Latin American immigrants

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Aspirations and Happiness of Potential Latin American Immigrants

Aspirations and Happiness of Potential Latin American Immigrants

Given these traits, it is likely that these frustrated achievers continue to project high expectations on themselves once they migrate. Those frustrations can easily become further agitated when language barriers, obstacles in recognizing technical abilities, and a lack of established social networks prevent immigrants from meeting their expectations. This may lead to the observed low happiness levels abroad. Still, our results do not discount the possibility that immigrants are less happy than the average population and would have been less happy whether they migrated or not. This leads to the broader theoretical question: is unhappiness necessary to drive major societal change? In Graham (2009), we find that in some very desolate conditions, such as in Afghanistan, people adapt their expectations downward; thus they report to be happier than others with much better security, health, and so forth. Is it necessary to disrupt the happiness of those that have adapted in order to realize quality of life improvements in such a setting? Our findings in this paper suggest that happy people, including people who are satisfied with their economic situation regardless of their actual income level, are not willing to undergo the major change entailed by migration. This is not to say that they are opposed to other major changes, but they are not considering a common solution utilized in the Latin American context today.
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Incorporating Latin American immigrants into mainstream society :  a study of official and informal policies of integration in Spain and the United States

Incorporating Latin American immigrants into mainstream society : a study of official and informal policies of integration in Spain and the United States

The situation for immigrants to the United States has never, throughout the country’s entire history, been a predictable situation. Such variables as time period and actual physical location of where these immigrants wish to settle are all factors that facilitate or impede social and political inclusion of immigrants into American culture. In recent years, however, several social scientists have argued that the situation of immigrants to the United States is rather favorable. Although the numbers may indicate that the “inclusive” element is quite strong for immigrants into mainstream American culture, I would suggest that this research is being interpreted through rose colored glasses; that is to say, that the research cannot account for the intangible variable of actual day-to-day social interaction. On paper, it is easy to say that those individuals who immigrant to the United States legally will naturally be easily incorporated into American society. Unfortunately, this turns out not to be the case.
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How are you doing in your grandpa’s country? Labour market performance of Latin American immigrants in Spain

How are you doing in your grandpa’s country? Labour market performance of Latin American immigrants in Spain

Secondly, when Latin American and Caribbean workers are compared to other foreigners, both raw and counterfactual wage gaps are tiny, suggesting that they experience quite similar diffic[r]

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Prevalence of chronic infections and susceptibility to measles and varicella-zoster virus in Latin American immigrants

Prevalence of chronic infections and susceptibility to measles and varicella-zoster virus in Latin American immigrants

This study investigated the largest sample of Latinos immigrants in Europe so far. The community-based re- cruitment and the restriction to infections at the chronic stages offer new clinical and epidemiological insights. For instance, the difference between the 2.4 % overall syphilis seroreactivity in Geneva, with 0.4 % showing active infection, compared to 3.5–6.4 % in Spain, likely reflect the population-based sample as opposed to more selective samples in other studies [7, 20, 24]. In our sam- ple, HBV prevalence was slightly lower than reported in previous studies likely for similar reasons [7, 20, 25]. Dif- ferences were less marked regarding HIV prevalence, which is consistently low among Latinos in Europe as compared to other immigrants groups [7, 20, 22, 26]. Our findings do not support recent recommendations to systematically screen asymptomatic Latino immigrants for HIV, syphilis and HBV [21]. We rather suggest tailor- ing screening strategies according to individual risk assessment for these pathogens.
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Effectiveness and meaning of “low intensity” cognitive behavioural interventions for Latin American immigrants in London

Effectiveness and meaning of “low intensity” cognitive behavioural interventions for Latin American immigrants in London

opportunities and arriving in the UK as a result of the work permit system, to occupy low paid unskilled jobs. The introduction of the visa system in 1997, limitation in asylum claiming, and further tightening of entry requirements have reduced the volume of asylum applications, although many Latinos are choosing to enter the UK illegally (McIlwaine, 2007). Although the US and Spain have traditionally been the first choice for Latino migrants, changes in American immigration policies following the 9/11 terrorist attacks have diverted Latino migration towards Europe (Carlisle, 2006), where, more recently, the current crisis hitting most countries, especially Spain, has forced higher volumes of people to move to the UK. Finally, the latest changes in immigration policy (i.e., highly skilled migrant scheme) have led to an increase of Latinos coming to the UK to undertake further education (McIlwaine, 2007).
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Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

There is no available sampling frame for this population and the proportion of food insecurity among the LAs is unknown. Considering that this was an exploratory study, we recruited a purposive sample of 70 adult LAs using convenience (from selected community health centres (CHCs) in Toronto) and snowball sampling strategies [35], which increased the possibility of recruit- ing recent immigrants who are frequently difficult to reach. A sample of 70 also allowed for preliminary ex- ploration of correlation among variables in our quanti- tative phase of the study. The target population included adults who: 1) were Spanish/Portuguese speak- ers from Central or South America; 2) were 20 years or older; 3) were primary caregivers in charge of house- hold expenses including food purchase; and 4) had immigrated to Canada within the past five years. The study was advertised through posters at selected CHCs; health care professionals at CHCs also referred eligible subjects to the research assistants (RAs), who contacted participants, assessed eligibility, and set a convenient time and place for interviews. Participants received a $10 honorarium.
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HCMV Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis: Impacts of CMVIL-10 in the Tumor Microenvironment

HCMV Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis: Impacts of CMVIL-10 in the Tumor Microenvironment

among real numbers in regards to racial composition of any given area within the United States. Since Latin American immigrants were the focus of this study, there is debate among accountability of documented versus undocumented in terms of available Census data and real percentages of Latinos in the region of focus for this particular study. Due to that fact that undocumented citizens are not generally accounted for in national statistical studies, there is inevitably a difficulty in estimating true numbers of this population. This study remains dedicated to the statistical data available and holds firm to the patterns that were uncovered as a generalized hypothesis for greater residential segregation. This study holds as a base study for future models and if nothing else, estimated Latin American numbers in the region are likely higher, not lower, than what was presented in this study, thus giving these patterns a probable more extreme variance and aid in suggesting the existence of segregation and lack of foreseeable physical integration.
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Immigration and its Impact on U.S Wages and Employment.

Immigration and its Impact on U.S Wages and Employment.

oversimplification that could produce misleading results. First off, to use this approach we would have to assume that immigrants randomly pick spots on the United States map and then move there. This is unlikely and the distribution of Latin American immigrants seems to prove it. Latin American immigrants are highly concentrated in a few major states and specifically a few cities in those states. There are probably two main considerations made when deciding to immigrate to the United States. First, they are likely to move to states and cities that already have high wages. This fact could distort an analysis that compares a high wage and high immigrant state like New York with a low immigrant and low wage state like Idaho. Also, immigrants seem to be more likely to settle into areas that already have lots of immigrants. If these areas are lower wage by some other factors then this could create a downward bias on the impact of immigration on our economy, as the areas with heavily foreign demographics would fall below the control areas. I’m seeking to adjust for this by using changes in wage and changes in the ratio of Latin American immigrants to natives to hopefully eliminate some of the bias. Also, the state economies are going to naturally fluctuate for reasons that have nothing to do with immigration rates. This can also cloud the results. I am including a measurement of the rate of change to per capita GDP to better fit the model.
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Avery Brundage, Pan-American Games, and Entrenchment of the Olympic Movement in Latin America

Avery Brundage, Pan-American Games, and Entrenchment of the Olympic Movement in Latin America

Because of poor health and in spite of all my efforts to continue in the high position to which I was elected, as well as to postpone to the very last moment my retirement, I am now forced to ask you for and undetermined leave of absence from my duties as President of this Pan American Sports Organization. . . . Once more I wish to say that holding the position of President of this Organization has been a source of satisfaction to me. . . . In thanking you – and through you the officials of all the National Olympic Committees affiliated with PASO – for the friendly and total support I was always given, it only remains for me to urge you to continue your incessant efforts to keep and increase the sports unity of our dear Continent. This unity has yielded magnificent results, and is the main reason why the Pan American Games are now regarded as the most important sports event next to the Olympics. May we never lose sight of our aim: the promotion of total implementation in America of the lofty ideals of the Olympic Movement. 55
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The cultural turn? On the "Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies" (1992   2004)

The cultural turn? On the "Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies" (1992 2004)

I think this gives a fair image of the Journal and its intel- lectual context at the time. Of course, by this time historical com- munism had collapsed, sparking a crisis of futuricity associated (but not identical) with postmodernism. Jameson’s foundational work in this respect—Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capital- ism—was published the year before (although its fundamental theses were already well-known from the mid-1980s). Interestingly, although extraordinarily widespread, the term has never been an important one for the Journal. Latin America, meanwhile, was being rocked by debt- crisis, violent civil war, neoliberalism—including the emergence of a powerful illegal capitalism: narco-tráfico and the privatization of public resources—and (the traumas of) post-dictatorship—all, of course, very much Cristóbal Nonato territory. One of the key debates emerging at the time, for example in Punto de vista, as well as in the several volumes of essays dealing with the “fin de siglo,” and associated with the crisis of futuricity mentioned above, was the perceived “fall” of the figure of the intellectual (or, as Gramscians might say, of the “traditional” intellec- tual). As it scanned for popular alternatives, some of the work associated with the Latin American Subaltern Studies Group was also a particular, slightly later inflection of this idea. Taking what is arguably Angel Ra- ma’s weakest essay—La cuidad letrada—as its point of departure, such perspectives also eventually lead, via Edward Saidian accounts of the neo-colonial aspects of Area Studies, to critiques of Latin-Americanism as a whole. Although Néstor García Canclini, Beatriz Sarlo and Jesús Martín-Barbero are not associated with this later set of US-centred ar- guments, they are associated with the conjuncture and regarded as the “founders” of something called “cultural studies” in or of Latin America. At its origins the Journal also shares in this moment, but ex-centrically so to speak—switching between (or even combining) Latin American
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International medical collaboration: lessons from Cuba

International medical collaboration: lessons from Cuba

More recently, the Cubans have offered assistance through the Pan-American Health Organisation to the Brazilian government. In 2013, the Brazilian government requested health professionals to provide healthcare to the most deprived sections of Brazilian’s society [22,23]. Most of the Brazilian doctors work in the large cities of the most economically advanced regions, the South and Southeast regions [23]. In contrast, in less developed parts of Brazil, 12 million people live in municipalities where not even a single doctor is established [24]. The Mais Medicos (More Doctors) programme has involved over 18,000 health professionals providing health care to an estimated 63 million people in remote rural areas and the outskirts of cities [24]. The programme involves over 5000 Brazilian doctors, over 11,000 Cubans and more than 1500 doctors from other countries in the world. It has ensured that every single Brazilian municipality now has a primary care doctor [24] and resulted in a significant increase in medical consultations in deprived regions of Brazil, mostly for general medical care, diabetes, mental health problems and prenatal care [23]. This has resulted in a significant fall in presentations to the emergency departments of hospitals [23].
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Growth and External Financing in Latin America

Growth and External Financing in Latin America

Still, why is it that Latin America received mainly portfolio flows while other emerging markets, such as the Asian crisis countries, received mainly bank loans? Here we venture to suggest one factor that may have been relevant: the creation of a secondary market for sovereign bonds in Latin America as a result of the Brady bond exchange. An unexpected silver lining of the Brady debt reduction, which mostly focused on Latin America, was the creation for the first time of a mass of long-term bonds that needed to be managed and traded. The creation of this market allowed high-risk portfolios to include Latin American risk and made it worthwhile to invest in acquiring information about Latin American markets, which ratcheted up investors’ interest in the region once they became familiar with it. 12
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POL3473-LatinAmericaintheWorld

POL3473-LatinAmericaintheWorld

Most of the topics that will be discussed in this course are traditionally thought of as either comparative politics or international relations, but it will also touch upon themes from U.S. foreign policy. Nevertheless, it should be stressed out that this course is essentially about regional politics more than about U.S. foreign policy or any other specific foreign policy (be it Brazilian, Mexican or Colombian foreign policy.) The focus will be on the diplomatic relations between Latin American countries (that is a systemic or regional approach), especially with regards to global and regional trends. In other words, this is not a course on foreign policy decision-making in the U.S. and Latin America
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Podemos and their Latin American Connection

Podemos and their Latin American Connection

Évole continues the interview by asking him what can Europe learn from Latin American countries such as Bolivia, Ecuador or Uruguay. Iglesias explains that these countries are very different, they have departed from a very different economic situation. They are peripheral countries that started out in situations of extreme poverty that are not comparable, not even with the dramatic situation that Spain faced at that moment. However, in his opinion, their governments have demonstrated an admirable approach to politics. He clarifies that his party is called Podemos because it was always said that their political ideas, such as a tax reform to make the rich pay more, was not attainable. Meanwhile, in these Latin American countries similar opinions were shared but in the end their governments succeeded and implemented different but modest economic policies (again, not specifying which ones) that have led to better salaries, a better quality of life, or situations where Ecuador has invested in research and development, even having Spanish doctors working there that could not find employment in Spain. What Podemos appreciates and values, is this alternative and challenging approach to politics, which demonstrates a strong political will can achieve the desired change against all odds. The interviewer asks him for his favourite policy that Rafael Correa has implemented, and Iglesias answers that for him it would be the small and symbolic gesture that was the prohibition of commissions that banks charged in ATMs. It shows a political style that Iglesias likes, one where the president does not let himself be intimidated by the rich and stands up to financial powers that take advantage of his country's citizens. 72
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The Latin-American Flavor of Enforced Disappearances

The Latin-American Flavor of Enforced Disappearances

disappearances, as a source of innovation and a progenitor both in developing and perfecting this heinous crime as well as in construction of the national, transnational, regional, and international responses to it. In this sense, the first part of this Article, by presenting a “generalized Latin American approach” to enforced disappearances could appear as contradicting the second section of the Article that proposes taking a contextualized approach to disappearances. The Article reconciles the two sections by stating that the Latin American model provides the framework but does not place limits on the ways in which enforced disappearances are perpetrated nor the responses to them. However, despite the similarities and generalizations that we have presented, there are profound dissimilarities between different historical moments in which the disappearances occur, between countries (the methodology used, who the victims or perpetrators were, to name a few) or between sub-regions (with marked differences between the disappearances in the Southern Cone and Central America). Many of the advances, developments, or "wins" have not happened in a uniform manner. Chile
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Latin America Headline News Impact on the Carry Trade

Latin America Headline News Impact on the Carry Trade

We evaluate headline news from three countries within Latin America; Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. Headlines were taken from Bloomberg world news from 1999 to 2011. Headlines were then identified and coded into several categories including; global outlook, peso falls, commentary, DTF index, sell dollars, stocks fall, spending reserves, index falls, index rises, buy debt, inflation, IMF, auction, bond rise and banks profit. Additionally, the news item was associated with whether the currency price was at a local high or a local low in terms of price. After a local high the value of the currency would experience a drop or a decline in value. Conversely, after a local low, the value of the currency would experience an increase in value.
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On booms and busts in Latin American economies

On booms and busts in Latin American economies

This thesis deals with one obsession: the role of external factors in generating boom- bust cycles - periodic structural changes in macroeconomic dynamics - in Latin America, and in particular, Argentina. In view of some pundits, a “double-tailwind” scenario - a combination of low global interest rates and high commodity prices - is currently propelling forward the major South American economies and planting the seeds of the next bust (crisis for the pessimists). This has stirred up the debate about the appropriateness of introducing some form of capital inflow restrictions as a way of isolating domestic economies from the quandaries of external conditions, but the absence of a formal framework on which to ground the analysis makes this debate futile. In the first chapter I contribute to this debate threefold: First, I statistically validate the claim that the region is experiencing a “double-tailwind” scenario. For this purpose, I employ the Expectation Maximization algorithm to separately estimate two Markov switching processes, one for the ex-ante real U.S. interest rate (financial tailwind) and the other for the price of the commodity ex- porting bundle (terms of trade tailwind). The results confirm both the non-linear nature of external shocks and the unique external favourable conditions over the last few years. Second, I introduce a model of a natural resource-rich small open economy (receiving an endowment of tradable goods) with financial frictions (an intratemporal one in the form of a working capital constraint at the firm level and an intertemporal one in the form of an elastic debt risk premium) that operates in an environment with two global stochastic regimes (affecting commodity prices and global interest rates). I label the regime representing the current environment “windfall” and the one forecasting conditions once the situation returns to normal- ity “shortfall”. Then, I simulate a calibrated version of the model and show that a switch to “windfall” produces a boom with similar characteristics to those recently observed in the data. In a sensitivity analysis, I discuss the critical role played by the elasticity of substitution in consumption in characterizing the dynamic transi- tion after a regime switch and, as a consequence, I highlight the deficiencies of the standard one-good model.
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European Community Latin American relations

European Community Latin American relations

The political dialogue which, since September 1987, has been conducted between the EC and the Rfo Group builds on the experience acquired from the San Jose meetings in dealing with the C[r]

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Locating Displacement in Latin American Urbanism

Locating Displacement in Latin American Urbanism

scales (from the street, to the neighbourhood, to the city district and to the whole town), changing social relations; and actually transforming urban living by imposing the capital interests and the aesthetics -shaped by capital- of the upper classes. Our collective research has pushed for a research agenda to specify and politicize the variegation of displacement (expulsion, dispossession, removal, loss of centrality; physical, symbolic, cultural, economic, psychological) and emphasise its interconnection to gentrification. If displacement is conceptualised as a focal point of analysis, then it serves as a chief analytical tool to further politicise anti-gentrification gestures in Latin American cities. In fact in our work we have stressed the importance of paying more attention to the variety of forms of resistance to gentrification and displacement that take place every day in Latin American cities 29 .
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Contested mobilities in the Latin American context

Contested mobilities in the Latin American context

While considerable thought has already been given to both Latin America as a transport innovator and as a site of important new urban contestations little has been done to bring the two issues into conversation This fact became clear to us during early meetings of the Contested Cities Network a European Union FP funded collaboration between scholars in Argentina Brazil Chile Mexico Spain and the UK While initially focused on issues like housing gentrification and public markets these cross border and interdisciplinary dialogues quickly identified transport and mobility as a key site of contestation both physically and subjectively
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