Polkinghorne? (p. 116) If you are interested in Polkinghorne, Dean Nelson and Karl Giberson have written a biography that looks at his ideas through the experiences of his life: Quantum Leap: How John Polkinghorne Found God in Science and Religion.
When approached as learning to label, language instruction takes the prototypical form of naming games: “Pointing + Naming” (Tomasello, 2001). Words are simply mapped onto the physical world as the adult/teacher shows a referent (object) to the child/learner. These naming games typically require an ostensive context involving concrete objects that are well-defined, tangible, and have simple shape (i.e., clear focus of attention). However, complications often arise when pointing to substances without definite shape (water, sugar) and when pointing to actions (e.g., the verb “to show”). Because pinpointing relations is more difficult, language learners tend to acquire concrete nouns before relational words, verbs, theoretical referents, and moving objects (Gentener & Boroditsky, 2001). Ability to perceive and refer to more elusive phenomena (e.g., gravity) requires conceptualization that goes beyond more obvious features such as shape, color, and texture. Put differently, speakers need to have a clear concept of what the referent is (the nature of the entity being referred to) in order to be able to name it. The prevalence of these abstract notions in science classroom discourse explicates the difficulty often faced by students (native as well as nonnative) when learning to speak the language of science.
Indeed practical activity is an integral part of acquiring scientific knowledge, during which learners manipulate and observe real objects and materials, but language is a necessary tool for development of thought in learning. Through practical activity, learners are able to gather visual evidence necessary for understanding the world around them and language is an essential tool needed for successful engagement in the practical activity. Learners use language to plan and conduct practical activity and also to analyse, interpret and evaluate the empirical data gathered through practical activity. Learners must therefore be proficient in both the language of learning and teaching (which in this case is English) and also in the context of use of language of science for meaningful engagement in practical activity. Through language learners can present their opinions and claims as they communicate scientific information, concepts and ideas accessed through practical activities. Mammino (2010), says about language that it is “an essential tool for all inquiry aspects of sciences (identifying investigation questions, identifying relationship between pieces of information, formulating and verifying hypotheses, making inferences) and in trains of thoughts leading from information to interpretation and ultimately to theory” (p. 2). The convergence of practical activity and language is then a necessity in successful science education. Language used in science classrooms enables mutual communication between teacher and learners to achieve shared meaning
Psycholinguistics provides not only resources and research methodologies, but also theories that we, as computational linguists, should be able to inspect, evaluate, and elaborate on. Researchers including MacWhinney (1987, 1998, 1999, 2004a, 2004b), Tomasello (1998, 2003, 2006), or Bybee (2001, 2006, 2007), to mention just a few, produce exciting theories that are backed up by experimentation. Interestingly enough, these linguistic theories hint at the kind of mathematics that we need to develop in order to understand and reason about natural languages: They emphasize language use over abstract “competence” and direct us from formal grammars and logic to statistics and probability theory. Most importantly, such theories are in principle falsiﬁable (Tomasello 2004); can we improve them using our own, mathematical and computational, method- ologies? Can we use them to build better systems?
As can be seen from tables 5 and 6 above, the majority of the positively keyed nouns consisted of non-technical words or common general English language terms (Science-58%, Math-52%), such as ‘water’, ‘air’, ’solution’, ‘value’, ‘figure’. The next largest sub-category was the semi-technical words (Science-32%, Math-25%) or words which are usually used both inside and outside the Science and Math fields but the majority of its uses with a specific meaning are related to these two fields (Nation, 2001). This specialized meaning in its particular field is readily understood outside the field, such as words like ‘triangle’, ‘mass’, ‘percentage’, ‘oxygen’ and ‘density’.
conductor), theoretical entities (e.g., conservation of energy), abstract idealisation (e.g., frictionless surface) and mathematical words and symbols (Wellington & Osborne, 2001). The study failed to identify common comparable Creole language equivalents for most of the science words and concluded that they need to be taught in SAE. Introducing few science words per lesson, using concrete materials and representations proved helpful to Indigenous students. Instructional words in science learning include: observe, describe, compare, classify, analyse, discuss, hypothesise, theorise, question, challenge, argue, design experiments, follow procedures, judge, evaluate, decide, conclude, generalise and report (Lemke, 1990). The meaning of these words is not a packaged product ready to be delivered to Indigenous students. The meanings and implications of these words are negotiated. Indigenous students construct meanings and understandings of these words from their everyday languages and experiences. The study shows evidence of students in all the three categories talking about science in their Creole languages. Creole language equivalents can be used to aid instructional words in science, not only to construct new meaning and understanding for Indigenous students, but to assess them.
attempted to find a correlation between the student past programming experience (as reported in the questionnaire), their performance with Karel, and their performance on the C part of the course. As a measurement of Karel performance we have used the sum of student grades for two Karel-related problems of the class Midterm exam. As a measurement of C performance we have used the total grade for the final exam that was completely based on C language. We hypothesized that both past programming experience and a success on Karel part of the course can contribute to the success on the final exam. To our surprise, a linear regression analysis has found no statistically significant influence of the student past programming experience for both classes. I.e., the amount of knowledge learned during the course has leveled the difference in knowledge about programming that the students had before the course. At the same time, we have discovered a very significant influence of the student Karel performance on their C performance (significance level less than 0.001 for the Fall 2002 and equal to 0.004 for the Spring 2003). I.e., the student performance on the course is determined to a large extent by their performance on the Karel part. We can speculate that the student work with Karel has significantly helped them during C part of the course, though it is not the only way to interpret this data.
I take it that for a given approach to qualify as scientific it must possess an overarching explanatory theory and an accompanying axiomatic system. I will gloss over the details of what makes an approach scientific because, for the purposes of this article, both externalism and Chomskyan internalism can be said to have the form and methods of a scientific theory. I want to argue that externalism is not unscientific but rather bad science in the sense that it has chosen a subject matter that is not amendable to fruitful scientific theorising. This is so due to the creative aspect of language use. In other words, criteria for a given approach to qualify as scientific such as possessing an overarching explanatory theory, though necessary for qualifying as scientific, are not sufficient to distinguish a fecund and deeply explanatory science from one that is not. Chomskyan internalism proposes an explanatory theory, but, arguably, so does externalism: Putnam remarks that “a better philosophy and a better science of language” must encompass the “social dimension of cognition” and the “contribution of the environment, other people, and the world” to semantics (Putnam 1975: 193, my emphasis). Horwich (2001: 371) argues that Davidson’s externalist truth-theoretic program “became widely accepted, instigating several decades of ‘normal science’ in semantics.” Davidson himself is somewhat ambivalent, but still holds that “my own approach to the description, analysis (in a rough sense), and explanation of thought, language, and action has […] what I take to be some of the characteristics of a science” (Davidson 2004: 123). Burge (2003: 465) remarks that he sees no reason why formal semantics, which postu- lates “reference, or a technical analogue, as a relation between linguistic represen- tations and real aspects of the world, should not be an area of fruitful systematic scientific investigation”.
The curricular responsibilities of English Language Arts teachers can be broken down into two main categories: reading and writing. They can be further dissected into reading different authors and genres, and writing for different audiences and purposes. Critical theories such as race, gender, class and culture have dominated the post-modern English Language Arts curriculum. Two new curricular approaches suggest that place be added as a new critical category. The first is “ecocriticism,” defined as “the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment” (Glotfelty, 1996, p. xviii). Glotfelty (1996) explains that “Just as feminist criticism examines language and literature from a gender-conscious perspective, and Marxist criticism brings an awareness of modes of production and economic class to its reading of texts, ecocriticism takes an earth- centered approach to literary studies” (p. xviii). Questions such as “How is nature represented in this sonnet?” and “What role does the physical setting play in the plot of this novel” inform the focus of ecocriticism. Whereas ecocriticism is concerned
Learning is the process of accumulating bits of information and isolated skills. However, language barrier could hinder efficient and effective teaching-learning process. Language is a written code for systematic science learning, and as a vehicle for constructive and creative thinking in which teachers’ primary responsibility is to transfer knowledge directly to students; and the process of learning and teaching process primarily on the interactions between the teacher and individual students.This study aimed to identify the effect of language used in the TIMSS-Like test and the science vocabulary test towards the students’ performance in General Science. Two research instruments were used in this experimental research namely; the TIMSS-Like Test and vocabulary test which was translated into Filipino and Meranao (Students Native Dialect) or chosen language. Control group was exposed to English language test while experimental group was exposed to Filipino language test and Meranao or chosen language in the test. With the use of Analysis of Variance and Correlations, results revealed that the group exposed to Filipino language test obtained highest mean gain followed by the group exposed to their own choice of language. More so, vocabulary knowledge has positive significant relationship to the students’ performance in General Science TIMSS-Like Test. Thus, it is very important for teachers’ that the language used as medium of instruction must be the language to be used in the test. Furthermore, teachers should incorporate science vocabulary in teaching scientific concepts so as to provide effective learning and understanding among learners.
Of course, a general analysis like this does not allow drawing completely exhaustive and generalisable conclusions, especially for a complex genre like TED. Further study is still needed to understand how exactly such and other discourse structures are involved in the acquisition of new popularised knowledge. An intention for further research is to study other types of exemplification strategies used in these talks, to obtain a more comprehensive view of the popularisation process. However, while the description of TED as a new hybrid genre is far from being fully explored, in a world in which formal cultural institutions no longer detain the centrality of knowledge dissemination, these talks reveal the importance of the establishment of a common goal among the experts and the audience. As Hyland (2010) explains, science should be considered a communicative activity, in which science involves ideas to be discussed rather than information to be received. The results of the study have shown that similes do perform a central function in the recontextualisation of science in TED, as they help to conceptualise abstract or unfamiliar knowledge in a more comprehensible manner, while bridging the communication gap with the final audience. At the same time, from an interaction stance, the analysis of similes as a popularising strategy gives an insight into the constitution of discursive identities in interactions between experts and non-experts, as “our social identities are not static or structurally determined, but contextually situated and interactionally emergent” (Matoesian 1999, p. 492).
We used only HG matric results. A well-accepted conversion between HG and SG results is to subtract 20% to 40% from an SG result to obtain its HG equivalent. We felt that this was too imprecise an option, and so discarded all results that were not at HG level. This also contributed to the varying sample sizes in the four categories listed above. For the lan- guage matric results, we kept FL and SL subjects separate, since the curricula each deals with are very different from each other. In the cases—there were only two of these— where more than one language was done as FL, we took the average for that student’s matric results for those languages. Another important consideration is that our sample already has a preselection on the mathematics results; most of our students will have obtained at least a C for mathematics at HG; they only need to have obtained a pass (E or above) for their language and other subjects.
An anecdote illustrating this is the question where stu- dents were asked to discuss something about the initial part of a list. A number of students simply did not know what initial meant. We argue that someone who is already com- fortable with English, but doesn’t know what initial means in the context of a data structure, could use their knowledge of the language to work it out. For example, they might think that their own initials are the first letters of each of their names, and would be able to transfer this to the con- text of a list. Related to this is the notion that language is something that one can play about with, and figure out, rather than being some magical thing that an oracle knows. We argue further that this approach to taking control of lan- guage is not specific to being a native English speaker, but rather to do with the relationship one has with language in general. This points to the need to look at more gen- eral aspects of language use, such as comfort with language, interest in reading more generally (novels and non-fiction, as well as academic writing) and television watching habits (and which language channels students tend to choose to watch). We have included such aspects in our survey men- tioned earlier.
We developed a set of scripts capable of detecting strings that represent laughter and calculating their length to assess emotion intensity. Just as laughter may be represented more than one way in the written form in English – for example, “hahaha,” “heeheehee,” or “ho ho ho!” – laughter is represented multiple ways in Arabic. Given that Arabic is rich in uvular, pha- ryngeal, and glottal phonemes (sounds produced at the back of the throat) and contains a distinction between short and long vowels, the possibilities for represent- ing laughter in the Arabic script are particularly wide- ranging. Our Python scripts were designed to detect as many strings as possible that are likely to represent laughter in Arabic script, based on observations of the type of laughter attested in Arabic-language social me- dia usage. Some representations of laughter in the Ara- bic script are uniliteral strings (i.e. strings consisting of a single character) formed by the repetition of a sin- gle voiceless fricative – either the velar/uvular خ khā’, the pharyngeal ح ḥā’, or the glottal ه hā’ – in which the presence of a short vowel is implied. We thus devel- oped a script to detect and count the length of laughter strings formed by repeating three times or more any one of these Arabic consonants, e.g. خخخ khakhakha, ححح ḥaḥaḥa, and ههه hahaha. We also developed nu- merous scripts designed to work with laughter strings involving more than one character. For multiliteral strings, the set of laughter-associated characters was expanded to include the consonants ق qāf, likely repre- senting its colloquial pronunciation as a glottal stop) and ع ‘ayn, as well as the long vowels ا alif and ي yā’. Our scripts were designed to take into account that an Arabic biliteral laughter string may consist of ei- ther a consonant–long vowel pair (e.g. اهاه , hāhā) or a consonant-consonant pair in which the presence of a short vowel is implied (e.g. عهعه , ha‘ ha‘). Our scripts were also developed to detect such strings regardless of whether the repetition of and alternation between the two characters is regular (e.g. هخهخه , hakhahakhaha) or irregular (e.g. هههخهخه , hakhahakhahahaha). We also speciﬁcally created a script to detect a biliteral string in which the consonant jīm is regularly alternated with the letter alif (e.g. اجاجاج , jājājā) and whose appearance in Spanish-language contexts and adjacency to laugh- ter emoji suggests that it is an Arabic transliteration of Spanish-language laughter (i.e. jaja). Also attested in social media contexts are triliteral, quadriliteral, and quintiliteral strings that combine any of three, four, and ﬁve characters, respectively, from the following set of laughter-associated characters: ه hā’, ح ḥā’, خ khā’ , ع ‘ayn, and ق qāf, and ا alif. We are currently adding these multiliteral laughter categories to ADST. Some tools, like the English syntactic parser Twee-
Compared with other countries in the expanding circle, Japan struggles to gain parity in terms of English ability. Indeed, compared to other expanding circle countries in Asia, Japan has a poor level of English attainment. In 2016, for example, although Japan no longer ranked bottom in the Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL) scores, it ranked below both its regional rivals; China, and Korea (ETS TOEFL, 2016). The apparent recognition of poor communication English skills by policymakers has resulted in policy reform (Numata, 2013). An outline of recent policy reform follows, below. In Japan, the education system is comprised of: primary, lower- and upper-secondary and tertiary education, arranged in a 6-3-3-4 construct. English was taught in secondary schools and not taught at all in primary schools until 2011. In that year the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (henceforth MEXT) introduced a directive requiring English to be introduced in primary schools based around the four skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. The directive specified English lessons were to be taught between one and two times per week, in years three and four; and three times a week in years four and five (Roux, 2016). Nevertheless, in reality, because it is not treated as an official subject in primary schools, English is often only taught once a week and mostly by teachers who have not had proper training (Japan Times, 2013). Stewart (2009) explains that, in 2003, as a response to economic globalisation, MEXT introduced a policy directive requiring state secondary schoolteachers of English to move away from English teaching being based on word-by-word translation (Morita, 2014) and towards those activities that emphasise oral communication. However, Hosoki (2011) maintains that even though the policy was to cultivate ‘Japanese with English Abilities’ there are many teachers who continued to teach English using pre-established methods. This teaching methodology continued because, for many years:
(http://www.towson.edu/chp/backgroundcheck/index.asp). The State of Maryland Application for Criminal History Record Check and Disclosure Statement Criminal Background Check must be completed for the State of Maryland and processed via the CJIS-Central Repository in Pikesville, MD. The results must be forwarded to the Director, Center for Professional Practices (CPP), Towson University. The CPP will notify the appropriate Program and/or Clinic Director of any finding regarding a student‟s criminal background check. Upon such notification, a committee consisting of the Departmental Chair, appropriate Program Director and Clinic Director (e.g. Speech-Language Pathology or Audiology) , and a representative of the Dean will convene to determine the student‟s eligibility for clinical practicum on a case by case basis. Undergraduate students have the right to an appeal process through the Policy on Judicial Procedures as outlined in the