A map of the programme area is provided in Annex 1.
The organisational structure of the Cotswolds LEADERprogramme and the Local Action Group (LAG) is provided in Annex 2.
The LAG will invite, consider and determine grant applications and issue grant awards, supported by the programme team. The programme team will monitor the grant awards and assess grant claims. The grant payments will be made by the RPA, Rural Payments Agency. Fuller details of the programme and its Local Development Strategy (LDS), the grant spend profile and the estimated investments, outputs and outcomes across the theme priorities are provided in the LEADER page of Cotswolds Conservation Board website;
University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
The paper presents the results of studies aimed at determining the role of the LEADERProgramme in supporting development of rural areas. The analysis was performed on the basis of a case study of the Local Action Group (LAG) “Ziemia Zamojska”. We used data from the LAG Office and the information contained in its strategic documents. “Ziemia Zamojska” LAG has received a total of PLN 6064 thou- sand for the implementation of activities under Axis 4 LEADER, of which more than three-quarters is for Action 413 “Implementing Local Development Strategies.” A significant portion of these funds were earmarked for investment projects responding to the immediate needs of the population (community centres, playgrounds, computer rooms with Internet access), which entail greater involvement of local communities. Efficient and effective use of financial resources available to the beneficiaries in the area covered by the local development strategy has a positive impact on the development of such areas and the local community. The opportunities created by financing and independent project implementation improve the quality of life (e.g., through the development of infrastructure), and above all, help to build and strengthen social capital in rural areas.
The integrated and multi-sectoral ap- proach, typical of the LEADER method, has not only clashed with the sectoral perspective of the provincial offi ces, but also with the lobbying interests of the associations involved in the various economic sectors (agriculture, tourism, handicrafts, etc.). A high-ranking civil servant in the province remarks that the lobbying interests of these associations are represented by their members in the provincial council; he further defi nes these associations as bureaucratic bod- ies comparable to public administration itself. The LAGs’ private sector mem- bers are usually the highest represen- tatives of the local associations. In the case of LAG Wipptal, one deals with the Consorzio Turistico Valle Isarco (Tour- ism Consortium of Isarco Valley), the Unione dei Commercianti (Chamber of Commerce), the Unione degli Artigiani (Craftsmen Union), the Ente Distrettuale dell’Agricoltura (District Association of Agriculture), the Liberi Professionisti (Professionals), the Ispettorato Forestale di Vipiteno (Vipiteno Forestry Inspec- torate), and the Centro Giovani (Youth Centre).
Estonia provided 85.8 million EUR in funding for LEADER during the period 2007–2013 180 and the RDP foresees 90 million this period, which counts to 9,1% of the RDP budget, exceeding the minimum allocation almost two times 181 which shows how important this approach is considered to be 182 . In spring 2014 there were difficult RDP budget negotiations, and also LEADER budget was on the agenda. Members of the RDP preparatory steering committee were prevailingly on opinion 183 that pressure on LEADER will be big (e.g. other ministries see it as a fund from where to get money e.g. for voluntary rescue, last-mile broadband, heritage conservation). As RDP will no longer have the village development measure (which was the main measure from where investments for community development were made), it is advisable to avoid budget cuts in LEADER and to encourage other funds in addition to EAFRD to foresee special measures that allocate resources to LAGs. With respect to the degree of autonomy given to the local level this shows that the state level is pursuing its own interests (e.g. to find a solution to create the last mile connections for the general broadband network already made with another investment programme) and tries to influence a policy to fit its national level goals. This means that with the LEADER measure the national level is attempting to instrumentalize the local level for its own purposes, which are not necessarily the same as the LAGs might have, given that they do not have the same goals as the national level does. Also the European level sees this intervening act of the national level, this being demonstrated in the EC’s Factsheet on 2014-2020 RDP for Estonia, stating about LEADER LAGs: “The groups set their priorities independently of government, but it is expected that village development will be a priority as no
With my proposal for the research project I would like to focus on the potential connection between citizen participation and the achievement of the local development through the community-based approach. The lens analyzing it is the LEADER method, a bottom-up approach formulated in the European rural development policies which will constitute the core of the Community-led Local Development of the period 2014-2020. The research is based on twofold methodological level: on one hand a theoretical framework that analyses the general context I'm focusing on and then the reading-keys I'm using for the research; on the other hand the empirical comparison of the case-studies in order to evaluate and demonstrate the starting hypothesis. The starting point of the general context regards the issues of the European Union in the perspective of the next programming period 2014-2020 and of Europe 2020's strategy. Among this context the view is focalizing on the main problems European perspective would like to solve: the implications of the globalization from a local perspective and the potential solution to face it. For that reason one of the goals the European Union is aspiring is the involvement of citizens into the policy-making decision process together with the territorial cohesion. The tool formulated by Europe towards 2020 to reach them is Community-led Local Development (CLLD) concentrated, first of all, in the rural areas according to the Programming Regulations. And if it is a policy-oriented perspective, might this approach find a scientific confirmation? Might the community-based approach be an exit strategy for the globalized post-modern democracy? To proceed with the analysis I have the intention to focus first of all on the details of the European Union policies for the period 2014-2020 paying attention to the main goals and the CLLD. Afterwords, the analysis will pass from the policy-oriented perspective to the theoretical framework focusing on the post-modern society due to the globalization through the analysis tool of citizen participation into the community-based approach.
PRIORITY 1 - Rural Surrey LEADER rural enterprise and farm diversification strategy:
The value of rural businesses in Surrey
Surrey has a dynamic and entrepreneurial heritage. Business births, a measure of the dynamism of local economies exceed the SE region as a whole. A substantial proportion of Surrey’s businesses (20%) are located in rural areas and 5,700 are linked to the countryside and its environment. As discovered by the last LEADERprogramme, new businesses are being incubated in rural homes, farm buildings and isolated business parks. Many of these businesses need to grow. With a highly qualified workforce and increasing demand for local products and services there is significant potential to increase the number of start-ups and also to grow existing companies.
Rated No. 1 specialist institution in the UK by the Guardian University Guide 2013 and 2014, the Guildhall School is one of the world's leading conservatoires and drama schools, and one which is pre-eminent in technical theatre, professional development and music therapy. A thriving Junior Guildhall, the recent addition of the Centre for Young Musicians and a range of summer schools and short courses further complement the outstanding opportunities available. Long recognised as a centre of excellence, the School has been twice-honoured by consecutive Queen's Anniversary Prizes; in 2005 for its unrivalled development and outreach programme, Guildhall Connect, and in 2007 in recognition of the achievements and work of the School's Opera Programme over the last two decades.
Developers of leadership brands are encouraged to implement a strategy similar to that of branding a product or service. These strategies include having clearly defined goals, understanding where they wish to take the brand in the market, creating a path on how to get there, and establishing a methodology for evaluating brand success (Bedburry, 2002). It is also important that the brand itself identify as a person to both leader and stakeholder (Kapferer, 2004). In doing so, the organizational leader brand positions itself as a relationship partner with all stakeholders. This positioning becomes the brand’s persona. In the same way that interactions take place in a personal relationship, Fournier (1998) acknowledges that the brand to consumer relationship is also “constituted of a series of repeated exchanges between two parties (p. 346)”. Once the organizational leader brand is known and identified by stakeholders, the relationship can be allowed to “evolve in response to these interactions and fluctuations in the contextual environment (Fournier, 1998, p. 346)”.
The post holder will design, develop, deliver and manage all Arbitration Pathways modules and education and training programmes, pursuant to the Object in its Royal Charter, of providing education, training and professional qualification in ADR. The Arbitration ProgrammeLeader and SME will be responsible for ensuring that the CIArb’s renowned global standards of knowledge and practice are maintained in all Arbitration Pathways modules and education and training initiatives delivered.
Although this study contributes to the literature on the effectiveness of ethical leadership and its dimensions, our sample represented a mix of job levels and sectors in a field setting, and we used measures with sound psychometric properties, it also has some limitations. First, the cross-sectional nature of the study implies that we cannot test for causal relationships. However, parts of the model have been tested in experimental settings before. For example, multiple studies tested the relationship between prototypicality and leader effectiveness in experimental settings (e.g., Platow & van Knippenberg, 2001; van Knippenberg & van Knippenberg, 2005). Although this study does not test causal relationships, the proposed direction of results is therefore based on previous experimental studies that did allow testing for directionality. More research is needed on cause-effect relationships. Also, more research on the development of ethical leadership, identity, and trust over time is needed.
Pre-defined sets of behaviors were coded for each follower and leader to establish reliable and valid results, by means of the behavioral coding scheme. Per video two observers coded each video independently to avoid subjectivity bias; to determine inter-reliability the observers compared the results together and through the confusion error matrix by “The Observer XT”. The inter-reliability was defined as the percentage of agreement of a specific code within a time range of two seconds. When disagreements or significant differences occurred the observers re-viewed, discussed and re-coded the affected fragment. The obtained average inter-reliability rate in this study was 95%.
First, we found support for the argument that newly appointed leaders that moved directly from a leader position at another organization (i.e., were poached) have better post-succession organizational performance as compared to those that were not in a leadership position. We suggest that hiring a leader of another organization will allow the organization to make a more informed selection decision and hence identify the human capital they require. In addition, the associated search and compensation costs will indicate that the candidate is either their first choice, or thereabouts. Consequently, in being perceived as having the required human capital to lead the organization, the new leader will be better able to gain discretion from owners to influence and re- shape the organization (Friedman & Singh, 1989), which will enhance organizational performance. Furthermore, given our empirical focus is that of a single industry study, the finding may reflect the greater ease with which leaders can move between organizations, as compared to studies in which the sample of organizations are more heterogeneous in nature.
Numerous studies exist which aimed to identify behaviors that increase leader effectiveness. Transformational and transactional behaviors are often used to examine leader effectiveness, because literature provided general support for the relationship between transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and leader effectiveness (Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1998). This ‘full-range-theory’ includes both transformational and transactional type of leader behaviors. One of the behavioral categories is contingent reward behavior, where ‘role and task requirements are clarified by the leader and followers obtain rewards contingent on the fulfillment of contractual obligations’ (Antonakis et al., 2003, p. 265). This is a typical behavior of a transactional leader, which main focus is on task-oriented behaviors (Colbert and Witt, 2009; Yukl et al., 2002). In contrast to task-oriented behaviors, which include clarifying, explaining or informing behavior, there are also leaders that focus on relations-oriented behaviors (Yukl, 2010). These relations- oriented behaviors can be linked to the concept of transformational leadership (Bass; 1990). Behaviors such as coaching followers, emphasizing collective missions and motivating followers by providing them challenges are key behaviors of a transformational leader. With these transformational behaviors, leaders transform the basic values and beliefs of followers and create a climate in which followers are willing to perform beyond the minimum levels specified by the leader (Podsakoff et al., 1990; Harter et al., 2002). Trust is a critical characteristic element in defining modern leadership that helps to sustain effective leadership. Without trust between followers and leaders an organization is not able to function. In the last four decades researchers from multiple disciplines have recognized the significance of trust in leaders in empirical articles and books (Dirks and Ferrin, 2002). For example, trust has been shown to have influences on the satisfaction with and perceived effectiveness of the leader (Gillespie and Mann, 2004). When followers have high levels of trust in the leader, they typically exert stronger efforts to finish their work tasks on time and are more likely to engage in behaviors that help the organization even when it is not their specified role to engage in those behaviors (Burke et al., 2007; Organ et al., 2006; Zhu et al., 2013).
The Leader DalÄlvarna area comprises northern and west- ern Dalarna and is dominated by the aquatic landscape formed around the Österdalälven and Västerdalälven rivers. Rivers and lakes have always been of considerable impor- tance to this region, which consists of mountains, forests and water. Major stretches of these two rivers appeal to those seeking natural beauty, tranquillity, quiet surround- ings, clean water and fresh air. Hunting and fishing provide additional tourist potential. The Lake Siljan area and Orsa Grönklitt also attract large numbers of tourists. Most of the region is sparsely populated with relatively small urban centres and large rural areas.
BACKGROUND CHECK VERIFICATION FORM GO TELL’s primary concern is for the safety and well-being of all the students who attend camp. Therefore, GO TELL requires that a criminal background check be completed on every adult who attends camp. It is the responsibility of each youth pastor/group leader to verify that a background check has been performed within the last 12 months, and is on file at his/her church, for EVERY ADULT ATTENDING CAMP WITH HIS/HER GROUP. (This means that a criminal background check should be on file for all youth pastors, parent volunteers, other chaperones, and bus drivers.)
Modulating the emotional response involves in ﬂuencing emotional response tendencies. This strategy is aimed at reducing the behavioral expression of an emotion once it is experienced. In modulating the emotional response, leaders engage in behaviors that encourage followers to suppress their undesired negative emotions. Suppression can be particularly important in organizations because it can be easily communicated and modeled by leaders and also built into an organization's culture ( Hochschild, 1979; Huy, 2002; Mumby & Putnam, 1992 ). Indeed, organizational display rules are typically targeted at the suppression of negative emotions such as anger, shame, and sadness ( Geddes & Callister, 2007 ), and leaders encourage adherence to these display rules via acts of modulating the emotional response. For example, a leader may direct an employee to calm down when upset, or advise him or her to “relax,” or tell him or her “that's enough.” Leaders' attempts at managing followers' emotions often involve “making it clear [one] do[es] not care how the target feels, ” and aims to reduce the follower's expression of these feelings rather than to address the problem causing the feelings ( Niven et al., 2009 , p. 504). Thus, modulating the emotional response, like attentional deployment is emotion-focused.