to explore the impact of those with potentially reduced social communication skills as a result of structural language diﬃculties compared to those with broader pervasive social communication diﬃculties.
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development. The speed at which language is acquired during this period is never repeated at any other time in life. Early intervention for children with developmental delay in language is crucial and without it, the child's language development will be permanently impaired in comparison to normal peers (7). Various studies in different countries have reported the prevalence rate of speech and language disorders in different groups of children to be 3.2 to 26.2% (8-10). One of the major health challenges facing communities is to generate the knowledge needed to improve the health of children with speech and language disorders in the world. Despite the importance of early diagnosis and intervention for children with speech-language disorders, unfortunately this disorder is actually either not detected or not referred for treatment and rehabilitation at critical ages in many parts of the world and especially in our country, Iran. This may have many different reasons in different societies such as lack of appropriate screening and diagnostic tools or insufficient experts’ use of them (11), insufficient knowledge and unfamiliarity of families and professionals about the importance of speech and language disorders.
The purpose of Justice et al.'s  study was to examine the feasibility of NBLI with three children who had cochlear implantation. This preliminary study was designed to determine whether a six-week production-based interven- tion approach focusing on production of gra- mmatical structure, as well as narrative content and form would produce similar results in chil- dren with cochlear implantation as previously shown in children with specific language imp- airment. Narratives were measured with regard to syntax (targeted grammatical forms in story- retell and sentence-imitation tasks) and narrative quality (i.e. story grammar components). The participants were three Caucasian girls, aged five years four months to eight years, who all had a diagnosis of severe to profound sensori- neural hearing loss (SNHL) and a minimum of two years CI experience. Two sets of goals were chosen for each child, three syntactic goals and three story grammar goals. Of the many gramm- atical forms occurring less than three times, the three that were clinically judged to be hindering functional communication the most were sele- cted as targets. The story grammar goals were selected on the basis of the child’s performance on the test of narrative language (TNL). During each 2 weeks of NBLI, one syntactic goal and one story grammar goal were targeted. Results from the present study show that NBLI can imp- rove the narrative quality and syntax of children with hearing impairment. All three subjects
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Determining the types of evaluations appropriate for children with CP has posed tremendous chal- lenges for parents and health care providers. The purpose of this practice parameter is to review data regarding the value and role of diagnostic tests used to evaluate children diagnosed with CP. Data re- garding the role of neuroimaging, metabolic and ge- netic testing, and evaluation for coagulopathy are discussed. There was insufficient evidence to make any recommendations regarding the role of SPECT scans or evoked potentials in children with CP. This parameter also reviews evidence regarding the prev- alence of associated problems such as epilepsy, men- tal retardation, speech and language disorders, and ophthalmologic and hearing impairments, and the need for their systematic evaluation.
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It is not uncommon to find that children with LI, SD, or RD are also being treated for attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This phenomenon occurs so frequently it has led to a general acceptance of the overlap between communication disorders and behavior disorders. (Tomblin, & Mueller. 2012) Investigations of the relationship between ADHD and language disorders have provided varying results. Some reports have indicated that children with ADHD have difficulties with expressive rather than receptive language, particularly when language output is required to be organized. (Barkley, 1990). Some studies have shown that language disorders in general are associated with children suffering from the inattentive subtype of ADHD rather than the hyperactive subtype (Shaywitz et al., 1994). Whereas others have suggested that deficits in working memory and executive functions negatively influence language abilities (Witton et al., 1998). Despite the disagreement over the relationship of language disorders to ADHD, clinicians, teachers, and parents agree that many children with ADHD seem to have language difficulties. Speech and language difficulties can co-exist with ADHD. ADHD can create problems in accessing and using language appropriately. Language is not the root of the problem. The difficulties in language are secondary to the attention difficulties. ADHD can affect short-term memory and working memory and these both have an influence on language and learning skills in general. ADHD can affect sequencing skills and the ability to understand or explain concepts. Semantic skills such as using vocabulary and
Reading Outcomes for Children with Developmental Language Problems Numerous studies show that, as a group, children with language disorders are not as proficient as their typically developing peers at reading and its component processes (Glogowska, Roulstone, Peters, & Enderby, 2006; Share & Leikin, 2004; Stothard et al., 1998; Scarborough & Dobrich, 1990; Snowling et al., 2000; Watkins, 1997). It seems likely that children with reduced pre-requisite skills for reading will indeed experience reading difficulties. However, not all children with language disorders have difficulty with reading in elementary school. Only about 50-60% of children diagnosed with a developmental language disability during preschool proceed through elementary school with reading difficulties (Aram, Ekelman, & Nation, 1984; Catts et al., 1999; Catts Hogan, & Fey, 2003; McArthur, Hogben, Edwards, Heath, & Mengler, 2000). Although there is increased risk for reading problems, considerable variability in both language and reading performance is reported by several researchers, particularly in the early phase of reading (Bishop & Adams, 1990; Catts, 1993; Catts et al., 2002; McArthur et al., 2000; Share & Leikin, 2004; Snowling et al., 2000; Stothard et al., 1998).
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curriculum access for children with severe and complex language disorders (Simkin & Conti- Ramsden, 2009). Little is known about the role of language units in supporting children with language disorder and the nature of such provision (e.g. the age of children attending, the duration of placement in the unit), access (e.g. how many education authorities provide language unit placements), or eligibility. It is thought that there are no formal criteria for access to language units, with decisions generally made on the basis of individual need, suitability, and local targets (Botting, Crutchley, & Conti Ramsden, 1998; Dockrell & ‐ Lindsay, 1998; Lindsay, Dockrell, Mackie, & Letchford, 2005b). There is currently no record of how many children are attending language units in the UK. It is reported that in some areas, children can only access language unit provision between the ages of 4-7 years (Rannard & Glenn, 2009), though this may now be outdated. Reduced language unit provision beyond age 7 may reflect the focus on inclusion within junior school mainstream classroom settings (Conti Ramsden, Botting, Knox, & Simkin, 2002; Law, Durkin, Sargent, ‐ & Hanrahan, 1999). Anecdotal reports within our professional networks suggest that
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Williams syndrome has been much studied over the last fifteen years due to the uneven cognitive profile observed in this neurogenetic disorder (Donnai & Karmiloff- Smith, 2000). Figure 2 depicts one of the most salient dissociations observed in standardised testing: a disparity between receptive vocabulary and visuospatial constructive skill. Individuals with WS also show a hypersociable or ‘over-friendly’ personality profile (Jones et al., 2000), with a relative strength in facial recognition (Annaz et al., 2009). By contrast, they have relative weaknesses in numeracy and problem solving skills, and overall IQs typically fall between 50 and 70. Based on the early findings of Ursula Bellugi from a small number of individuals with the disorder, Pinker (1994, 1999) argued that WS might constitute a genetic dissociation in which grammar develops normally but general intelligence is impaired – in support of a wider argument that normal language development involves innate, domain-specific mechanisms. Although, as with any disorder, there is variability, individuals with WS often have a surprising facility with language compared to some of their other
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Previous studies have generally indicated that adult attach- ment style affects social interaction ability (DiTommaso, Bran- nen-McNulty, Ross, & Burgess, 2003; Hori & Kobayashi, 2010; Kanemasa, 2005, 2007; Kanemasa & Daibo, 2003; Takahashi, Tamaki, & Yamawaki, in press; Tamaki & Takahashi, in press). For example, Tamaki and Takahashi (in press) examined the relationship between adult attachment style and social interac- tion abilities in Japanese university students. Participants (N = 212, 110 men and 102 women) completed questionnaires on both attachment style and social skills. Results showed that those with dismissing and fearful styles had lower scores on many social-skill subscales compared with those who had se- cure and preoccupied styles. These results indicated that a ne- gative others-representation attachment style affected to social- skill scores. Considering these indications, a teacher’s attach- ment style is related to social interaction ability and may be an important factor in the teacher-child relationship. Specifically, attachment relationships are important and potentially protec- tive mechanisms including children’s behavior (Schipper et al., 2006). Thus, positive relationships with teachers seem to play a strong role for children with disabilities (Eisenhower, Baker, & Blacher, 2007; Hamre & Pianta, 2001). However, to the best of our knowledge, few studies have examined the effect of teach- ers’ attachment styles on teacher-child relationships in inclusive education settings serving children with disabilities. In the next section, we discuss the application of our conceptual assump- tions to teacher training programs.
The obtained results suggested a significant association between executive functioning, behavioral regulation, metacognition, and pragmatic language in children with ASD. The findings were in line with those of previous studies. Furthermore, due to the strong correlations de- tected between the variables, the results can be gener- alized to all children with ASD in the investigated age group. In addition, the results can be used to design inter- ventions aimed at improving executive functioning and its different indices to enhance the communication skills of children with ASD. Moreover, the results can be used by psychologists, clinicians, parents, and teachers to im- prove the communication and social skills of this group.
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Over 50% of well-child visits to pediatricians during preschool involve concerns related to disruptive behavior problems (Arndorfer, Allen, & Aliazireh, 1999). Approximately 10% of preschool-aged children are diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) with boys being affected more frequently than girls (Egger & Angold, 2006; Wakschlag et al., 2007). DBD is an overarching diagnostic category that includes Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ODD is a common childhood behavioral disorder characterized by angry and irritable mood, headstrong behavior, and vindictiveness (Stringaris & Goodman, 2009) with a prevalence rate of 10% in preschool-aged children (Egger & Angold, 2006). ADHD is a childhood behavioral disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (APA, 2000) with a prevalence rate of approximately 8% in school-age children (Froehlich et al., 2007). DBDs exhibit a chronic course from
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tual, and language disorders. Memory disorders involve problems with obtaining information from short-term, long-term, and remote memory. This causes difficulties in recognizing and retrieving information. Perception disorders consist of difficulties with sensory information. Problem-solving disorders are connected with difficulties in identifying problems, generating solutions, and evaluat- ing the effectiveness of the solutions. Conceptual disorders cause difficulties in generalizing the obtained information, its structuring, abstracting, or comprehending. Language disorders in dementia include difficulties in understanding and correct phrasing of spoken and written utterances. The causes of speech and language disorders can include hear- ing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, intellectual disabilities, drug abuse, physical disorders (eg, cleft lip or palate), and vocal abuse or misuse. However, very often, the cause of language disorders is not known. At present, there are a few assistive technologies (ATs) for people with dementia such as speech-generating devices (SGDs), which can help enhance patients’ verbal communication, and memory aids, which can help patients to recall names. All these assistive devices are described in length in the “ATs and language disorders” section.
A consideration of the character of the grammar that is acquired, the de- generate quality and narrowly limited extent of the available data, the striking uniformity of the resulting grammars, and their independence of intelligence, motivation and emotion state, over wide ranges of vari- ation, leave little hope that much of the structure of the language can be learned by an organism initially uninformed as to its general character. (Chomsky 1965: 58) The crucial assumption of the critical period hypothesis, as originally pro- posed, was that language acquisition has an immediate onset for its natural acqui- sition, and this onset is as early as birth, if not before. Language acquisition has also a predetermined offset, an ideal final state that needs to be completed/activated for reaching a full competence (see Meisel 2013 for a review). This makes the lan- guage acquisition process tailored to a restricted time window in which our cog- nitive development is sensitive to capture human language properties. Already in the 1980s, those who actually studied language development in children as young as newborns found that children quickly began to use a wide variety of cues dur- ing their critical period, including syntactic, semantic, and prosodic information. Many studies have investigated the timing and the nature of these cues implicated in the activation of the process of language acquisition in typical developing chil- dren, and there is general consensus on a very early onset of the critical period and
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FCP-Rr—a reduced protocol based on the FCP-R (developed by the authors) that comprises the areas of Behavior, Attention, Receptive Language, Expressive Language and Social/Pragmatics. This instrument was applied during an interview with the speech-language therapists. The scoring system was adapted, with a proportion analysis, from the original suggested by Santos & Fernandes (2012). The protocol was applied as an interview with the therapists. The questions included in the reduced version were the ones consi- dered the most appropriate to the Brazilian reality and the ones identified as the most relevant of the com- plete form.
Neurotic excoriations are seen in patients with impaired impulse control and more frequently observed in females, although cases in children have been reported. The skin lesions result from self-injury in order to reduce emotional tension. The prevalence is not known, although it is estimated that 2% of dermatology patients suffer from this disease. 5
7 In summary, research shows that children with SLI carry over their difficulties with language in single sentences into their production of connected sentence narratives. There are two levels of developmental delay identified in children with SLI: problems using local level grammatical devices and control of the global level (plot) of the narrative. There are some mixed findings with this second level. It has been documented that children with SLI have difficulties with story grammar and the use of devices which connect sequences of events across sentences but not all studies find differences in how well children with SLI can build a global structure of the narrative (Norbury & Bishop, 2003). Connected to this global level, some studies have highlighted that generally children with SLI do less well at inference making (for a review see Liles, 1993; Liles, Duffy, Merritt & Purcell, 1995).
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The pilot proposals were tested with the expert working group (EWG) commissioned by the government to look at how to improve mental health support for looked after and previously looked after children and young people. They will take forward the group’s recommendations on assessment of need. The EWG consisted of looked after and previously looked after children and young people, their carers (including foster and adoptive parents) and professionals from the health, social care, academic and voluntary sectors. This included, amongst others, representatives from the Care Leavers Association, the Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health, the Fostering Network, the British Psychological Society and Coram Voice. In addition, the proposals were tested with the Children in Care Alliance – a coalition of organisations that work to support children in care and care leavers.
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developmental problems that require formal instruments to identify and in the availability and effectiveness of services targeted to children with these less severe developmental issues. In other words, although the value of referring children with severe delays that are evident without a formal screen may be clear, there is a far broader population with developmental risk for whom the most appropriate course of action may not be seen as so straightforward. Although evidence has