Andrew Lang concludes his monograph on international trade law – without a doubt one of the most important recent contributions to liberal international law scholarship – with the call for ‘the reformulation of a legitimating collective purpose to ground the work of the trade regime’ (Lang, 2011: 347). Having focused in his book on the ‘ideational con- ditions of possibility’ for the development of the world trade law regime over the past seven decades, Lang asserts that this regime finds itself in a ‘crisis of legitimacy’ (Lang, 2011: 313) as a result of challenges raised by various parties including those making human rights claims. International lawyers can and indeed must ‘rescue’ the interna- tional trade regime from this crisis (and presumably from its demise) through the ‘col- lective reimagination’ of its raison d’eˆtre. No explanation as to the necessity of this task being given, one may presume this is for no reason other than that ‘law must be defended’. Lang’s argument thus seems to build on a premise that, whilst outwardly self-conscious, implicitly celebrates the role of lawyers as civilizing agents.
political outlook, he told Balfour on the 25th that 'all this is very dangerous and we must walk warily' . F.E.Smith was more enthusiastic. He acted as Lloyd George's mouthpiece in Unionist circles, having, along with Winston Churchill, been among the first to learn of the Chancellor's plan. As with Churchill, it was 'a religious conversion', a golden opportunity to solve all the problems and deficiencies of state, and for them to jump over many heads (the "duffers" as Smith described them) into high office. One of the first he sought out was Bonar Law whom he found sympathetic33. He also pressed Chamberlain, writing on the 20th that 'to refuse this offer at this crisis would almost be a crime against the Empire'3*. Smith argued strongly that to give way on Ireland (to grant federal Home Rule) would enable the party to gain much:- National Service, big Navy, Fiscal reform, closer Colonial ties, cooperation on social reform and Poor Law reform. Nor was Chamberlain unreceptive, writing back: 'I have never been averse in principle to very considerable changes in Irish government and I see that it would be safe and wise to go further as part of a National settlement'33. Smith also wrote to Balfour on the 30th: 'I do not think in the history of England such terms have ever been offered to a beaten party and I am confident that in accepting them you would carry with you the country and the party'33. This he sweetened with a more partisan thought: 'if you agreed tomorrow to the terms offered in conference it would smash the Liberal party. The extremists of Labour will never give us concern'37. Smith was clearly eager to move his leaders towards Lloyd George's plan. But of particular
However, the immediate prospects for increased political stability and better policy delivery in Ukraine are not good. Although Yanukovych leads a much stronger party than Yushchenko, only 48.9 percent of voters backed him. Tymoshenko lost a vote of no confidence on March 3, creating yet more instability. According to the constitution, a new coalition had to be made up of party groups, but Yanukovych could not persuade his most likely partner, Yushchenko’s former supporters in the ‘Our Ukraine’ group, to agree to join him by majority vote (36 out of 72 MPs), as the group is now leaderless and highly fractured. Yanukovych forced through a special law allowing him to rely on individual defectors instead. But bribery and threatening the opposition’s business supporters are not a stable basis for long-term government, especially with Tymoshenko crying foul in vocal opposition. Thus, although the presidential election produced a clear winner and a new government has now been formed, it does not have a strong mandate. The government will be dominated by figures such as Prime Minister Mykola Azarov, who was notorious for abusing the tax system to reward friends and punish enemies when Yanukovych held the same office in 2006-07, and Yuriy Boiko and Serhiy Liovochkin, who oversaw questionable practices in the gas industry at the same time. A positive sign, on the other hand, is that Serhiy Tihipko, who has a reputation for economic competence and appeals to Ukraine’s small- and medium-sized business sector, has joined the new government as deputy prime minister in charge of the economy.
In another book, Cock Lane and Common-Sense (1894)» Lang relates the widely-known story of the Cock Lane ghost reported in 1726 by London newspapers, and the explanations which were given for it by 'Common- Sense'. The heroine is a certain Miss Fanny L. known as 'Scratching Fanny' after her death. A Mr K marries a Miss E.L. in Norfolk in 1756. The young wife dies in childbirth and eleven months later Miss Fanny, the younger sister of his deceased wife becomes his housekeeper. Mr IC falls in love with Fanny and she 'shared his flame*. Church law makes marriage impossible. Mr K fled from Fanny but she followed him to town. So they live together in Cock Lane, Smithfield, in the house of a certain Mr Parsons. While Mr K goes to a wedding in the country Fanny stays at home and asks Elizabeth, a daughter of Mr Parsons, to share her bed. They both hear the first 'scratchings and rappings*. These noises recur frequently and malce life a misery for the young couple. Fanny dies and eighteen months later noises return, seemingly from Elizabeth's bedroom. The spirit that produced these noises 'revealed' some secrets and among them was the murder of Fanny by Mr K.
hail from my office, Abramowitz and Cohen. She said that Jewish businessmen were calling frantically all day yesterday and today, and that Abramowitz was telling them not to worry, that the government would more than cover all their losses under one of the provisions of the Horowitz Act. I looked up the law, and sure enough there’s a clause in it which stipulates triple reimbursement of all losses suffered by any member of an identifiable minority group as a result of a ‘racist act.’ Ordinarily the reimbursement is made from the confiscated assets of the perpetrator of the act, but whenever the perpetrator is unknown or for any other reason cannot be made to pay the government pays the victim instead. Abramowitz was assuring his callers that the fix was in, that all losses suffered by Jews would be attributed to the deliberate ‘racist’ targeting of Jews by the rebels, that they would qualify as members of an identifiable minority, and that they would get triple reimbursement. The funny thing, the secretary told me, was that when the Jews heard this from Abramowitz some of them became even more upset. One wailed that he had just filed inventory figures for his jewelry store last week. If he had known the rebellion was coming he would have placed at least twice the valuation on his stock. He was inconsolable. Another was moaning that the Blacks had only smashed the display windows of his clothing store and grabbed a few coats, instead of burning the place down. And he was afraid to go back and torch the place himself!”
Scientists of all civilization, who existed until today, examined the human body using anthropometric methods. For these reasons, anthropometric data are used in many contexts to screen for or monitor disease. Anthropometry, a branch of morphometry, is the study of the size and shape of the components of biological forms and their variations in populations . Among the works of Andrew Ehrenberg was the propounding of the Ehrenberg's Law-like Equation which sought to establish a relationship between the weight and height of secondary school students within given age ranges. This equation has been shown to be effective in different countries provided the conditions are strictly obeyed. Due to its law-like nature, the equation is not merely a summary of a specific set of data or a simple correspondence. Unlike other equations of the physical sciences (and others), the Ehrenberg’s equation must hold under the given conditions. To this effect, extrapolation may prove ineffective outside the range of ages.
agreed, was to arm ourselves and then to find a better hideout. Our unit-that is, the four of us-leased this apartment under a false name nearly six months ago, just to have it available when we needed it. (We just beat the new law which requires a landlord to furnish the police with the social security number of every new tenant, just like when a person opens a bank account.) Because we've stayed away from the apartment until now, I'm sure the political police haven't connected any of us with this address. But it's too small for all of us to live here for any length of time, and it doesn't offer enough privacy from the neighbors. We were too anxious to save money when we picked this place.
These three sources share a common theme of a warm and fuzzy feeling toward Andrew Johnson and his attempts at unification, but also contain some distinct differences. Most notably, McKitrick, more than Beale and Milton, criticizes the work of revisionists that came before him. These are the historians that began to notice the flaws in Johnson’s judgment, and his inability to completely and wholly unify the nation due to his utter racism. This retroactive view on Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction exemplifies the revival of racist feelings during the Civil Rights movements in the 1960s. Yet, McKitrick’s writings in his book are even more ignorant than the writings of Beale and Milton. Despite full access to the facts of Johnson’s discriminatory
As discussed in Chapter 4, victim interviews were unable to be conducted in the ACT or Victoria. It is therefore not possible for this research to compare the difference in experiences or outcomes for victims from the jurisdictions where the onus is on the police or prosecution agency to provide information to victims. However, as quoted above, Victorian Victim Support Officer Trish noted that in her experience, victims are not communicated with regularly, and feel left out of the loop. This suggests that there may still be problems with the implementation of informational rights even in jurisdictions where the legislation places the onus on agencies to keep victims informed. This is also reflected by a recent report from the Victorian Law Reform Commission, which revealed that the Commission was told ‘by a parent whose child had been killed, that she was not informed of sentencing hearing dates and was therefore not able to attend.’ 556
proportionate to their strength; but that custom has given them what can hardly be distinguished from a legal right to settle certain questions as they please, the smaller states being obliged to acquiesce in their decisions. 92 The great powers used the occasional meetings of the Concert of Europe to resolve standing questions threatening the general peace. 93 The Concert met in various forms prior to 1878, not as a formally organized body, but ad hoc. Despite the lack of formality to the system, the geopolitical weight behind its great power members, and the role they assigned to the Concert in resolving questions, lent authority to it as an institution. Diplomats saw the Concert of Europe as possessing both legislative and judicial powers, as well as being capable of enforcing its decisions. 94 Without judging the morality of this evolution, it was hoped that a system of the great powers could eventually evolve into a true international institution. 95 These assessments were not based on a sanguine view of the great powers’ motivations, but merely a realistic appraisal of their role in international society. Moreover, the Security Council of the United Nations has since evolved to fulfill a similar function within international law. At its heart was the understanding that law had to reflect existing power structures. This is not to say law merely abdicated its place to politics, as law could also slow the drift of states into
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Andrew was the only redeeming feature about this marathon event—a life raft that would stop Luke from sinking into a mire of aunties and babies and toddlers and pain-in-the-neck cousins who think they know everything about fishing. He could go exploring with Andrew. Andrew had a detailed map of the forest area around the lake and further beyond into the numerous hills and gullies scored by rivers and small streams. The novelty of Andrew’s metal detector was never far from Luke’s mind
Of the endless billions of images our brains register in a life-time, only a handful stay with us. They haunt our imagination, in ways that are almost unaccountable. These constitute art. While we recognize them intuitively, we are hard pressed to explain them or to explain why most of the images we see or hear make hardly any impression on us at all. No amount of special pleading on behalf of any of these orphaned images makes barely any difference either. Ask record pluggers or any of the vast army of arts marketers. Even the most neglected great works will find a place belatedly in the pantheon, while most of what pretends to art invariably ends up in oblivion. So what is it that makes that tiny handful of images that we recognize as art, and that abide with us through life, art after all? Why that handful, and not others? Why is art so unjust in favoring so few? Andrew Benjamin is one of those rare critics who has some very illuminating things to say about this matter. His close observations of artworks yield some exceptional insights. He can explain why certain works function as art in a way that most works aspiring to that status do not. In other words, he explains the cruel selectivity of the artworld.
Resolving the tension between these two images of legality, for Koskenniemi, revolves around the certainty in the source of the command. Abraham had it, but from an outside perspective scepticism – and a pragmatic ethic of rule-following – looks like the far sounder proposition. This is doubly true for international law where there is plenty of available evidence for law’s human and institutional fallibility, of those occasions where a willingness to sacrifice in order to further the rule of international law, a willingness to set aside subjective interests for the common good of the international order, has generated hypocrisy and disappointment as the costs of obeying rises, as law is used to cloak power, and as other states fail to adopt the same level of commitment. Faith might have traction as a motivation and a justification at the personal level, but where it is presented as a publically authoritative reason for action, it is not unreasonable to require a better standard of proof that international law establishes a superior form of judgement to that established through the political life of sovereign states. In fact, as Koskenniemi argues, international lawyers tend to recognize the flaws in blindly believing in the virtue of international law, professing a strategic faith in the certainty and objectivity of international law while at the same time espousing a contrary belief that to play with the rules, to disagree about the rules, is a legitimate practice, a responsible practice because the nature of international legality is fundamentally contested. Once these tensions are cashed out, it becomes clear, he thinks,
the United States regarding a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention Tobacco Control Act of 2009 (US), which banned clove cigarettes, but excluded menthol-flavoured cigarettes from the ban. Indonesia claimed that the provision was inconsistent with GATT, Article 2 of the TBT Agreement, and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. 140 A Panel report was released in September 2011 and an Appellate report in April 2012. Professor Tania Voon has summarised the WTO Appellate Report, 141 observing that ‘this decision makes clear that WTO Members implementing tobacco-control measures and other labelling and packaging requirements must refrain from discriminating in law or fact against imports, except to the extent that such discrimination arises “exclusively from a legitimate regulatory distinction”’. 142 Professor Lawrence Gostin lamented: ‘What is most
This study represents an important first foray into the views and experiences of Scottish construction industry participants relative to mediation. Further research is required to shed more significant light on the findings unearthed here. In short, however, we can note that at the industry user level, and in respect of smaller firms at least, mediation may remain largely unnoticed, its potential unrealised. Take up is low and sophisticated awareness of the process and the benefits it can reap for participants scant. Much effort thus far in Scotland and across the UK has been expended selling mediation to lawyers through educational drives, conferences, seminars and training. Such endeavours targeting undoubted key players in mediation’s development are useful and continuing evidence of the same can be seen, for example, through the recent Law Society of Scotland’s, “Embedding ADR in Civil Justice” conference and associated drives by the Society to promote the process. 23 While lawyers may often act as gatekeepers to dispute resolution
In turning to the associated short-run coefficients and error correction terms for these significant panels as reported in Tables 4 and 5, respectively, we firstly highlight that all panels obtain negative and highly statistically significant estimates for the short-run coefficients. Similar findings of a negative coefficient estimate are found in the study of Chipaumire et al. (2014). Moreover, all ‘significant’ panel regressions produce error correction terms which have the correct negative and statistically significant estimates hence implying reversion back to steady-state equilibrium in the face of an exogenous shock to the system. What can be collectively drawn from our empirical exercise is that while Wagner’s law only holds for South African provinces over the long-run, such effects o not exist over the short-run where government size is negatively correlated with economic growth or it’s variant measures. However, our analysis also shows that Wagner’s law only holds if the GP,
Andrew McMichael qualified in Medicine before doing a PhD in Immunology with Ita Askonas and Alan Williamson in the 1970s. His research during this time and later work done in his group has made a major contri- bution to our understanding of T-cell-mediated immunity against viral infections. Initially he worked on the immune response to influenza, but latterly studying the T cell re- sponse against HIV has been a major focus, and his group has designed and tested two candidate HIV vaccines in phase I clinical trials. Based through most of his research career in Oxford, he was knighted in 2008 for services to medical sciences, and has just completed 12 years as Director of the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine. In this 30 th year since the discovery of HIV as the cause of AIDS, we asked Sir Andrew to give us his per- sonal perspective on the progress towards a vaccine.