Large-scale renewable energy connected to grid

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Power Quality Improvement for Grid Connected Renewable Energy System using FLC

Power Quality Improvement for Grid Connected Renewable Energy System using FLC

In the present statistics of this scope the power of solar and wind system have been generated for the utility purpose and it is universally improved on the large scale. The hybrid energy used in this scenario is flexible for the generation during the time of demand. Significant improvement in frequency response and power generation response is achieved in terms of less settling time and oscillations. The position of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used to conserve the energy. A new approach for Fuzzy logic has been empowered for the purpose of regulation of frequency and generation power in the renewable energy system. The THD level of seven- level inverter is maintained within the IEEE standard (3.81%) by using the switching device MOSFET.
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Review on A Step-Up Resonant Converter for HVDC Grid Connected Renewable Energy Sources

Review on A Step-Up Resonant Converter for HVDC Grid Connected Renewable Energy Sources

This paper introduces a modular multilevel converter (MMC) based prototype for investigating the control of large- scale MMCs. The prototype contains 264 submodules (SMs) totally, which are designed in such a way that they can be rearranged between the half-bridge model and full-bridge model conveniently. Therefore, the characteristics of various typologies based on voltage-sourced converters can be studied. Meanwhile, a novel control system for large-scale MMCs is proposed, which is characterized for modular design and excellent expansibility. The designed control system is composed of one central control unit and several arm control units, while each arm control unit is composed of several valve-group control units. Besides, a new voltage-balancing method composed of internal voltage balance and external voltage balance is proposed to balance the SM voltages. Finally, experiments on a three-phase dc/ac MMC are carried out to verify the prototype and the control system, as well as the new voltage-balancing method. The results show that the proposed control system is feasible and the new voltage-balancing method is valid.
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Feasibility analysis 
		of Grid/Wind/PV hybrid systems for industrial application

Feasibility analysis of Grid/Wind/PV hybrid systems for industrial application

The present study offers technical and economical analyses of grid-connected hybrid power systems for a large scale production industry located in Bali. The peak load of observed system can reach 970.630 kW consuming on average 16 MWh of electricity a day. Software HOMER was utilized as the optimization tool. The proposed hybrid renewable energy systems consist of wind turbines, a PV system, a converter, and batteries. The system is connected to the grid. Optimization results show that the best configuration is the Grid/Wind hybrid system with the predicted net present cost of -884,896 USD. The negative sign indicates that revenues (mostly from selling power to the grid) exceed costs. The levelized cost of electricity of the system is predicted to be -0.013 USD/kWh. The present study also conducts sensitivity analysis of some scenarios i.e. 50% and 100% increases in grid electricity prices, 50% reduction of PV and WECS prices, and 10 USD and 50 USD carbon taxes per ton CO2 emission. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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Highly resolved optimal renewable allocation planning in power systems under consideration of dynamic grid topology

Highly resolved optimal renewable allocation planning in power systems under consideration of dynamic grid topology

The optimal allocation of distributed generation in general, as well as the optimal allocation and positioning of renewable generation as a more specific application, has been a widely discussed topic in literature. From a methodological point of view, a large variety of approaches have been applied, which can be distinguished into the three categories conventional techniques, artificial intelligence techniques and hybrid intelligent system techniques [6]. The focus of the vast majority of these approaches lays, however, on the integration of RES-E on the distribution grid level [7] and thus on smaller system sizes which do not require methods which are able to deal with big data problems of pan-national spatial horizons. While the vast majority of RES-E is connected on the distribution grid level, the additional stress on the transmission grid level also needs to be considered when investigating national or pan-national allocation problems. Approaches which deal with large- scale real-world applications of intermittent RES-E allocation require GIS-based data [8] and are today restricted to single energy sources such as solar [9], wind [10] or limited spatial scales when covering multiple RES types [11]. Overall, a number of real-world sized approaches are available that address the first requirement [12-14]. However, we are not aware of approaches combining all three requirements. While few existing approaches do consider the grid topology [15,16], they do not consider the restructuring of transmission grids, i.e. they assume a static assignment of RES-E generation sources to transmission grid busbars or substations. In order to address the expansion and dismantling of busbars within substations or even of entire substations over time as set out in many national grid development plans, however, a fixed assignment of RES-E generators to transmission grid buses is no longer adequate. On the contrary, an approach allowing for a variable grid connection of RES-E generators either connected directly to the transmission grid or indirectly through the distribution grid is required to assess how the future grid will be used and needs to be planned.
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Design, application and comparison of passive filters for three phase 
		grid connected renewable energy systems

Design, application and comparison of passive filters for three phase grid connected renewable energy systems

A 20 kW three-phase grid-connected inverter with a PI tuned controller is implemented to validate the designed LC, LCL and damped LCL filters and compared their performance. Besides the resonance frequency problem, LCL filters are preferred than LC filters because of their size, weight and price. To overcome on the instability problems of LCL filters, damping LCL filters are recommended. However, LCL filter with series damping resistor can eliminate more harmonic distortions compare to the parallel one. But, the filter power loss for LCL filter with parallel damping resistor is higher than series damping. Then, in conclusion it can be seen by considering the filter size, weight, price, stability,
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Research on Control Method of Inverters for Large scale Grid Connected Photovoltaic Power System

Research on Control Method of Inverters for Large scale Grid Connected Photovoltaic Power System

The safety and economy of power system are affected directly by transformer running states, which play an important role in network. According to the survey, the total transformer loss of about 8% of electricity genera- tion, and distribution transformer loss is accounted to about 60~80% of the entire distribution grid [1, 2]. No- wadays, a large number of frequency electrical ap- pliances and devices sorted as non-linear loads in indus- trial and lives have become increasingly universal, which have led to harmonic pollution to system and brought about adverse effects including increased wear and tear, abnormal temperature rise, insulation reduced life ex- pectancy shortened to transformers and other electro- magnetic equipments[3]. Therefore, non-linear load loss calculation and analysis for transformer has been con- cerned by the very important.
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Sketch of Renewable Energy Production Simulation Platform

Sketch of Renewable Energy Production Simulation Platform

Recent years, renewable energy such as wind power and photovoltaic (PV) power is emerging vigorously in the world, but due to wind power and PV power has the fluctuation and intermittence [1]-[3], and as the main elec- trical source of China, coal-fired power unit is not flexible when starting and stopping, the network structure of North China where renewable energy is centralized accessed is relatively weak, the accommodation of renewa- ble energy power is becoming more and more prominent since 2010, wind/PV curtailment has become the point problem in the field of renewable energy. Researchers, engineers and power system operators are very con- cerned about the assessment of renewable energy power accommodation, related simulation tool is urgently re- quired to simulate the operation of renewable energy in the power system.
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An Eco-friendly Energy Resources for Green Energy

An Eco-friendly Energy Resources for Green Energy

ABSTRACT: Electrical energy is provided worldwide by cable or overhead transmission lines. However, power systems are still needed to locations which are isolated or far from electrical energy suppliers. Renewable energy resources in micro-grid power systems are interesting topics of recent research as environmental pollution and scarcity of energy resources come to the fore. Moreover, power systems which have renewable sources of energy are becoming popular need of green energy. A micro-grid electricity power system on a local scale usually using renewable source of energy satisfies both problem of isolation and power quality, benefits not available from conventional utility grid system, but also serves a customer with multiple load locations.In this present situation the development of intelligent system that integrate Eco-friendly energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic system, and fuel cell for green energy and cost effectiveness under different environment condition.
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Simultaneous Parameter Tuning of PSS and Wide Area POD in PV Plant using FPA

Simultaneous Parameter Tuning of PSS and Wide Area POD in PV Plant using FPA

Abstract. In the future power grid scenario, large-scale renewable energy based power plant will be one of the main generations. Among renewable based power plant types, large-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant becoming more popular as they could provide zero-emission and sustainable energy. However, even though PV plants could contribute a positive impact on the environment, they could also contribute negatively to the power system. Large-scale PV generation came with a different dynamic and zero inertia characteristic due to the application of the power electronics devices. Furthermore, the PV plant has also a drawback in terms of intermittent power output due to the uncertainty of the sources. Those handicaps could deteriorate the stability performance of the power system especially oscillatory stability. Adding a power system stabilizer (PSS) to the systems is one of the ways for handling the oscillatory stability. However, with the integration of PV plants in the systems, PSS alone is not enough to handle the oscillatory problems coming from various sources such us from PV plant dynamic. Hence, utilizing wide-area power oscillation damping (POD) as a PV plant additional controller is inevitable. Hence, this paper proposed simultaneous parameter tuning between PSS and wide-area POD in PV plant using an imperialist competitive algorithm as the optimization method. The two-area power system is used to evaluate the performance of PSS and POD using FPA. From the results, it is found that the proposed method could enhance the oscillatory stability of the systems. Keywords: FPA, oscillatory stability, PSS, PV plant, wide-area POD.
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Distributed Generation System: A Review and its Impact On India

Distributed Generation System: A Review and its Impact On India

To include DG systems in the main network of power system distribution, DG systems are integrated with the same grid as the central grid. Grid integration of DG system not only promises more reliable functioning of power system, but also the inclusion of renewable energy resources in the main framework. While they can have positive impacts on the distribution network, they can also have negative impacts at high penetrations if appropriate measures are not implemented. This is due to the occurrence of various technical and economic issues in the grid integration. Those problems arise in the areas of power quality, voltage stability, harmonics, reliability, protection, control and islanding [13]. Each distributed generation resource has its own integration issues [14]. Successful integration of distributed and renewable generation (DG) into distribution networks relies heavily on effective planning and operation strategies. This can be achieved by introducing smart grid and micro grid (with storage devices) in the existing or new distribution networks.
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Optimize the Energy Conversion Efficiency for Solar PV Grid-Connected System at Low Distribution Voltage

Optimize the Energy Conversion Efficiency for Solar PV Grid-Connected System at Low Distribution Voltage

This article is focus on the grid-connected PV systems that represent the most important field applications of solar energy. Grid-connected PV systems are installed to promote the performance of the utility grid by reducing the power losses, reduction in the maintenance and operational costs of the grid [5]. Generally, the common grid-connected PV systems are consisting of major components like; PV solar cell, power converters and grid interface control unit as shown in Figure 1. The main function for grid-connected PV system is to control the power flow between the primary renewable energy source and the grid, as well as the power factor of PV inverter-grid connection with high power quality.
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An LCL Filter Design for Three-Phase Off-Grid PV Inverters

An LCL Filter Design for Three-Phase Off-Grid PV Inverters

switching frequency. This will increase the switching losses in the converter, so it's not advisable to do so. Also, increasing the capacity of the inductance can increase the severity of the weakening, but this strategy causes an increase in Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI). Therefore, this structure is not a good solution for harmonics reductions. The LC structure, as seen in Fig.(1-b), consists of an inductor and a capacitor which results in a second-order system. It has a better attenuation than the L structure, but still needs a large inductance. In addition, a relatively large capacitor in this structure is needed. This structure requires a damper circuit to prevent resonances in the filter unit. The structure of the LCL filter, as seen in Fig.(1-c), creates a third-order system, so it performs well in the attenuation of the high-order harmonics. In order to avoid the resonances in this structure, a damper circuit is used. Different damping structures are already employed [9-11]. In this paper, a simple damping structure which includes a series resistance with the filter capacitor is used. In Table 1, the comparison between the three filters types is discussed. With respect to the advantages of the LCL structure, this structure is selected and assess in this article.
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Research on Location and Capacity Planning of Datacenters in Smart Grids with Renewable Sources

Research on Location and Capacity Planning of Datacenters in Smart Grids with Renewable Sources

Driven by global challenges such as energy shortages, climate change and growing demand for electricity, modern power systems are undergoing massive revolutions and reconstruction. In the early 21st century, the "smart grid" [1] was proposed to build a smart low-carbon green grid. At the same time, major cloud service providers such as Microsoft, Google and Amazon are working hard to build large-scale datacenters, which consumes huge amount of energy and significantly increases the electricity load on the construction site, which might have impact on the grid. Nowadays, smart grid technology is transforming into an interactive network with the goal of reducing the overall cost of electricity delivered to end users. With the sustainable development of modern power grids, emerging technology trends have had a profound impact on the operation of power distribution systems. Take distributed renewable energy generation facilities as an example, which can be effectively integrated into the smart grid to balance power and demand at different locations to perform appropriate frequency adjustments.
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High Wind Power Penetration Large Scale Hybrid Renewable Energy System Design for Remote Off Grid Application

High Wind Power Penetration Large Scale Hybrid Renewable Energy System Design for Remote Off Grid Application

As Geladin district has already been electrified with diesel generator, estimation of the load is straight forward. However, in this study energy efficient loads are selected, and future load growth is also considered. As shown in Figure 4, the total primary load (load that needs continuous supply) and deferrable load (load with some storage capability) for the site is 30 MWh/day with peak load of 2.7 MW and 21 MWh/day with peak load of 2.3 MW respectively. It is clearly seen from the load DMap in Figure 4 (a) that load demand is higher (peak load) in the morning from around 10am to 1pm and even higher in the evening from 6pm to 9pm. The Deferrable load in Figure 4(a) shows monthly variation espe- cially during high windy seasons since the load is electric motor for water pump to serve community water supplies for drinking and irrigation. This load de- creases in winter due to rain water availability for agriculture. The system con- trol serves deferrable load whenever it senses spare energy after meeting primary load demand. In case of low storage tank level, the system control prioritizes meeting deferrable load than battery charging.
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Photovoltaic Fuzzy Logic Controller on Solar Power Generation by Large-Scale Grid-Connected Cascaded

Photovoltaic Fuzzy Logic Controller on Solar Power Generation by Large-Scale Grid-Connected Cascaded

requirement of inverter output voltage, power devices as well as power quality. The second- order voltage ripple on the dc side is allowed to 20% even higher. Hence, film capacitor with 400 μF, Cin, is eligible to improve the system lifetime. In addition, the modular structure enables the high-voltage high-frequency SiC power devices for the HVHP PV application. The switching frequency for each power device is 5 kHz. Due to the phase-shift carrier based phase-width modulation (PWM) control, the PV inverter will generate nine level output voltage and the equivalent output PWM frequency is 40 kHz for each phase. The current ripple of ac inductor is selected to be less than20% of the rated output current. Therefore, the ac inductor with 0.8 mH, Lf, is acted as the filter. In each dc– dc converter module, Ldc1 and Ldc2 are dc inductors, and Ls is leakage inductor. CPV is high-frequency filter capacitor paralleled with PV arrays. High-frequency transformer with turn ration N is connected between lowvoltage side (LVS) converter and high-voltage side (HVS) converter.CLV are LVS dc capacitor and CHV are HVS dc capacitor.
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Energy Production Analysis and Optimization of Mini-Grid in Remote Areas: The Case Study of Habaswein, Kenya

Energy Production Analysis and Optimization of Mini-Grid in Remote Areas: The Case Study of Habaswein, Kenya

electrified by using renewable energy based off-grid power stations.. It will.[r]

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Harmonic Mitigation using Shunt Active Filter at Utility end in grid connected to Renewable Source of Energy

Harmonic Mitigation using Shunt Active Filter at Utility end in grid connected to Renewable Source of Energy

Abstract — This paper describes the methodology of improving power quality at load end in a grid system connected with renewable source of energy for power generation. Photovoltaic cell generates electric power directly from solar energy. Solar energy based Photovoltaic cells are upcoming energy source with higher efficiency. Solar energy being naturally available in abundance and non- polluting is one of the most promising sources. Causes of power quality problems like sag swell distortion in waveform harmonics reactive power generation has affected both grid as well as utility sectors. Active Power filter are powerful tool for mitigation of harmonics. Shunt active filter with VSI topology is a simple and efficient method for harmonic elimination. Current control scheme proposed for SAPF is synchronous reference frame theory which give results within IEEE 519 range.
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Techno economic analysis of off grid and grid connected spv wind diesel hybrid energy systems

Techno economic analysis of off grid and grid connected spv wind diesel hybrid energy systems

important factor in the transformation phase towards modernization and development of any nation. Energy demand is increasing day by day due to enhancement in the living standards and growing population. Today the major fill this rising energy demand without fully exhausting the conventional resources (fossil fuel) and also avoid environmental degradation (Usman At present, power generation in India is not enough to fulfill the energy demand. The conventional fossil electric power generation is not sufficient to fulfill this huge demand of electrical energy. Therefore at present, there is a big gap between energy demand and supply of electrical energy in India. The reason is the less number of ations and availability of poor quality of coal, it is estimated that these fossil fuels could last around 200 years. There are number of harmful electricity generation air pollution, acid rain, etc. 2015). Renewable energy such as solar PV, wind, small/mini/micro hydro,
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MAXIMUM POWER TRACKING UNDER VARYING DIFFERENT LOAD AND SPEED OF WIND GENERATOR

MAXIMUM POWER TRACKING UNDER VARYING DIFFERENT LOAD AND SPEED OF WIND GENERATOR

Abstract: In this paper a full detailed modelling and a new control scheme of a three phase grid connected wind energy conversion system wind energy conversion system connected to a grid using a self-excited induction generator (SEIG) based on the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme. The simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT control scheme for a wind energy system. In the simulation results, the d-q axes current controllers and DC-link voltage controller give prominent dynamic response in command tracking and load regulation characteristics.
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Hardware in Loop of a Generalized Predictive Controller for a Micro Grid DC System of Renewable Energy Sources

Hardware in Loop of a Generalized Predictive Controller for a Micro Grid DC System of Renewable Energy Sources

GPC is capable of stable control of processes with variable parameters, variable dead-time, and with a model order which changes instantaneously [8]. This method has become one of the most popular Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods both in industry and academia. It has been successfully implemented in many industrial applications, showing good performance and a certain degree of robustness [9]. We improved the robustness of this controller through CARIMA [10] model application, in this way it ensures an optimal performance of the micro grid. As this system reads the input signals given by the sensors placed in the micro grid, it will know how the performance of micro grid will be, and the controller will determine how much current will pass from the alternative energy to the load powered by the micro grid. Instead of having a reactive control which only detects when the load in battery is below 70%, the predictive controller will anticipate that and will proceed according the previous setup in the micro grid.
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