reason listed in the questionnaire, with p = <0.01 against all other reasons. The fact that legislation and textbooks are in English was ranked second, being schooled in English third, and increased chances of finding work abroad fourth. Lecturers ranked advice from parents, a mentor or other students as the fifth reason and the least popular reason was the fear that Afrikaans might soon not be an option for language of instruction at SU. The difference between rankings two to six was not significant. The opinions of SU lecturer respondents in this study support the findings of the University of South Africa (UNISA) student survey on the same question (Bornman et al. 2013, 373). Another ad-hoc reason provided by lecturers on the same question included the view that students are advised to study in English by the training office at which the student have committed to work after their studies.
One of the fuming issues in many developing countries is the selection language of instruction to be used in the education system, although English is uniformly accepted as the international language of the world (De, 2002). The debate is to accept any vernacular or a lingua franca as the medium of instruction (Lavoie, 2008). Pakistan is a multilingual country. More than 70 languages are spoken in the different regions of Pakistan. There are six indigenous major languages, i.e. Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Sariaki and Baluchi, and Urdu. Urdu is the national language as well is the official language, but the inherited colonial language is also the official language since its independence. Although a very small minority can understand this language still it exists as an official language due to multiple reasons, i.e. colonial legacy, need for administration and courts of law, wish of elites and others. This research strives to find out the effect of English and Urdu as medium of instruction in the subject of mathematics.
native language in order to avoid a test of writing instead of reading (Alderson, 2000; Bernhardt, 1991; Lee & Ballman, 1987; Shohamy, 1984; Wolf, 1993). Like environmental factor, this factor also includes some subcategories one of them is the "Language of instruction.” To put it plainly, whether the test instructions are presented in target language (English) or native language (Persian in this paper) may have an impact on how testees perform on a test. Vygotsky (1969) for example, argued that there was a relationship between language of instruction and test-takers' performance. Jekayinfa (1987) also in another study examined the role of competence in the language of instruction as a predictor of performance in secondary school history and concluded that there is positive correlation between competence in the language of instruction and academic achievement in history.
The analysis and results do suggest a relationship between various parameters such as gender, language of instruction in school, social value of the language and so on. This could provide some amount of direction and may possibly explain the inability to gain a wider acceptance and usage of Tamil language in technology. This research paper’s original contribution lies in establishing a relationship between the target question of using Tamil in technology and other variables primarily around the perceived usefulness of Tamil language in Tamil Nadu. The statistical results provide reasonably convincing evidence though with a very small sample population, the reasons why social factors needs stronger consideration whilst dealing with technology especially in languages and societies that has had a colonial past. The results and experiment could be extended to any linguistic society that has had a colonial past. We are of the opinion, that perceived usefulness of a language within a society plays a critical role in shaping the requirements of a language based technology such as the speech to text or speech recognition which in turn is influenced by the colonial policies that the society would have already ‘submitted’ to. Therefore we opine that any technology involving a language with colonial history needs greater and finer attention to the social behavior towards the language and how those may affect the acceptance of a technology in the target language.
From the perspective of culture, all subjects have something to say about the empirical world and about our societies. They contribute to the construction of a vision of the world, the Weltanschauung that is transmitted to students. Everyone is aware of the debates regarding the teaching of language, between that which focuses on "technical" aspects of language as opposed to more literary aspects, or in fine arts, learning means of expression versus introduction to the works of previous generations. One can elaborate much more on all of this. However, I simply wish to point out at this stage that we all have something to gain by specifying in an explicit and rigorous way the precise aspects of each subject that are in question when we seek to draw links between them. Drawing links also means teaching students to distinguish what is unique to each field of knowledge and what is shared between them. This certainly implies overturning some widespread didactic methods. Thus, for example, history and geography call for narration, description and explanation. The relationship with the acquisition of the language of instruction may, for example, be woven in among typologies and genres of texts 14 . However, the positions and aims of each one differ. Geographers and historians use narration, description and explanation in order to accomplish their aim of creating awareness of past and present societies whereas typologies of genres of texts would rather be presented as tools of analysis or organisation of textual materials whose use is meant to facilitate mastery of the language.
Abstract This study investigates how international visitor students studying temporarily at a public university in Turkey perceive teaching, language and culture. Qualitative explanatory single case study method was employed in the study. The data were obtained through face to face interview with 10 participants, and a focus group interview with 3 participants. The study results indicate that Turkish Higher Education seemed to these visiting students to have problems including the style of teaching, the language of instruction. Findings disclosed that, there are some challenges for participants in teaching such as the language of instruction and number of the courses provided. In addition to that, learning environment such as crowded classrooms and few varieties of class types for the instructions might be called as limitations. In the context of the language, participants criticized that English was not used as a medium of instruction because of the students’ language deficiency. However, visiting students praised practice opportunity of the university, language development during their study, development of their intercultural understanding, international perspective, widening their horizon and social relations.
The data analysis indicates a positive picture that reveals no critical situations and an average degree of variability in the score distribution. The gradual overall improvement of the pupils’ performance from Year 1 to Year 5 (e.g., in the numeracy test Year 1: 10% level 1, 51% level 2, 39% level 3 vs. Year 5: 36.5% level 2 and 63.5% level 3) is a positive finding as well as the fact that especially in Year 4 and 5 the scores are mainly concentrated in the medium and upper-medium level with a relevant number of pupils also at the top level (e.g., in the orthography test Year 4: 38% level 2, 62% level 3; Year 5: 23% level 2 and 77% level 3). In general, data do not show any delays or drawbacks both in Italian and in Mathematics. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to state that the use of English for more than 50% of the school time and as the language of instruction for Maths does not hamper the Classi bilingui performances and it does not have negative effects on the learning outcomes in Italian and Mathematics. Concerning specifically the Maths testing, the results are extremely positive in terms of numeracy (written calculations, numerical knowledge, accuracy and speed in mental arithmetic). On the other hand, the problem solving scores showed a non residual percentage of students at level 1 and also a less percentage at level 3 compared to the score in the numeracy test. This issue will be a topic of discussion during the teachers’ group meetings in the following a.y.
encouraged or enforced by the government is language usage, particularly in regard to language(s) of instruction. In educational contexts, language-of-instruction policies can create and exacerbate problems for people who have a different native language from the one required in school. In the case of state funded schools, government investment plays a large role in the quality of the facilities and the salaries of teachers, administrators, and other staff. When this funding is too low, teacher salaries will also be inappropriately low. In Iran, this is especially critical as teachers often need multiple jobs in order to survive, preventing them from spending extra time with students. With inadequate funding, schools are unable to hire a sufficient number of teachers so that teachers are often required to do more or teach a greater number of students than they otherwise should. Lastly, the way in which government policies are created and implemented is related to how democratic they are. In a non-democratic approach, policies are centrally created without much consideration of opposing or contrasting views and priorities. As a result, the implementation of these policies may not reflect local problems or issues, and may create more problems than they solve.
Metacognitive Reading Strategies: Metacognitive reading strategies (mcrs) are central components of this approach because the evidence we have about their effectiveness is considerable. Years of extensive research have shown us that they enable lep students to improve their reading proficiency (Ikeda & Takeuchi, 2003; Kazemi, Hosseini, & Kohandani, 2013; Wilson & Bai, 2010; Zhou & Zhao, 2014). The use of mcrs here is based on four main propositions: (1) Students who can establish cognitive links that relate newly acquired information with previous knowledge are more effective readers than those who are not mentally active and resort to rote memorization (Barnett, 1988; Waxman & Padron, 1987). (2) Strategies can be learned. Those who are taught mcrs and provided with ample time to practice them will be more effective readers than those who have no experience with them or have not had explicit instruction as to their nature and use (Cotterall, 1990; Paris, Lipson, & Wixon, 1983). (3) mcrs transfer between l2 and l1 (Rhoder, 2002; Salataci & Akyel, 2002). (4) Improved reading comprehension in lep students is
But speaking a language is only part of the battle. Many ELLs struggle with reading in school because textbooks are written in academic language, rather than conversational language. Donna Ogle and Amy Correa-Kovtun (2010) state that an effective strategy for helping ELLs better understand informational texts is “Partner Reading and Content, Too – or PRC2” (p. 535). This idea can be implemented in an ESL classroom by matching up two students of approximately the same reading level. The partners are then given a book, and each silently read an assigned page. Each partner devises a question based on the page he or she just read. They then read the pages out loud and discuss the questions they came up with. Any new vocabulary words are written down in a notebook. The PRC2 method helps students to understand the content of the text, as well as gauge what they have comprehended from the reading. Speaking and reading a new language are
In the experimental group, grammar instruction and communicative language use were integrated through input enhancement because “FonF is a balance between a FonFs and a FonM” (Long, 1991). In order to focus participants' attention on the forms, the researcher provided a sample of reading passage in which conditional sentences (six types) were highlighted by means of underlining, boldfacing, and changing of the font (Appendix 4).The subjects read the passage while focusing their attention on the target form and like control group discussed the topic. When learners read the text, some asked about the italic elements of the text. They were told that this boldfacing is not important and it is only the result of some types of error typing and word program, or the writer’s taste that some parts have been more important because the text from the Internet is downloaded. To see whether they have focused on the italic and bold elements, the researcher asked some questions to force them to look at the text in order to answer them and become capable to continue the discussion. For example, they were” what did you do if you were him? What was his aunt’s idea? What did the black sheep tell him?” 3) Cloze test
Language instructors are always seeking new ways to engage their students. The use of technology in language classrooms has increased dramatically in recent years. Many teachers have come to consider multimedia and hypermedia tools to be indispensable parts of their curricula. Audio and video supplements allow reinforcement of new vocabulary, grammar and cultural concepts, while hypertext allows for quick dictionary searches and explanatory notes. Multimedia packages, however, can be expensive and may not be well tailored to a specific instructor’s curriculum or particular student needs.
Recently, Anderson et al. (2018a) pointed out weaknesses in the commonly used metrics for eval- uating the effectiveness of agents trained on these tasks. A new metric, Success weighted by Path Length (SPL) was proposed that penalized agents for taking long paths. Any agent using beam search (e.g. Fried et al. (2018)), is penalized heavily by this metric. There have also been concerns about structural biases present in these datasets which may provide hidden shortcuts to agents training on these problems. Thomason et al. (2019) presented an analysis on R2R dataset, where the trained agent continued to perform surprisingly well in the ab- sence of language inputs.
language and applying what she learned to her teaching practices. She said: “My teaching just, you know, provides me with the actual experience and I can see what impact my teaching has.” However, she still did not feel very confident teaching it. Firstly, her first language was not English and being a “non-native speaker” was described by her as her shortcoming. She said: “I always feel like I’m not entitled. I don’t have the right to teach pronunciation.” In addition, her accent impeded her teaching. She stated: “With some sounds I cannot produce. I’m just not comfortable teaching them. So, I have to rely on recordings. I have to rely on finding materials that are spoken by native speakers.” Secondly, she felt there was always a lot to learn, and she believed that training and teaching experience would help her with
Another advantage of using games in the classroom is that learners become active participants in the learning process. They are encouraged to play an active role and are thus given a chance to direct their own learning (Crookall and Oxford 1990 in Yolageldili and Arikan 2011), in a similar way as an active role in choosing their reading materials encourages learners to read more (Pirih 2015). This also affects the learners’ motivation to learn a language. Students become naturally absorbed in trying to win the game and as a result they become more motivated and willing to learn (Deesri 2002; Yolageldili and Arikan 2011). In addition, the competitive or co-operative context encourages learners to pay attention and think intensively during the learning process, which enhances unconscious language acquisition (Chen 2005). There are also several benefits which are more closely related to learning language patterns. First of all, games promote the memorisation of chunks of language, including useful pronunciation practice. In games, language patterns and chunks are usually “memorised through constant repetition in the form of ‘hidden’ or ‘disguised’ drills” (Brewster, Ellis, and Girard 2002, 175). Besides repetition, games also encourage more creative uses of language as learners negotiate, collaborate or compete in the informal context of the game (Brewster, Ellis, and Girard 2002). Finally, learners are not exposed to the pressure of foreign language performance when playing a game. They thus become anxious to take an active part in the game and win rather than use the language correctly. Since learners are not afraid to be corrected or criticised for incorrect language use, they are more willing to use the language freely. Therefore, games play an important role in reducing foreign language anxiety and enhancing positive feelings towards foreign language learning (Chen 2005; Ibrahim 2017). In an action research aimed at exploring the effectiveness of learning vocabulary through games in the classroom, Huyen and Nga (2003) reported more efficient language learning and better retention of the learning material in a stress-free and comfortable environment.
to struggle in meeting the needs of this population. Advanced technology offers an additional, engaging, and more private form of training for ELLs through the efficient use of instructional time. Not only do these interventions present a viable, alternative solution, they also serve to minimize student learning downtime. For example, ELLs could engage in technology-based instruction that individually targets their learning level while their peers may be undergoing a separate unit of instruction, which may be incomprehensible to them. School day transitions could also be utilized more efficiently by allowing ELLs to spend time engaged in the technology-based instruction. For example, if an ELL student finishes an assignment, or has 5-10 minutes of free time, he or she could spend that time immersed in one of the interactive technology-based learning environments. Another benefit of these potential technology-based solutions is their capability to record and track individual student progress, providing up to date information for teachers, administrators, parents, and students.
highest ranking, was 'to be close to the native language and culture' in all three types of immersion programs. As for other motives, parents who chose for their children this or that program do not demonstrate agreement of opinion. This can be explained by the peculiarities of programs as it is designed for minority language students needing to learn English, but wanting to keep their first language. It is the way to maintain pride in a student's cultural heritage to better meet the goals of cross-cultural understanding as well as learning a foreign language, and maintaining high academic standards. It is undeniable that the public education entails adding to and improving the competence of all students in as many areas as possible in order to create functional, responsible and aware citizens. The country has to act in the best interests of the student population, which is ever changing and growing. The public in general tend to believe that having all US students become fluent in more than one language is not only a marketable skill in today's increasingly diverse and global society, but it can also contribute to increased cognitive flexibility and high achievement in math, science and language arts. This important social and academic skill can be infused into all areas of curriculum with students learning in both English and at least one other language if not more throughout their academic careers. The dual-language capacity of teachers and services will also allow for more parent-staff-student interaction and leave room for creative community involvement, both locally and globally. It's note- worthy to stress the fact that the besides educators, parents are the strongest allies of well-implemented bilingual education programs such as the dual language programs the parents in this s survey chose for their children. The challenge confronting educators and parents who support these programs is to convince local school boards and legislators that there is a need to increase the number of elementary dual language programs, expand the programs to the middle and secondary levels. The choice and the voice of the parents are cardinal to the implementation of quality educational programs. Indeed, it is the right of the parents, regardless of ethnicity, language or socioeconomic background to make informed educational choices for their children.
Techniques of Integrative Language Skills Teaching Approach: The integrative language teaching approach is intended to provide an authentic language environment for the learners to develop listening, speaking, reading and writing skills in a meaningful context Oxford (2001). The question that immediately comes to mind is how EFL instructors can integrate these strands to produce successful classes. In this regard, Oxford (2001) considers three key factors. First, the instructor’s teaching style should address the learning styles of the learners as much as possible. Second, the learner should be motivated to learn the target language. Third, the setting should provide resources and values that strongly support the teaching of the language. If these strands are not woven together effectively, the EFL class is likely to become almost as boring as a teacher-centered class. In other words, EFL teachers may use varies techniques to integrate language skills proceed the lesson effective ways. They should facilitate the situations in what way these skills are implemented in the actual classroom situation. In this sense, EFL instructor should learn more about the various ways to integrate language skills in the classroom, either by applying TBI or CBI separately or the combination of the two. As EFL professionals, we should think over our approach to the teaching of EFL in our environment and evaluate the extent to which the skills can be integrated. They should be to select appropriate instructional materials, audio-visual aids that promote the integration of four language learning skills. The teachers may begin his /her teaching with a single skill and then integrate the other language skills through proper activities (Oxford, 2001). Activities by its self used by teachers in the integrated language teaching approach are real-life activities and situations and thus create an interactive learning environment. A teacher lets his students in communication situations that have to as real as possible so that students realize the importance of learning the foreign language Hungyo and Kijai, (2009) as cited in Elena and Lorena, (2011).
Effective bilingual programs have three pillars: (1) Of course they provide comprehensible input in the second language directly, through comprehensible subject matter teaching and through encouraging a reading habit, a powerful form of comprehensible input. (2) They provide comprehensible input indirectly, by teaching subject matter in the primary language, which makes second language input more comprehensible. (3) They provide literacy development in the first language, which accelerates second language literacy development. Programs that satisfy these three conditions teach the second language very well, much better than “immersion” programs done entirely in the second language. (See McField, G. & McField, D. (2014). The consistent outcome of bilingual education programs: A meta-analysis of meta-analyses. In Grace McField (Ed.), The Miseducation of English learners. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing (pp. 267-299). KS: What are some of the hot topics in SLA and second language education that deserve further attention by researchers?
Blended Learning, face-to-face and Intranet and web-based resources, is now used in many countries. Teachers and learners get benefit from computer technology using vast resources and opportunities for language teaching and learning. Maximum benefit from these resources can only be achieved through teachers’ use of technology in developing materials for the language classroom. The results of this study may be useful in identifying students’ attitudes towards and approaches to using the Bl ended learning and the reasons behind these attitudes. The study and its results might also suggest better ways of training and equipping students with strategies, techniques, and approaches. Such training might be achieved through the implementation of an effective training program on how to blend the contemporary teaching (face-to-face/chalk and talk) with computer technology, as well as computer technology resources. Based upon these findings, therefore, the Ministry of Education will be in a better position to make informed decisions about the investment of finance in the area of computer technology for use in the higher academic institution in Ethiopia. This study adds to the limited research on the use of computers to enhance attitudes, motivation, study habits, and creativity. It contributes to knowledge on the appropriate way to use technology in teaching and the learning process. Finally, since almost all universities and schools in Ethiopia in general and HwU in particular are not yet aware of this technology and its applicability to language teaching, the study might provide some forms of guidance to language programs throughout the university that want to pursue a similar path in the future.