Recently, various coupling schemes have been proposed to achieve a high couplingefficiency between the silicon waveguide and SMF. One approach could be the use of a one-dimensional or two-dimensional grating structure to couple light from an SOI waveguide into a fiber, which has the advantage of not requiring polished facets for coupling –. Nevertheless, a grating- based coupling is inherently limited in spectral bandwidth, which also needs a vertical/tilted fiber- alignment. Another approach could be the use of lenses, either bulk-optic lenses or a lensed fiber , , but lenses require multiple anti-reflection (AR) coatings and complicated rigid packaging. In addition, disadvantages of using lensed fiber are of critical fabrication process and small align- ment tolerance. Another approach is to integrate a taper spot-size converter (SSC) into the PIC system  – . A 3-D taper structure can adiabatically transform the mode of an SOI waveguide to the fiber mode. However, the fabrication of a vertical taper requires gray scale lithography, which is not compatible with the standard CMOS process. An inverted taper using CMOS technol- ogy can make an adiabatic taper structure, while requires a thick buried oxide layer. Furthermore, the taper based SSC often has inherent loss, which is also suffer from the tip end reflection , . Therefore, the efficient coupling of the silicon nanophotonic waveguide into optical fiber is still a challenge.
2. PROPOSED DEVICE CONFIGURATION Transmitting signal from surface devices (VCSEL/PD) to multi-layer channel mounted on an OPWB needs both high optical couplingefficiency and easy alignment device. Given these circumstances, we propose optical coupling device with vertical optical coupling pillar called “optical pin” patterned by (SWW) with mask-transfer method. The cross sectional view of our proposed optical coupling device structure is shown in Figure 1. These optical pins coved with cladding resin can passively grow using SWW and precisely aligned at the end of channel with the mask-transfer methods. The SWWs and the circular windows of the photomask aperture and optical waveguide channels of the OPWB were precisely aligned under an optical microscope.
layer stack, an inhomogeneous intermediate layer with effective refractive index amid the two layers is formed and a graded refractive index AR coating is achieved, which has a substantial effect on broad, omnidirectional reduction of the reflection spectra. To validate our claim, the proposed structure as well as four conventional AR coatings are simulated and through the numerical analysis of both the spectral response of the reflection factor and the silicon active layer absorption spectra, it is shown that the proposed design outperforms conventional already existing AR coatings, and in addition provides a strong coupling of the incident light to the active layer, while improving the overall efficiency of the thin-film solar cell.
Among the non-conventional charge transport mechanisms recently described to explain phenomena occurring in LbL films, an important contribution came from Schlenoff´s group, who studied LbL films with polyelectrolyte multilayers containing electrochemically active units [184,188,208]. Some important features were highlighted in their work: first, when the distance between a redox active layer and the electrode is varied by interposing non-electrochemically active layer pairs, the material within the redox active layer can be distributed over a distance of several layers, in this case 2.5 layer pairs. The electroactivity of the topmost layer can be determined through Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). According to Schlenoff´s studies, the electron transport is facilitated because alternating polyelectrolyte layers are highly interpenetrating, and at least four layer pairs are required to fully insulate one redox active layer from another. In this case, no salt ions were detected in multilayers. Another point in Schlenoff`s findings was that the redox active material is electrochemically addressable throughout the multilayer via electron hopping between neighboring sites, according to the scheme in Figure 2.
CS3:CS3 Introduce new tools and features from previous versions. One of the most important streamlined interface which allows to increased interface, efficiency and speed. CS3 support over150 Raw formats as well as JPEG, TIFF, PNG and PDF (1). CS3 and CS3 Extended released in US and Canada. They were also available on adobe online store and authorize Adobe Reseller. Both products are compatible with Intel based Macs and Power PCs, supporting windows XP, Windows Vista. CS3 is the first Release of Photoshop that will run natively on Macs with Intel Processor (1).
The link failure problem can be overcome by using cross layer approach and DSR. The DSR protocol is used because the source itself chooses the path to transfer the data to destination and it sense the ROUTE-REQUEST packet from source and to receive the ROUTE-REPLY packet from destination. Cross layer approach makes use of both routing and MAC layer information to reduce congestion, increase packet delivery ratio and minimize the energy usage.
tionalized structure could promote all of these processes. In this study, using alkali treatment, hydroxyl-rich porous nanostructured structures were constructed on the surface of pure titanium. The biofunctionalized PEMs with PEI as the excitation layer and gelatin/chitosan loaded with IGF1 was prepared on the surface of titanium implant by LBL self-assembly technique. According to the isoelectric point of IGF1, they were mixed into chitosan at concentrations of 50 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL, and layers were successfully self- assembled layer by layer to form two PEMs with different concentrations of IGF1. Existing research have shown that hydrophilicity of the material can also affect the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of cells on the surface of the material. 19,20 In this study, we revealed that the hydrophilicity
Through the research and analysis of the results of CET, we build the model to provide the reasonable proposals to the English teaching and the college students for their preparation for CET. Because after the reform the English practical ability has become the focus of the exams, the pass rate of students who haven’t passed the exams has been predicted on the basis of the current candidate's ability. We establish a mathematical model of CET scores for college students and use AHP to implement the quantitative analysis to draw clear and convincing conclusion. Then the hierarchical CET problems can be got. The top layer (Target Layer) is increasing CET scores; the middle layer (Guidelines Layer) includes writing, listening, reading, and translation; the bottom layer (Plan Layer) includes doing the old test papers, watching foreign movies, reading English magazines, communication with foreigners, and listening to English songs.
IP is the protocol that holds the whole TCP/IP protocol suite architecture together. The data of the protocols in all of the layers of the TCP/IP protocol stack, except the data- link layer, are transmitted as IP datagrams. IP allows hosts to inject packets into the data- link layer, which eventually puts them on the physical network and has them travel on potentially different networks to their final destination. IP offers a connectionless service. In connectionless services, each message or datagram carries the full destination address, and is routed independently of the other datagrams. With connectionless services, it is possible for the datagrams to arrive at their destination in different order that they were sent. This is not possible with connection-oriented services, since the latter is like a telephone system which establishes a connection or a path from the host to the destination uses the path to send data, and then releases the connection after the data transmission is completed.
Special Field Model Layer. It’s used to clas- sify messages from specific field, such as movie, music, app and so on. It will use more specific features than general model. For example, in app field, ê and a • are negative ap- praisal for app’s stability. These words are very strong features for special field model. But they
Granata, J., Sites, J., Contreras-Puente, G., and Compaan, A. (1996). Effect of CdS thickness on CdS/CdTe quantum efficiency [solar cells]. Paper presented atthe Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1996., Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE.
Explanation: Tunneling creates encrypted links over unsecure public networks such as the Internet and allows for sending regular traffic through those secure links. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) and Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) are examples of tunneling protocols. PPTP runs on port number 1723, L2TP uses port 1701. Creating a logical, restricted-use network with the use of encryption and tunneling protocols over physical, public network links is the main idea behind Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). Both, PPTP and L2TP are used for creating VPN connections.
The samples were grown on c-plane sapphire sub- strates by PA-MBE. Reflection high-energy electron dif- fraction [RHEED] and optical reflection spectrum were used to monitor the growth in situ. The Al and Ga sources were supplied by conventional Knudsen effusion cells. Two sets of samples were prepared with different AlN spacer thicknesses. Control samples, with a conven- tional structure as shown in Figure 1a, were grown with- out the GaN insertion layer. Table 1 summarizes the structural parameters of the samples. One set of samples