Leadership has become a key component of an organization, management and administration of educational organizations and systems, and this development is reflected in both academic and educational policy statements throughout the English-speaking countries and world over. Governments are investing substantial sums in leadership development because they believe that it will produce better leaders and more effective school system. Individuals are also contributing their own professional development because they think that it will enhance their career prospects and make them better leaders. Without leadership, things will be very difficult and we would have not been here today. Technical and vocational education is one of the organizations that have been enjoying leadership of different types. The importance of leadership in technical and vocational education cannot be overemphasizing, because without proper leadership in TVET programs, the goals which are to prepare people to be self-reliance will not be possible. Therefore, the need for good and perfect leadership has become imperative in TVET development. Effective school leadership has become a dominant theme in contemporary educational reform. Effective leaders are needed to sustain innovation and are the heart of capacity building for school improvement most especially in technical and vocational education and training (TVET) programs that need sustainability for its development.
Educator morale has been a focus of educational leaders and managers throughout the world, because without educator motivation and morale the learning and teaching in our schools would be grossly compromised. It is against this background that this research was carried out to find out lecturers’ perceptions of leadership traits which promote motivation in a Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) college in South Africa. The research questions which guided this research were as follows: What are lecturers’ perceptions of leadership traits which promote motivation in an educational and training institution in South Africa? How can educational leaders and management in South Africa integrate their experiences and practices with what educators believe are the main drivers of high lecturer morale? A qualitative study was used to generate data that would be useful in answering the research questions. The nature of this qualitative study required in-depth interviews with participants where qualitative data was generated and interpreted. The researcher saw it fit to use in-depth interviews because this method of data generation would enable the researcher to capture the perspectives, views and opinions of participants about leadership traits which facilitate motivation in the South African TVET College in particular and the South African education system in general. The views of the participants showed that leadership traits such as accountability, responsibility, empathy, decisiveness, assertiveness, charisma, pro-activeness, motivation and communication are the life-blood, foundation and bed-rock of effective leadership and management in the TVET College.
Furthermore, negotiation tactics is also effective leadership tactics. In a study of the effectiveness of management practices in Educational Consultation undertaken by Dimin (1999), which takes the definition of consultation from that it is considered to be a formal process and occurs when the parties involved are trying to find a solution between them. Gulbro & Herbig (1996) state negotiations as the method used to enable an agreement is reached with the use of cooperative and competitive elements. Cooperative means that the two sides of the same desires that want to reach an agreement. Competition also means both parties involved to make a balance of the two elements so that results will be available. For example, if the administrator wants to ensure that students TVET institutions have Malaysian Skills Certificate (SKM), the institution primarily. Administrator must ensure the SKM adjusted.
Specifically, the 19 elements are composed of (i) Thinking Competency (workplace, facilitation, standard identification, model building, analytical thinking and leadership) (ii) Organisational Competency (communication, vision, work environment, goal implementation, buy in/ advocacy consulting, negotiation and system thinking) and (iii) Application Competency (staff selection, training theory, career development, reward system and process consultation). These competency elements will be used to come up with the competency framework for Nigerian TVET teachers. The 19 elements were perceived by TVET teachers as appropriate to be part of the competency framework because those elements are very relevant to their jobs and duties in TVET institution. For example, communication was perceived as relevant to Organisational Competency because the participating TVET teachers were faced with problem associated with communication (e.g., communication with top management personnel) (Ezeuko & Mbagwu, 2009). From the TVET teachers’ point of view, it is vital to possess good communication skill either with their superintendents, colleagues, or students.
A small business with 5 employees operating in a growth sector but where profits have been affected by the recession. The owners recognised that new skills were needed to capitalise on sector developments but had not previously sought any specific support. The diagnostic process identified that development activities would be best undertaken as a team involving all members of staff. A highly flexible programme of support was delivered in-house for one afternoon every 6 weeks for a year. This pace suited the company and enabled a wide range of management topics, including Business Planning and Systems for Managing Performance to be covered. According to the company, the experience introduced current thinking into the company and provided a “fresh pair of eyes” that helped them “to put things into focus”. There has been such a beneficial effect on the company’s performance that they have hired the consultant on several occasions since outside of the LMAS programme. They now also have more confidence about using external support.
The leadership process denotes that good leaders are made, not born and that good leadership status is achievable for anyone who desires and has the will power. Although, as earlier stated, it does not come naturally, good leadership develops through continual work and study to improve their skills; they do not rest on their laurels. However Bass (1990) theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways by which people become leaders. These may be through the trait theory which holds that some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. Another is the great events theory whereby a crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extra-ordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person while the third is the transformational leadership theory, which states that people can chose to become leaders by learning and training -people can learn leadership skills. This is the most widely accepted theory today.
Thus far the approaches considered have been agentic, focusing on what hierarchical leaders or managers consider they do (or should be doing). This fits uneasily with a conception of authority as socially constructed. However, some authors (for example, Parry and Kempster 2013, Marsh et al. 2014, Woods 2016) do emphasise the relational nature of authority in education. Parry and Kempster (2013) suggest that charismatic leadership identities are not agentic but are socially constructed by followers out of available models (favourite aunt, media hero etc.) and then adopted by leaders: charisma being ‘less a gift from God and more a gift from followers’ (2013:21). Marsh et al. (2014) suggest that the development of supportive relationships with staff contributes to school heads’ authoritative leadership. The role of external agents in constructing authorization is also considered. James et al. (2007) found that parents, communities and local authorities played a part in authorization for the leadership practices of schools and Perry (2014) identified university academic deans’ part in validating the authority of programme leaders through overt support and provision of resources. Relationships and communities appear to matter to authorization.
standardised achievement tests. Nor are they likely to be highly motivated by management systems that create elaborate reward structures based upon this conceptualisation of teaching. Moreover, attempts to “tighten the linkages” between intentions, goals and actions do not always have the desired effects when applied to organisations such as schools (eg March, 1978; Rowan, 1982). For example, take the “goal” of schooling most frequently cited by education policymakers –learning achievement of students. The greater the precision with which we seek to measure this goal, the higher the likelihood that agreement on its importance will be eroded (March, 1978, p. 228). Moreover, although process has been made in identifying more effective teaching and learning methods, their impact on test scores still cannot be reliably predicted using the current technologies (i.e., teaching and curriculum) available to schools. These observations suggest that efforts to increase the efficiency of schools though laudable, should be undertaken with a clear picture of how schools differ as organisations.
Leadership is defined as complex process during which one person can influence others to achieve mission, task or objective, by using their qualities (truth, values, character, knowledge and abilities. In this way, according to this definition, we can take out some characteristics of leadership: it is complex process, a person can influence the others to achieve pre-set aim, person value – leader to use in function for aims realization.
Dealing with crises depends on the role of strategic leadership (SL) in managing them, starting with trying to predict them through working to contain and reduce their effects, and ending with addressing and benefiting from their results, and taking effective methods in facing them, where some leaders while their dealings with the crisis are subject to random choice and reaction policy, which may lead at a minimum to the impediment of the organization from achieving its goals, or cause material losses that may severely affect the organization’s existence and survival (Jad Al-Rab, 2012). CM is a unique administrative process, as it is exposed to a sudden event that often does not have premises, and the crisis needs decisive actions and rapid decisions that are consistent with the seriousness of the evolving situation. Consequently, CM has the lead in leading events, influencing them and directing them according to the requirements of matters (Al-Da’abseh, Aljawarneh, & Shwiyat, 2018). The ingenuity of SL lies in visualizing the possibility of transforming the crisis and the risks it carries into opportunities to unleash the creative capabilities that invest the crisis as an opportunity to reformulate the conditions and find sound solutions. There is no doubt that this positive approach prepares for CM is a vivid and creative interaction with the great challenge it faces to the extent that it can transform the danger into an opportunity that can be invested and transform the frustrations of the ordeal into an environment that stimulates the activities of creative efforts. OOREDOO Q.S.C. (Ooredoo), Qatar - Company is affected, like other local organizations, by the occurrence of crises, conditions and events that affect the global arena in general and the Gulf in particular, and this has imposed on it great pressures in adapting to these conditions and facing these difficult challenges, which necessitates working to develop strategic leaderships that can foresee the future and respond to CM. In this regard, the two researchers see the necessity of identifying the extent of OOREDOO Q.S.C. (Ooredoo), Qatar - Company's readiness to deal with crises, and examining the impact of SL in dealing with such crises and emergency events, and thus the research questions can be crystallized in the following main question:
The Singapore Government’s endeavour to develop and position Singapore as the global exemplar in human capital management which attracts and retains talent and investments serves as an impetus to build leadership capabilities at all levels in the Singapore workforce. Today’s VUCA World of Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity also demands that leaders themselves must learn new skills to ready themselves for the future.
• : the ability to work with ideas and concepts. This skill set doesn’t involve working with people or things, but focuses on ideas. A man- ager with good conceptual skills will be comfort- able talking about the ideas and details that shape their group or organization. He or she is good at seeing the bigger picture and can translate this un- derstanding into words everyone understands. Each of these types of skills is important for effective management, and are necessary within different levels of management within a group or organization. Not surprisingly, many of these skills are also useful for effective leadership, generally within a slightly different context.
century (Gronn, 2010, p.70). Harris (2010, p. 55) also mentioned that this leadership style is one of the most significant approaches within the context of educational leadership in the past decade. This kind of leadership is detached from the positional authority and is based on the competencies and skills of members in the organizational chart. In this way, Harris (2003) stated that distributed leadership focuses on seeking and utilization of expertise wherever it exists in the organization regardless of the organizational positions of the skilled members. In summary and in the context of educational institutions, distributed Leadership is a leadership approach in which collaborative working is undertaken between individuals who trust and respect each other’s contribution and happens most effectively when people at all levels engage in action, accepting leadership in their particular areas of expertise and finally requires resources that support and enable collaborative environments.
The Faculty of Business and Economics has been a leading provider of business and economics education since 1924. It is committed to research excellence and engagement, the highest quality academic programs, and strongly linked via formal alliances and partnerships to business, government, and the wider community. It has an active advisory board where business leaders, government representatives, and community leaders have a substantial and meaningful role in the implementation of the Faculty’s vision. The Faculty has strong connections with leading international universities. These external connections together with its own world class academics, outstanding professional staff and strong leadership provides the foundation to become the leading business and economics faculty in the Asia Pacific region.
the calibre of future clinical leaders who remain in clinical practice; those who will fulfil senior clinical managerial roles, those who aspire to national and international health management or a combination thereof? Secondly, are we sure we are focussing on, and selecting the right individuals for these programs and is the major focus on trainee doctors the most appropriate strategy given the concerns over lack of authority and clinical credibility? Thirdly how do we capture and disseminate the learning and experiences of these indi- viduals, maximize learning transfer into the workplace and ensure mechanisms such as networks and alumni that may facilitate meaningful dialog and further leadership action that are robust and effective. Fourthly, what weight do we give to the existing leadership programs as compared with individuals who have not undertaken them but present with Health MBAs or Masters qualifications in management and leadership or have gained clinical leadership or managerial experience elsewhere? Finally, but critically over what period and how do we assess return on the significant investment that has been dedicated to these current programs? 51
Thus, terminology activities undertaken by technical translators, translation agencies, and translation de- partments within larger organizations, public or private enterprises belong to terminology management in the strict sense. Translators employ various methods to collect and store terminology, create glossaries and internal termbases, lists of terms or terminology use, guidelines, and handbooks (Bucher, 2007, p.44; Fiser, 2008). These terminology storage methods not only accelerate and facilitate translation of technical texts, help with technical writing and assist in professional communication in general, but they also improve the con- sistency and quality of translation, at the same time keeping the price of translation lower. A number of com- mercially available software systems for terminology activities (Terminology Management Systems -TMSs) that can be used in translation and technical writing are available nowadays. These systems are most commonly integrated into CAT tools (Computer-Assisted Translation tools), along with translation memories (TMs). The most popular CAT tools are SDL Trados, OmegaT, and MemoQ (Gornostay, 2010). In order to promote their products, commercial software producers emphasize the benefits that terminology management systems bring to corporate users, particularly the fact that they contribute to a better understanding of relevant termi- nology by employees, prevent terminology errors in technical documentation, reduce the time of technical documents production, lower translation costs, and contribute to the consistency of translation (SDL sof- tware company). The fact is, however, that the number of organizations consistently and systematically en- gaged in terminology activities is still rather small, the most important reasons behind this being the lack of awareness of their importance, high costs of terminology manangement systems, and the fact that benefits are difficult to measure.
Educational Leadership is identified as an important factor for quality education and developing countries have focused on this important factor and implemented systematic train- ing and development programs for their leaders. Moreover, the latest educational policies ad- vocate decentralized educational management, which has brought both benefits and problems in a number of countries. However, these initiations are far away from the expectations. Any educational reform will not be successful without both an evolution of institutional structures and specialized training and development programs for education professionals. One strategy for achieving these goals is found in School Based Management (SBM), a model of decentral- ized school administration that provides clear guidelines and has been successfully introduced in a number of countries. This paper focuses on the principles and practices of School Based Management for school effectiveness.
Student Resource Centre (SRC) or the CMI online management and leadership portal, ManagementDirect(MDir), whichever you have access to. These resources are marked in the reference list at the end of each topic with P+ standing for Pathways Plus. A button on the first page of the site (whether SRC or MDir) will take you straight to the list of supporting resources as listed in the Pathways Plus topics. When there, click on the title of your development guide, the section and the topic you’re interested in and then click straight to the article, video, podcast,
Against this background, it is perhaps not surprising that doctors have been reluctant to step fully out of the security of their clinical roles, and only few have taken up chief executive posts. This may be an issue when considering Goodall 6 ’s evidence and her ‘theory of expert leadership (TEL)’ (in this special issue). TEL suggests that leaders who are experts in the core business of the organisations they are to lead, are more likely to appear credible to the core workers, and create the optimal work environment leading to higher levels of job satisfaction 17, 18 . The challenge of engaging clinicians in senior leadership roles in the UK still remains.
Labor charges can be the most significant cost element of a project, particularly with a design or energy audit project. As with the other responsibilities of project management, it is critical that you as project manager frequently reiterate to project team mem- bers the importance of controlling internal labor costs. If the project team members know that internal cost control is important to you, they are more likely to make it a priority for themselves. Because you have prepared a budget and know what to ex- pect in the way of project progress versus labor hours required to attain that progress, you are in an excellent position to determine if the labor costs charged to your project are reasonable compared to value received. If you determine that you have been over- charged compared to a previous commitment to deliver a product at a specified cost (or labor hours), then you should negotiate with the charger to reach a reasonable accommodation. This accommo- dation may involve removing some or all of the out-of-budget hours charged to your project. You’ll want to be reasonable about this negotiation because there may be good reasons (e.g., unfore- seeable complexities, late or incomplete input from another engi- neer, etc.) that the charger put more hours on the project than you anticipated. If there are, then you will want to obtain agreement from the charger that in the future he/she will talk with you prior to overcharging the project on any particular task.