and Economic Identities” challenges the assumption of a homogenous Kurdish commune in Anatolia, exploring the cultural, linguistic, and religious diversity amongst the ethnic group. Malcolm Yapp’s “The making of the modern near east” provides a useful outline of the Kurdish and Armenian questions. Regarding British oil policy in the Middle East, two leading works include Helmut Mejcher’s “Imperial quest for oil: Iraq 1910-1928” and William Stivers’ “Supremacy and oil: Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American world order, 1918-1930”. Various doctoral theses illuminate this subject, and, specifically, Fiona Venn’s recent article “Oleaginous Diplomacy: Oil, Anglo-American Relations and the Lausanne Conference, 1922- 23” highlights some of the issues directly addressed in chapter 5.2. In the English language, literature on the Turkish perspective is relatively limited, although Andrew Mango’s “Atatürk” and Erik-Jan Zürcher’s “A modern history of Turkey” provide attention to the Turkish nationalist view of Sèvres and the Turkish perspective during the Lausanne negotiations. However, this is beyond the scope of this study. Susan Pedersen’s work “The Guardians: The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire” provides some insights into the emerging international dynamic of a fragile imperial system requiring rejuvenation through the guise of a “new” system.
contested boundaries were eventually established to include Christians speaking a neo-Aramaic language or dialect (McLure 2001:109-110). Assyrians are concentrated in the Middle East, with significant numbers in the diaspora in Sweden (120,000, Radio Sweden 2015), Germany (100,000, Borkener Zeitung 2011), US (82,355, US Census 2000), Australia (around 80,000, Assyria 2017), Russia, and other countries. Assyrians migrated from the region in the 1910s and later during the Iranian Revolution (1979), the Gulf War (1990- 1991), and during repression and warfare in Iraq, including because of the self-proclaimed Islamic State (ISIS). Nevertheless, Assyrians are much fewer in the Middle East and abroad, and their mobilizations remain little visible. There are a few exceptions, such as activism to support the Yezidi population, displaced through the war with ISIS in Iraq (Radio Sweden 2015). Yet, as a minority without a state or regional autonomy in the Middle East, and living in Christian-dominated environments in Western countries, Assyrians have faced stronger assimilation pressures than Armenians (McLure 2000; Khosroeva 2007; Travis 2011).
Th e Armenian Mahmet/Muh.ammad
Th ese sections do not appear in the Syriac manuscript translated and published by Chabot. 22
Th e most extensive account about Muh.ammad appeared in the His- tory of Mxit‘ar Anec‘i (end of the twelfth century and early thirteenth century). According to Guleserian, the source of the entire section was the Karshuni which he found at St. Yakob, Jerusalem, in Manuscript No. 1288, fols. 231b–238a, dated 1273 (restored in 1624 by order of Grigor Vardapet Daranałc‘i). Th e title is I K‘ašunēn K‘ałacu (or Excerpts from the Kašun). 23 Th e author is a Syrian Christian and his text is obviously translated into Armenian, and according to Guleserian this was the only source available and in circulation in Armenia much before Mxit‘ar. K. Patkanean, the publisher of the History of Mxit‘ar, has an appendix ( Yawelwac ) in which he included the sections on Muh.ammad in the histories of Vardan Patmič‘, Samvēl Anec‘i, Kirakos Ganjakec‘i, Yovhan Kałankatwac‘i, and T‘ovma Arcruni. 24 While none of these authors men- tioned the Karshuni, as their source, Guleserian discovered it by juxta- posing the Karshuni (the Jerusalem in Manuscript 1288 of St. Yakob, Jerusalem, subtitled “Concerning Mahmet”) and Mxit‘ar’s account. Mxit‘ar simply paraphrases the entire Karshuni in rhetorical ornamental language and added few ideas and information on his part. He also has some elements from Łewond and Samvēl Anec‘i about taxes, invasions, and such. Th e point that concerns us is that all medieval Armenian authors took the Karshuni as a credible testimony about Islam and its founder. Th rough Mxit‘ar’s text the entire Armenian K‘ašun oﬃ cially entered the literary tradition and became a reference for subsequent authors as well. 25 Chapters 25 and 26 in Mxit‘ar’s History are devoted to this subject. 26 Mxit‘ar omitted the introductory section of the Karshuni, but at the end of Chapter 25 he gave credit to the “blessed man who came from Crete,” a disciple of Muh.ammad, who revealed the truth about him and his teachings. 27 For its great signiﬁ cance, Mxit‘ar’s ver- sion of the Karshuni is below in Th omson’s translation: 28
Consider the language used here: Armenia, a Christian bastion, was battered by Muslims; the Ilkhans succumbed to Islamic influences. What we have here is a rather simplistic view of Middle Eastern history: Islam is a malignant force, always opposed to Christians; conversion to Islam leads inevitably to irrational persecution of the poor Christians – a new Muslim is a ‘new foe’. Even contemporary propagandists like the Armenian Praemonstratensian Hayton of Gor.igos or the Dominican Guillaume Adam had a more realistic attitude, one they did not hide from their audience – ¨ Oljeit ¨u was a ‘Saracen’, but would help the crusade both Hayton and Guillaume proposed to win back the Holy Land. 72 The Mongol Ilkhans may have converted, but while Islam might have been used by some Mongols to excuse anti-Christian actions, it is clear that the conversion did not have such an immediate and drastic effect on official Ilkhanid foreign policy, the objectives of which remained largely constant.
In addition to the monolingual text corpus and the speech database the project is producing a parallel Pashto-French corpus of around 2 million words. For this, 200 hours of transcription of Pashto recordings is translated into French by professional translators. The source texts are made of the transcription of the previously described corpus in section 4 and an existing corpus of 100 hours of transcription of conversational speech in Pashto. When producing translations from language A to language B, it is usually required that translators are native speakers of the target language B. But it is very unlikely that we will be able to find sufficient Pashto-to-French translators who are native speakers of French. Therefore we decided to use the services of native Pashto translators who are fluent in French and then revise the produced translations by few native French speakers fluent in Pashto. The source and translated files are formatted in XML and follow an adapted DTD derived from NIST MT evaluations 7 .
Adult learners have access to UG but are also able to make use of general problem-solving abilities that children acquiring their first language lack. The latter abilities compete with language-specific abilities ( i.e. UG) in the acquisition of the L2 and so the direct application of UG is impaired. As a consequence, learners fail to attain native-like competence in the L2. C. Partial access to UG (see, e.g., Schacter 1996, Hawkins 2001, Ch. 2) A hybrid approach to L2 acquisition, which shares features of both no access and direct access theories. UG principles are assumed to be available just as in L1 acquisition, but parameter-resetting is subject to critical period effects. Both acquisition and learning play a role in such accounts, acquisition in the form of the application of UG principles, and learning because speakers must construct an L2 grammar without the aid of parameter-resetting.
The results of the study were discussed according to their respective metaconcerns. In the category of linguistic outcomes and competence levels, based on the results of language
evaluations, CLIL students outperformed their mainstream peers with an average score of 62.1% of language competence compared to 38%. The only difference between the control group and the CLIL group was 1.5 years in the CLIL program. In an Individual Differences analysis in CLIL Programs, French L2 learners scored higher for receptive skills and English L2 learners scored higher in productive skills. L2 in CLIL Classroom data analysis showed that content teachers were more likely to use the L2 during the activities, and consolidation and revision portion of the lesson cycle. They were less likely to use L2 during an introduction to a topic. Language teachers were more likely to use L2 for feedback and evaluation than Content teachers, and across all teachers, the area least likely to involve the use of L2 was during clarifying and dealing with problems. Overall, teachers reported using L2 in error correction 50% of the time (Lorenzo et al., 2009).
Another issue is how completion of composite language services is assured in the open environment. In the open environment, the execution of composite language services may fail due to the runtime environment. One possible fail- ure is caused by restrictions set out by language resource providers. Assume that several end users who use the same user ID invoke an composite language service including an atomic language services with an access limit. In this case, the number of invocation exceeds the limit while execut- ing the composite language service even though each end user can satisfy the limit before executing it. Since lan- guage service providers can easily change their policy in the open environment, this types of problems often occurs. To solve this problem, the user has to add an exception han- dler to switch to another similar atomic language service in the composite language service. However, if the user does not have the right to modify the composite language ser- vice, we need another solution independent of the compos- ite language service. Another possibility is that we extend the language service management architecture to supervise the execution of composite language services(Tanaka et al., 2009). This approach can be applied to various types of composite language service.
vein, we might describe many of the references considered in this article to the Armenian and Assyrian genocides, the Kurdish-Turkish conflict and the Nazi genocide as “off-the-peg memories”: abstracted and simpli- fied formulae, often accompanied by little historical baggage, that were temporarily adopted by Greek narrators, without necessarily triggering, or indicating, any particularly in-depth engagement with the experiences of the others concerned. These off-the-peg memories typically come across as knee-jerk reactions to particular discursive situations and often stand in for substantive independent thinking about Greek-Turkish relationships and histories of violence more generally. Just as Greek strife narrators on YouTube attempt to bolster antagonistic arguments during quick- fire debates, so expatriate writers seek to establish perceived “patterns” of Turkish behavior by name-dropping persecuted communities and totemically citing decontextualized atrocities, in the process entrenching hostility toward the Turks and eliding distinctive historical events. At the same time, however, such off-the-peg memories free Greek narrators from thinking about history on their own. On the one hand, the construction of parallel histories with Armenians, Assyrians and Kurds serves to endorse and rationalize Greek victimhood by suggesting that other communities had similar experiences at the hands of the same perpetrators, and thereby multiplying the witnesses able to “testify” to the accused’s record of atrocity. On the other hand, analogizing with other, more well-known historical atrocities such as Nazi genocide makes these claims evocative and intelligible for unfamiliar audiences.
ing is not su rp rising and d oes not contrad ict ou r exp ectations. Taken together w ith the evid ence that langu age-sp ecific cu es are p rocessed bottom -u p and largely ind ep end ently of the context langu age or the lexicon (as reflected in d ecreasing context langu age effects as p roficiency level increases), the find ings cou ld also be interp reted in line w ith the BIA+ (Dijkstra and Van H eu ven 2002) m od el. As exp lained above, the m od el assu m es a grad u al activation of su b-lexical, lexical, and concep tu al levels d u ring visu al w ord recognition. The m od el also p rop oses a langu age tag/ nod e w hich can facilitate langu age selection. Let u s assu m e that the su b -lexical level – and thu s langu age- sp ecific cu es – is connected to a sp ecific language tag or nod e. When confronted w ith an onset cap ital, a high p roficiency learner might m ake qu ick u se of a connection of this form at to a p articu lar langu age tag, inform ing him / her a bou t the langu age being processed and selected from ; ie facilitating resp onses. A less proficient learner m ight not yet have established that connection, d u e to low er exp osu re to the L2 as w ell as a sm aller vocabu lary size. This w ou ld explain the facilitat ory effect of langu age-sp ecific cu es being strongest for high p roficiency learners.
on different islands, and due to the periods of time Pidgin Hawaiian went unused when trade boats were not in Hawai‘i. The only way for a pidgin to develop to a language is if it is also regularly used as the main means of communication.
Hawaiian Creole English (HCE) developed on sugar plantations after the influx of new workers from various regions around the world, and was shaped by the hierarchy of command of an English-speaking foreman. This switch to HCE happened when the dominance of the English language could be seen in schools as Reinecke explains in their entry “Pidgin English” in Hawai‘i. “In 1876, English was the medium of instruction of 31.3 percent of the school children; in 1886, of 77.6 percent; in 1895, of 99.5 percent; in 1902, of all.” 56 The push to use English was only enhanced with the Official English Movement of Hawai‘i in 1896 and allowed pidgin to be strongly influenced by English grammar and sentence structure. Reinecke states in Language and dialect in Hawai‘i: A sociolinguistic history to 1935 that many issues arose among the emerging immigrant groups when learning English, and each group would blame the other for the improper and incorrect use of English.
The fourth aspect concerns the teachers’ use of the target language when managing the class, for example to put learners into groups, start the lesson, control activities, discipline students and praise learners. With regard to the cohort of teachers in the wider study, Thomson (2009: Appendix 27) records that by the end of the course, the majority of teachers observed (43 of the 47) were either meeting or exceeding the progress standards for teacher TL use in the classroom, i.e. they were ‘making significant use of the TL for social goals, classroom management and instruction’ (Appendix 13). Observations of the case study teachers indicated a range in the amount of TL teachers used to manage the class. One teacher was observed counting in the TL to get the attention of the class. However, she admitted in interview that she did not feel proficient enough in the TL to use it for keeping full control of the class. This was confirmed in observation when she used sentences with a mixture of English and TL such as ‘Get your hon (book) out.’ All the remaining teachers were observed managing the class with a range of TL phrases such as Be quiet, Are you ready, Begin. In addition, all teachers encouraged learners by using language such as Well done, Good,
codes are used together to indicate the ‘locale’ and formatting preference of a document of an author or of a user. These codes as used in computer systems today, mostly originate from an international standard known as ISO 3166country codes by the international organization for standardization (ISO). These codes are based on the older UN M.49 standard country or area codes for statistical use from the United Nations Statistics Division. For example, the language code “en- Au” combines the language code for English with the country code of Australia to form the language Australian English. ISO 3166 doesn’t include any codes for geographical regions that are not nations.(ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency c/o International Organization for Standardization, 2015).In the same manner, slangs and other forms of language use that belong to a circle evolved as a result of certain happenings and development. People outside the circle who are unable to decode the sign may see it as occult form of communication. Common word used truly in a language may assume another meaning as adopted by the members of a group that belong to the same language community.
consideration is the availability of data for the whole of Wales, and the frequency of publishing and collecting the data. It is acknowledged that the range of data and indicators in the paper doesn’t give a complete picture of the use and viability of the Welsh language in Wales, but it is a useful first step that contributes to this picture. The quantitative information noted here will be combined with other forms of evidence, including qualitative evidence and evaluations that will look in detail at specific areas. The Welsh Strategy Evaluation 1 Framework provides the basis for developing the
Another interesting phenomenon in the interpretation of literary texts involves a range of practices which we might group together as ‘hendiadys’. In classical rhetoric, the device of hendiadys involves a syntactic conjunction which is not interpreted as a conjunction; instead, the two conjoined elements may be interpreted as communicating a single concept: for example Virgil says “we drink from cups and gold” (pateris libamus et auro), which is interpreted as ‘from golden cups’ (Watson 2001: 4). Hendiadys is found also in ordinary language, as for example in “His dinner was nice and hot” meaning something like ‘nicely hot’ (Huddleston and Pullum 2002: 1302). Thus it seems that the literary device is a development of an ordinary language device and thus conforms to the Development Hypothesis. Following Blakemore’s (2008) proposal about the interpretation of certain kinds of apposition, hendiadys might be thought of as the building of a hybrid representation developed from two distinct concepts, which produces a wider array of implicatures than can be recovered from each of the two original parts. It may be that hendiadys and the construction of hybrid concepts is also a factor in parallelism, and the interpretation of pairs of words. For example, in the parallelistic Rotinese text quoted in section 3.4, the pairing of ‘orphans’ and ‘widows’ communicates a single concept ‘the bereaved’ (Fox 1988: 166), and this appears to be another variant on hendiadys. A similar situation arises in Chinese literature, where parallel terms together express a broader meaning than is semantically determined by the co-ordination of the individual items. Thus in the couplet ‘Grieves for the falling leaves in strong autumn, / Rejoices in the pliant branches in sweet spring’... “while the determinations made by the specific propositions are true (he ‘grieves’ in autumn and does not ‘rejoice’), the couplet implicates a full range of emotional response to the cycles of nature.” (Owen 1992:91). Thus a theory of hendiadys, which should hold both for ordinary and literary language, might offer further insight into the characteristically literary device of parallelism.
Useful classroom activities
Here are some simple SL activities which have worked quite well. (1) Introductions: As many Japanese students are somewhat familiar with Japanese Sign Language, the activity is begun with a simple introduction (Hajimemashite. Watashi no namae wa.....) in JSL/NS. The teacher then models his/her own introduction (Nice to meet you. My name is.....) in ASL. (The question, “What is your name?” (“Your name, what?” in ASL) is also introduced at this point.) The ASL manual alphabet is distributed and students practice introductions in pairs. After the practice, pairs are made from students in different parts of the classroom and they perform the exercise in front of the class. (2) Greetings: General greetings and those for the different times of day (e.g., “Good morning.” “See you later.” “See you next Wednesday.”) are modeled and practiced.
The univocity term-notion is highly recognized by terminologists and it seldom occurs in the specialized discourse. Obviously, it is easy to understand that a non-specialist uses a term with an altered meaning, either deliberately or because his lack of knowledge in the field. Additionally, the monosemy of the term is not always respected, including the specialized discourses. The update of the terms in speech “exposes them” to polisemy, to some extent. On the other hand, the lexical units can become terms of the common language, but in this case, their meaning will be different (metaphor or slipping of meaning). The mobility of terms is achieved by altering the meaning. This change is achieved through a gain of significance in the following direction: specialized language → common language (by not considering the monosemy, the “interpretation” of the meaning), and a significant reduction in the direction: common language → specialized language (from all the possible meanings of a lexical unit, only one is updated in the specialized language).
In terms of the productive skills to choose to express opinions, the data al- so show different patterns. Female students preferred to choose writing as the way to express their opinion in English in order to avoid some obstacles they had such as their low confidence and low capability in English (90% of females compared to 60% of males). On the other hand, males saw speaking as the ef- fective way of expressing opinion effectively regardless of their lack in English (60 % of males compared to 10% of females). In fact, male students considered speaking as the way to show their English ability and therefore, they could be recognized as men. This also shows the great effects of gender differences in the strategies chosen by female and male students to express their opinions. Females’ higher tendency to express their opinion by writing shows their pas- siveness, which become one indicator of women’s language.
Time and space
Non-literary texts and literary works are chosen from a variety of sources, literary forms and media that reflect a range of historical and/or cultural perspectives. Their study focuses on the contexts of language use and the variety of ways literary and non-literary texts might both reflect and shape society at large. The focus is on the consideration of personal and cultural