Table 8 shows the varying inclusion level of Lawsoniainermisleaf meal (LILM) on the serum biochemical parameters of broiler chicken at finisher phase. Serum protein is the total amount of protein in the blood in which albumin is the most abundant. Albumin helps keep the blood from leaking out of blood vessels as well as to carry some medicines and other substances through the blood that is important for tissue growth and healing. Low total protein levels can suggest a liver disorder, a kidney disorder, or a disorder in which protein is not digested or absorbed properly. The increased level of total protein concentrations observed at T 4 is an
The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumour activity of Lawsoniainermisleaf extract on DMBA induced 2-stage skin carcinogenesis and B16F10 melanoma tumour model. Topical single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) at the dose of 4 mg/kg b. wt. followed by 1% croton oil for 16 weeks in Swiss albino mice. Topical application of L. inermisleaf extract at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight was found to be effective in decreasing the number of the papillomas. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in tumor incidence 66% was observed in animals in the L. inermisleaf extract treated group compared with 100% tumor incidence in the control group. The cumulative number of papillomas during an observation period of 16 weeks was significantly reduced 10 in the L. inermisleaf extract treated group respectively as compared with a 21 cumulative number of papillomas in the control group. The tumor yield was significantly decreased 1.6 respectively as compared with the DMBA treated control group 3.5. Histopathological examination showed well and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in this group which received the DMBA + Croton oil treatment. When the L. inermis extract was applied along with the DMBA and Croton oil malignant tumours were not seen as compared to DMBA + Croton oil group. In the case of this histopathology report suggest in these animals were having papillomatous hyperplasia, papilloma, extracellular keratin and epithelial hyperplasia with mild displasia was reported and the remaining animals showed the normal skin. In a second experiment the effect of cyclophosphamide alone and in combination with L. inermis was studied in B16F10 melanoma tumour bearing mice. The Inhibition rate was 25.9% in the CP treated group but these increased to 35.14% with L. inermis. The life span time and volume of tumour doubling time were also increased. Thus in two models, L. inermis extract exerted protective potential against skin tumour.
Due to the injudicious use of antimicrobial agents drug resistance has become more common leading to the search of alternative drugs. From the time of immemorial noble inorganic metal oxides such as silver and copper has been used as antimicrobials.  Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are highly stable and nontoxic.  The nanoparticles produced by the plants were found to be more stable and the rate of synthesis was also faster than chemically synthesized nanoparticles.  Extracts from plant may act both as reducing and capping agents in case of synthesizing nanoparticles. Lawsoniainermis commonly known as henna has been used as a cosmetic applied to hands and feet and also as a traditional medicine. In the present investigation TiO 2 NP were synthesised using aqueous leaf extract of Lawsoniainermis and
Use of plant based drugs for curing various diseases is as old as human civilization. Plant based medicines are the base of many of the modern pharmaceuticals we used today. The aim of the study was to find out the active constituents of Petroleum ether, chloroform, benzene, acetone, methanol and aqueous leaf and seed extract of Eucalyptus citriodora and Lawsoniainermis. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed for the detection of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, carbohydrates, saponins, tannins and volatile oils. Flavonoids, carbohydrates and tannins present in petroleum ether, acetone extract of Lawsoniainermisleaf. Chloroform and acetone extract shows the presence of volatile oils whereas steroids were found only in acetone and methanol extract of L. inermisleaf. Alkaloids are totally absent in all leaf as well as seed extract of L. inermis. Tannins were found to be present in all extracts of Eucalyptus citridora. Flavonoids, steroids and volatile oils are present in almost all extracts of E. citridora leaf and seeds.
The variation of the susceptibility of microorganisms towards the L. inermis leaves extract could be attributed to the presence of bio-active phytochemicals and their intrinsic properties that are related to the permeability to the cell surface of micro-organisms . Due to the emergence of the antibiotic resistant pathogens, medicinal plants have found the better platform and could be excellent alternates to combat the spread of multi drug resistant micro- organisms [2-5]. Thus, the results from the present study are quite convenient, and L. inermis leaves extract would be taking into consideration to the interesting promise of designing a potentially active antibacterial synergized agent of plant origin.
of α- and β- ionones; a nitrogenous compound and resin. Seeds contain proteins (5.0 %), carbohydrates (33.62 %), fibers (33.5 %), fatty oils (10- 11 %) composed of behenic acid, arachidic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid. The unsaponified matter contains waxes and colouring matter. The root contains a red colouring matter. Phytochemicals reported in L. inermis L. are listed in Table 2 with their structures.
Albino mice of weight between18 and 22 g are used.Animals were divided into four (I-ІV) groups, each group comprised of 6 animals. Group I - a negative control and was given vehicle (2% tween 80), p.o. Group II- positive control and was treated with standard drug, diazepam (2mg/kg, orally), dispersed in distilled water containing vehicle. Group III & ІV - test groups and were given L. inermis 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. At the start of the test, mouse was placed in the edge of the board. The number of nose poking into the holes during a 5 minutes period is taken as the measurement. It was measured by visual observation prior and 60, 120 and 180 minutes after drug administration. 6-11
Arsenic in water systems is mostly introduced from natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include the erosion of arsenic-rich rocks and soils, which probably occur because of long-term geochemical changes. Arsenic removal from contaminated water is an important subject worldwide, which has recently attracted great attentions. Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid, which is widely distributed in nature and is regarded as the largest mass poisoning in history. In the present study, the adsorption potential of plant carbon in a batch system for the removal of As(V) from aqueous solutions was investigated. Isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of contact time (30-180 min), pH (1–6), initial arsenic concentration (10-60 μg/L), and adsorbent dose on sorption efficiency. Maximum removal efficiency of 90% was obtained at pH 6, adsorbent dosage 150g/L, initial As(V) concentration 10 μg/L, and contact time 180 at 30 °C to 60 °C, respectively. Also, the adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Such equilibriums showed that the adsorption data was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model for Lawsoniainermis carbon at 30 °C to60 °C . According to achieved results, it was defined that Lawsoniainermis carboncan be used effectively for As(V) removal from the aqueous environment.
The high cost of conventional anesthetics and the deleterious effects of prevailing chemical sedatives used in aquaculture have justified the search for natural plant alternative that is cosmopolitan, biodegradable, less toxic with short withdrawal period, and economically affordable. The Phytochemical, proximate and sedative properties of the aqueous crude leaf extract of Lawsoniainermis and its effect on the opercula ventilation rate in Tilapia zilli fingerlings were conducted using standard procedures. Mixed sexed fingerlings of T. zilli of mean weight and length of 42.64 ± 0.82 g and 11.14 ± 0.22 cm respectively were randomly distributed in batches of five fish/per experimental tank. The tank with no test material (0.00g/L) served as the control; while, tanks with test materials at concentrations of 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00 and 3.50g/L served as test tanks. The qualitative phytochemical analyses of L. inermis revealed the presence of varying proportions of alkaloid, tannin, saponins, cardiac glycosides phenolic and resins, while, the proximate composition includes moisture content (33.2%), crude lipid (12.0%), ash (29.9%), crude fibre (21%), crude protein (3.38%) and nitrogen free extracts (0.52%). There was significant (p<0.05) dose- dependent increase in the induction of sedation and recovery time of T. zilli exposed to L. inermis aqueous crude Leaf extract as well as marked dose-related decrease in the opercula ventilation rate compared to the control group. No mortality was recorded at low concentrations of 1.50-2.50g/L of the plant extract; in contrast with 50 and 100% mortalities in concentrations of 3.00 and 3.50g/L respectively. In conclusion, the present investigation revealed that L. inermis aqueous crude leaf extract seemed to contain diverse phytochemical constituents that caused sedation with adverse consequences on fish opercula ventilation.
This Study was planned to investigate the different concentrate gradient formulation of Lawsoniainermis and Azadirachta indica in Naproxen & Histamine induced model. In Naproxen induced model the test formulation of Azadirachta indica & Lawsoniainermis (F1) was significant and reduced the ulcer area to 2.4±0.12 mm 2 which is very near to standard . The test drug in F2 potency also significantly reduced the total ulcer area upto 3.58±0.11 mm 2 . The test formulation was found insignificant in F3 and F4. But Formulation F5 had extraverted the ulcer area upto an great extent to 30.41±0.21 mm 2 and is completely insignificant. In Histamine induced ulcer model states that the total ulcerative area in control (no drug ) group was 10.65±0.06 mm 2 whereas in standard (Ranitidine) group it significantly reduced to 2.71±0.12 mm 2 . The test formulation of Azadirachta indica & Lawsoniainermis F1, F2 and F3 were
Increase of resistance by the pathogenic bacteria to chemotherapeutic agents appears to be a continuous process since the discovery of antibiotics . Researchers have recognized the importance and power of medicinal plants as potential sources of antibacterial herbal remedies to compete with antibiotics that may also be of lower cost and minor toxicity . Urinary tract infection is one of the essential causes for seeking medical attention in the community . The correct and proper treatment of patients with urinary tract infection depends on the type of organism involved in the infection and the selection of an effective antibiotic agent to the organism and the choice of appropriate antibiotics to the organism . The present study investigated the antibacterial potential of medicinal plant, Lawsoniainermis methanol extract against common gram negative and gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Antibacterial activity of the extract was compared with common antibiotics used in urinary tract infections. Escherichia coli was the main etiological agent in causing Urinary tract infection and the most frequent uropathogens were Gram negatives which made up 98% of all the isolates. Most resistant antibiotics were Cefazolin, Ampicillin, Vancomycin and Nitrofurantoin. Methanol extract of Lawsoniainermis showed good antimicrobial potential against all uropathogen bacterial isolates. Efforts have been devoted over the past years to the search of new antibacterial constituents from natural sources . Habbal et al. showed Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates . In this study, the well diffusion method was used. It is certainly the most suitable way of evaluating the antibacterial effects of plant extracts because the extracts can diffuse more easily into the culture media. Results of Valgas et al. showed that agar well diffusion method proved to be more sensitive than disc diffusion method . Lawsoniainermis (Henna) is widely used in Iran, such as its application in cosmetic, fever treatment, anti-inflammatory and for treating mouth ulcers [4, 19]. In conclusion, our results showed that the plant extract of methanol extract of Lawsoniainermis possesses potential antibacterial activity against uropathogen bacteria and the extract can be considered as a good candidate for in vivo treatment of urinary tract infections.
The isolated naphthoquinone fraction of Lawsoniainermis is characterized by HPTLC analysis using LINOMET 5 applicator and CAMAG 3 scanner with the help of Wincat software. The chromatograms were developed using toluene: acetone: acetic acid (9: 1: 0.1) as solvent system at 254nm and 366 nm and are compared with the chromatograms developed by synthetic lawsone. The chromatograms of isolated naphthoquinone fraction and synthetic lawsone are found to be similar. The chromatograms of isolated naphthoquinone fraction and synthetic lawsone are given in Figure 1, 2, 3 and 4 and the peaks value are given in Table 1. Rf of spot on isolated naphthoquinone extract of Lawsoniainermis track matches with the Rf value of spot of std. Lawsone. The UV spectrum of spot present on isolated naphthoquinone fraction track and lawsone track are similar to each other.
www.wjpr.net Vol 4, Issue 4, 2015. 945 The present study was conducted to compare the antimicrobial activity from four different seeds of the plants Glycine max, Crotalaria juncea, Adenanthera pavonina, Lawsoniainermis against Xanthomonas oxanopodis pv. punicae. This obligatory pathogen is reported to be the reason behind 50 to 100% crop loss of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) in India. In Karnataka specially pomegranate growing regions like Tumkur and Shira has have reported 100% crop loss in 2010 and caused huge yield and market loss. Since pomegranate and its allied products have a worldwide market and spreading of this decease can cause huge damage as there is no chemical counter measures are reported to prevent or control the decease. So it is the need of the hour to solve this critical problem before it reaches other parts of the world. The present work had been carried out in Laboratory, under DBT, plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the potential of plant extracts on standard microorganism strain, and investigate the synergistic effects of extracts with antimicrobial activity.
The modified Graham condensing models were used to carry out solvent extraction of Lawsoniainermis (lallebature) plant leaves. The leave was washed with water to removed dirt and other adhering materials, then dried in a tray drier at 40˚C for 48 hours and finely ground with the help of a grinding machine. 20g of the ground Lawsoniainermis (lallebature) was wrapped in thimble, placed inside 500ml soxhlet extractors. The four soxhlet extractors were fitted or connected with four 500ml round bottom flasks which served as the reservoir for the concentration. About 300ml of the solvent (acetone) was poured through the soxhlet opening to allow the samples and the solvent to saturate in the extracting chamber. The four sets of the condensers were connected vertically under reflux position at 50 ° C and operated concurrently, the temperature was allowed to gradually build up to boiling point of the organic solvent and extraction time of 6 hours was set for all the samples. Acetone was used as the organic solvent and water as the coolant flowed through the hose which was connected from the water
Human fungal infections are uncommon in healthy persons. However in immunodeficient persons a no. of mild or non pathogenic fungi can cause fatal infection. Aspergillus can infect lungs, inner ear sinuses. Infection caused by it called as aspergillosis. Candida is normal flora but can infect immune compromised host. It is leading cause of nosocomial infection. It’s infection is called as candidosis. Cryptococcus cause systemic infection like meningitis. Constant exposure to fungal spores of it in atmosphere can also induce respiratory allergies. Commonly it is called as cryptococcosis. Fungal infection that is mycoses are still difficult to treat by drug treatment. Being eukaryotes fungi are not amenable to treat with antibiotics. In present investigation the antifungal activity of Nigella sativa and Lawsoniainermis were tested on different strains of fungi such as Candida, Aspergillus and Cryptococcus. The antifungal activity is tested by disc diffusion method. The activity of both is compared and it is found that aqueous extract of Lawsoniainermis has better activity than Nigella sativa.
The Ames test to check the non- mutagenicity of the Lawsoniainermis is carried out using the standard protocol of Maron and Ames (14). Tester strains used were Salmonella histidine auxotrophs TA98 and TA1535. Non- mutagenicity of the extracted Lawsoniainermis of present study are subjected to the Ames test. Different concentrations (0.312, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml) of LiAqE was prepared and incubated. The response of LiAqE was compared with control and the plates were evaluated and number of revertant colonies was tabulated .
Kattumoringai Fifteen to twenty grams of fresh leaves are made into a paste along with two to three grams of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and five grams of vellaipoondu (Allium sativum L.). This paste is taken in the early morning hours in empty stomach once in a day for a period of three to four days to treat jaundice. During this treatment one bucketful of cold water is poured on the head of the patients. One teaspoonful of fresh leaf juice is given to children in a single dose to treat bowel disorder.
Oxidative stress has become widely viewed as an underlying condition of most prevalent human aliments including cancer. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of three medicinal plants, grown in Sudan, namely, Ambrosia maritima L., Aristolochia bracteolata L. and Lawsoniainermis L., widely held in traditional practice and reputed to cure tumor. Extraction of the active morphological plants' parts was commenced with dichloromethane then 80 % methanol. The antioxidant activity and phytochemical profile were conducted via 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and preliminary phytochemical screening, respectively. Lawsoniainermis MeOH extract ranked the top DPPH active extract (% RSA= 86 ± 0.07%). Other methanolic plants' extracts, except A.bracteolata branches, reported a good antioxidant activity (% RSA > 50 %). Preliminary phytochemical screening of the candidate extracts revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, sterols and tannins. Thus, A. maritima, A. bracteolata and L. inermis by virtue of their antioxidant potential may support their ethnomedicinal uses as antitumor agents.
Toxicological evaluation of Lawsoniainermis extract The experiments of acute toxicity in animals were per- formed in the animal house of Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan after the approval of departmental ethical com- mittee. Each of the two groups comprised of 10 male al- bino mice (weighing 150-200 g) were used to evaluate the acute toxicity of Lawsoniainermis ethanol extract. The animals were housed in cages and served with proper diet according to the international standards. One group was administered with ethanol extract of Lawsoniainermis (300 mg/Kg) and other group with equal volume of vehicle (DMSO) daily through subcuta- neous route for 2 weeks by subcutaneous injection. The animals were continuously observed for signs of toxi- dromes such as aggression, sedation, rising fur, increased respiration, altered cardiac rate, excitation, convulsion, stupor, vomiting, etc. or death in first 2 hours and then after 24 hours.
Preparation of leaf extracts: The sample was cleaned from dust, washed with water, chopped, and dried at room temperature for one week. The dried material was made powder by using grinding machine, and stored in airtight glass bottle until used. The dry powdered sample material (15)g was extracted with 100ml of water ,ethanol, and methanol separately .The contents were kept as such in room temperature for 48h with constant stirring at regular intervals After the incubation period, the contents were filtered through Whatman No.1 filter paper. Then filtrate were vacuum dried using rotary evaporator and concentrates were stored at 4°C.The residues were redissolved with the appropriate solvents from which they were prepared and used for further studies.