Education and training in histology, anatomical path- ology and cytopathology remain essential to both under- graduate and postgraduate students. At most universities in China, histology courses are traditionally lecture- based, incorporating the use of textbooks, glass slides and conventional microscopy. These courses have been confronted by resource limitations, including too many students and not enough space to accommodate them all, and very few instructors and teaching resources, including human specimens and microsections [3]. Cir- cumstances such as these can act to reduce creativity and **problem**-**solving** **skills** training in the curriculum. To enhance these **skills**, schools in North America and Europe currently have used **problem**-based **learning** (PBL), case-reinforced **learning** (CRL) education meth- odologies and new e-based technologies and approaches [3]. The PBL methodology, which aims to cultivate stu- dents’ creativity and practical abilities, has been used in China since the mid-1980s. While some recent studies have shown that analytical and **problem**-**solving** **skills** have improved among PBL students, the application of PBL is limited because of faculty shortage and a lack of resources [4]. However, strategies to enhance students’ active **learning** and **problem**-**solving** **skills** are increas- ingly used in the better-known Chinese medical schools.

The main objective of this study was to compare **learning** styles, resiliency and **problem** **solving** **skills** in Iranian chess players. The approach of this study was a description of cohesion kind. The statistical population included all active chess players with an international rating under chess federation supervision of Islamic Republic of Iran. The sample was based on Morgan table, and the sampling was done by simple method and the number of 306 players was chosen who answered the **learning** style questionnaire of Clop in 2005, Kan- er & Davidson’s Resiliency in 2003, and Kasidi & Long’s **problem** **solving** guideline in 1996. The data obtained by Chi-square Test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test (KS test), Kruskal-Wallis Test & Spearman correlation Test analyzed by SPSS21. The findings showed that there wasn’t a significant relationship be- tween **learning** styles with the amount of resiliency and chess players’ **problem** **solving** **skills**. Also there was a positive and powerful relation between the amount of resiliency and chess players **solving** **problem** **skills**. It seems that chess players **learning** style doesn’t have any effect on the ability of prob- lem-**solving** skill. In other word, having **learning** style and different thinking isn’t an advantage although the present research protects the existence of pos- itive meaningful relation between the amount of resiliency and chess players’ **problem** **solving** **skills**.

Based on the description above, it can be concluded that (a) material to build flat side spaces is still considered difficult by students, (b) students ' **problem**-**solving** abilities are still low, (c) PBL **learning** models can be used to improve students' **problem**-**solving** **skills**, (d) Student Worksheet (LKPD) that are by the characteristics of students and are intimidated by the **problem**-**solving** abilities required by the teacher and students. (e) **learning** resources that fit the PBL **learning** model are not yet available, and **learning** resources that instill students' mathematical **problem**-**solving** abilities are also not however available. (f) ADDIE development models are used to produce Student Worksheet (LKPD) designs that are appropriate to the PBL **learning** model and integrate **problem**-**solving** **skills**. (g) The resulting LKPD design is classified as feasible, with an average score of 89.5. Student Worksheet (LKPD), which is used as a **learning** resource according to the PBL model, needs to be well designed and developed. Designing and developing Student Worksheet (LKPD) is emphasized to improve students' **problem**-**solving** abilities. The Student Worksheet (LKPD) results that are designed in accordance with the PBL model are expected to be one of the solutions for teachers and grade VIII students of SMP Muhammadiyah Pakem to improve **problem**-**solving** **skills**. The results of the field study that have been carried out are expected to have several benefits, namely: (a) as input and advice to the school in improving the **learning** process and mathematics **learning** for students, (b) as a basis for developing Student Worksheet (LKPD) according to the PBL model in order to improve the ability of **solving** the **problem** of students of class VIII of SMP Muhammadiyah Pakem.

This paper contributes the ongoing work on knowing students’ **learning** styles match with their ability to choose how to learn. By knowing the students’ **learning** styles teachers are able to develop their ability to suit **learning** environment in vocational education setting. From the findings we can know the vocational students tend to learn in visual type by using picture, diagram, charts n etc. On the other hand, teachers will focus to teach them match with their **learning** styles. **Problem** **solving** is the highest level of taxonomy which is the best way to examine students’ ability how they cater their **learning**. In Building Construction subject, when students asked about the **problem** **solving** situation they are free to give any answer as long it make sense and relate to the topic. These will show the difference in each student how the produce the solution. Furthermore, the research will continue with another way of **problem** **solving** approach and how students adopt the effective method and strategy in their **learning**.

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Another possible explanation of these results is that the sample of subjects are unrepresentative of adolescents with **learning** disability. The majority of the group (n=31) were still at school in full-time education, and so could argued to be enjoying a relatively protected environment. This hypothesis is supported by the low levels of anxiety and depression found (see below). It is quite possible that had the sample consisted of a whole group of adolescents who had already left school, and were trying to negotiate the outside world, there could be very different results. Other possible explanatory factors include; this group of young people were particularly well adjusted, or, that the sample did not report their levels of mood reliably. The inclusion of so many participants who had very low functioning makes this more likely. Both the adapted version of the Zung anxiety scale and the Subjective Stress Scale were designed for completion by adults, and may not be worded appropriately for an adolescent group.

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significant indication that the industries want local graduates with strong soft **skills** especially **problem** **solving** **skills** to manage problems faced during work. The **problem** among graduates lacking **problem** **solving** **skills** is not only in Malaysia, but it is a global **problem**. Dahlgren et al., (1998) mention that the graduates are able to acquire the knowledge but cannot use it to solve complex daily life **problem**. This is supported by Koray et al., (2008) who claimed that not many students graduate as good **problem** solvers and able to solve routine problems. Koray et al., (2008) also claim that graduates cannot adapt their prior knowledge for the solution of new problems. Dochy et al., (2005) also state that graduates are not able to solve problems of daily working life although they acquired extensive academic knowledge. These are some of the general observations on the graduates who do not fulfill the needs of the industries. Graduates should have **skills** that can fulfill the needs of industries in line with the rapid growth of technology. Not only the industries, the societies also need graduates who do not only possess knowledge but also employ **skills** that can solve, analyze, synthesize, present and evaluate contemporary problems (Senocak, 2009).

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Observation and literature are used to find out how to stimulate students' **problem**-**solving** **skills**. One of the goals of PBL is to improve **problem**-**solving** **skills** [27]. Research by Ferreira shows that PBL ables to improve students' **problem**- **solving** **skills** [28].Research conducted by Argaw obtained the conclusion that PBL **learning** is more effective for teaching physics subjects when compared to conventional **learning** [26]. Amalia's research shows the results that students who are taught using the PBL model have better mathematical **problem**-**solving** **skills** than students who are taught with conventional models [27]. Simamora's research results show that the implementation of PBL **learning** models can improve **learning** activities and the ability to solve math problems of class VII B students of SMP Negeri 3 Medan [28].Interview conducted to mathematics teacher is also used to find out whether the **learning** resources used by **learning** model and integrated with **problem**-**solving** **skills**. Based on the interview, the **learning** resource used by students is a student worksheet. The student worksheet used has not been adapted to the **learning** model used. Student worksheet also has not encouraged students to have good **problem**-**solving** **skills**. Yet according to the teacher, student worksheet is very helpful for **learning** in schools. However, the existing LKPD still has shortcomings. This is also supported by the results of interviews given to 3 students. According to them, the problems in the student worksheet are still difficult to solve. The example of settlement in the student worksheet is still confusing.Questionnaires given to students are also used to find out what **learning** resources they are most interested in. Based on the questionnaire, the three students chose student worksheet as the easiest **learning** source to learn than modules or books. However, the existing student worksheet did not meet the expectations of the students. Teacher states she can not be able to design student worksheet appropriate **learning** model that is in accordance with the characteristics of student.The second step in the research model is design. The design of this student activity sheet was developed based on the **Problem**-Based **Learning** model. The stages in the **Problem**-Based **Learning** model can be seen in Table 2.

Curiosity is defined as an internal state occasioned when subjective uncertainty generates a tendency to engage in exploratory behaviour aimed at resolving or partially mitigating the uncertainty (Berlyne, 1978). Curiosity can improve asking questions and making inquiries. We can maintain continuous **learning** by being curious. Continuous **learning** is about being willing to learn. Einstein, about himself, said, “Follow your curiosity. I don’t have a special talent. I’m just a passionate curious”, and It may be thought that he emphasizes the importance of being curious. Being curious, being willing to learn are the characteristics that should be in the student. Students should be curious to adapt to the era. One of the opinions regarding curiosity often expressed is that almost all young children are highly curious but they seem to lose this characteristic very soon after they enter school. If this is true-and there is very little empirical evidence on which to either accept or reject the opinion-it does not explain why some children and some adults seem to retain a very high level of curiosity (Maw & Maw, 1966). Teachers should also be curious about both student development and their personal improvement. As stated in the curricula, teachers who aim to raise students that are curious, investigative and questioning, and who can solve problems has a great responsibility. Because of this, for teachers and pre-service teachers, having **problem** **solving** **skills** and a high level of curiosity are very important in terms of educating students with the same characteristics.

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lives, making it increasingly difficult to understand. It is not appropriate with the paradigm of **learning** mathematics today, where mathematics is close to humans, mathematics is part of human culture (Hersh, 1997; Greer, 1997; Rosa, 2011) and is part of social reality (Hersh, 1997; Zevenbergen, 2004). In addition, students are always faced with real problems that are interesting and challenging which are the application of the concepts to be studied. This pleasant **problem** is what gives students the opportunity to criticize problems in different ways and not be a pressure in their hearts carried out in groups. The results of critical thinking of each group will result in diverse and unique **problem** **solving** by adding activities that require each group to produce creative products and even new / different from the other in the form of **problem** **solving** ideas and creative products as a result of the application of the concept. This is in accordance with the thinking concept of Best & Thomas (2007); Torrance (1969) and McGregor (2007) that to produce something creative as a result of creative thinking (in this case mathematics) a process is needed to produce something and new ideas, original, to solve problems that exist well and collapse. If a person is not able to think of a solution and does not even understand the **problem** given, he will not be able to create a solution to the **problem**, especially if he has to be guided in many ways and new. Even to get creative thinking especially in mathematics, high curiosity is needed by the process of exploration and observation, as well as imagination and high originality of thought (Vale & Barbosa, 2015). If someone does not like what is being learned, their thinking process will be hampered, especially if they are required to think

The practicality of **problem**-based **learning** devices is known from the results of observations implementation **learning** and student activities. Based on the results of observations, it was found that a **problem**-based **learning** device was developed practically and it was used to improve **problem**-**solving** **skills** of students in grade V of elementary school with fractions. While the effectiveness of the **problem**-based **learning** device based on the results of the student response questionnaire and the results of the student's **problem** **solving** ability test. Questionnaire for student responses is given at the end of the lesson, that was in the second meeting The results of student responses are positive because the average student answers was "yes" statement around 76% -100%. They were interested in **problem**- based **learning** because the students solve problems in groups and then discussed to be agreed. This can motivate students to increase attention and make them visible in fun and meaningful **learning** [10]. While the results of the **problem** **solving** ability test showed an increasing in the pretest and posttest score. Increasing students' **problem** **solving** **skills** can be known by using N-Gain. The results of the student's **problem**-**solving** ability test presented in table 3 showed students have **problem**-**solving** abilities with an average n-gain of 0.58 which is included in the medium category. At the pretest of 20 students there were only 2 students or about 5% of students completed. While at the posttest there was an increase in test results, that is 90% of students completed the test. The test uses **problem** **solving** questions consisting of six questions. Increasing the results of this **problem** **solving** ability test shows that the **learning** tools developed by researchers can improve students' **problem** **solving** **skills** on the topic of fractions.

Soft **skills** are deemed to enhance competency and thus increase one’s capability in contributing to societal advancement and modernization (Duncan & Dunifon, 2012; Remedios, 2012). In 2006, the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), with the assistance of several researchers from various higher educational institutions (HEIs), had identified seven important soft skill components to be attained by tertiary students. They are communication skill, critical thinking and **problem** **solving** **skills**, teamwork skill, life-long **learning** and information management **skills**, entrepreneurial skill, ethics and professional moral skill, and leadership skill. The MOHE Soft **Skills** Development Model for students in higher educational institutions depicts soft **skills** growth by means of three different approaches, namely: (a) embedded soft **skills** training in formal teaching and **learning** activities, (b) supporting co- curriculum activities, and (c) through influential residential college’s life and campus environment. Figure 1 illustrates the general philosophy of this model:

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Research shows that metacognitive **skills** can be taught to students to improve their **learning** ([NS02]). As ([HT14], [Ha15]) state that, meta- cognition refer to "cognition about cognition" or "knowing about knowing". That mean, meta- cognition thinks about one's own thinking process such as study **skills**. Therefore she analyses its role and application into the education process. memory capabilities, and the ability to monitor **learning**, meta-cognitions is one of the most important components of mathematics **problem** **solving**. Students “construct knowledge” using cognitive strategies, and they guide, regulate, and evaluate their **learning** using metacognitive strategies. It is through this “thinking about thinking,” this use of metacognitive strategies, that real **learning** occurs. As students become more skilled at using metacognitive strategies, they gain confidence and become more independent as students. “Metacognitive **skills**” and what one knows about his own cognitive abilities. Metacognition is a process that spans three distinct phases, and that, to be successful thinkers, students must do the following:

**Problem**-**solving** **skills** are at the heart of mathematics **learning** [1]. Troubleshooting includes part of efforts to respond to a condition when the clarity of the answers has not appeared [2]. **Solving** in mathematics is an activity to seek resolution of mathematical problems, using mathematical knowledge in an integrative provisions [3]. The general objective of mathematics **learning** **problem** **solving** **skills** [4]. Therefore, it is deemed important for the students **problem**-**solving** ability, because it can help solve contextual problems both in lessons and in daily. Students can not break away from mathematical problems, **solving** mathematical problems can occur if students think, so they can find solutions to problems encountered [5]. Mathematical **problem** **solving** ability is a crucial component in **solving** **learning** problems [6]. Effective implementation of mathematical **problem** **solving** in everyday life, not just do the math arithmetic operation, but related to the student's ability to use mathematical concepts in **solving** the problems of everyday life [7]. Therefore, providing contextual issues in the classroom will be invaluable in applications for students in their daily lives. **Learning** approach that is familiar with the real world including realistic mathematics education, membelajarkan through contextual issues, students are given the opportunity, guided **solving** to demonstrate its ability in **solving** mathematical problems [8] and [9]. Then, [10], [11], [12], [13] and [14] states that the use of realistic mathematics **learning** significantly improves students' mathematical **problem** **solving**

A survey questionnaire was used to collect data from the final year vocational colleges students in five regions in Malaysia. The instrument consisted of 2 sections. While section A requested demographic information of the participants including gender, race, household income, parental education, and current CGPA, Part B was to measure the employability **skills** of the contains 150 items adapted from generic **skills** questionnaire developed by the SCANS (1991), Mohd Sattar (2009), Kamaruddin (2010), Soft **Skills** (KPTM 2006) and Malaysian Quality Framework (MQA), 2005) including Communication **Skills**, Teamwork **Skills**, **Problem**-**solving** **Skills**, Initiative and enterprise **Skills**, Planning and organizing **Skills**, Self-management **Skills**, Resource Management **Skills**, Technology **Skills**, Leadership **Skills**, and Basic **Skills**. However, in this study the researcher has added other **skills** which are Entrepreneurship **Skills**, **Learning** How to Learn, Working with Others, Technical and Vocational **Skills**, Ethical and Professional Moral **Skills**.

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Currently, in most schools, a set curriculum demands that the teacher selects the appropriate knowledge, processes, **skills**, and values to be learned, and adapts it to the **learning** abilities of the class. This often involves the teacher giving the knowledge, in the form of ‘chalk and talk’ or worse still, in the form that students detest the most – copying notes off the board, or from a book. Sometimes, a variety of structured **learning** activities are carried out by the students during lab time, but again in a rather controlled **learning** environment. Few teachers have ever thought of giving their students the freedom of thinking for themselves, let alone the teaching of thinking **skills** in its many forms. From a teacher’s point of view, I can understand why teaching and **learning** has been so structured, because of many constraints other than those described or implied above.

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According to Ernest (inRuttkamp, 2002) most teachers of mathematics have little regard for the philosophy of mathematics, and justify this attitude in two ways: Firstly, teachers of mathematics are more often concerned with mathematics in a local, as opposed to a global sense, that is, teaching particular concepts, facts or algorithmic **skills**, and they are less concerned with issues such as the nature of mathematics and the nature of truth in mathematics. Secondly, when a teacher does consider global questions concerning the nature and purpose of mathematics and its teaching, the more useful answers are not to be found in the literature of the philosophy of mathematics, because the teacher is more likely to look at discussions of the nature and purpose of mathematics in mathematics education texts and journals. These educational sources do not give a well-rounded account of mathematics, but rather discuss a one-sided view from a fixed philosophical position (Ernest, in Ruttkamp, 2002). Despite these arguments, Ernest insists that a consideration of the views of the various schools of thought with regard to the philosophy of mathematics is of value for the teaching and **learning** of mathematics. To a large extent this argument holds true also in the educational circles of Ethiopia. Research conducted by Pepin (1999) indicates the relevance of the philosophy of mathematics for the teaching and **learning** of mathematics. She provides evidence that the teachers' instructional practices, especially in mathematics, reflect their conception of the subject matter. Pepin studied the conceptions and works of mathematics teachers in three countries, namely England, France and Germany. The study explored the issues concerning conceptions of mathematics, of mathematics teaching

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The study’s most important objective is to evaluate the model’s effectiveness. Does student performance show high levels of competency in carrying out a team project for a real client? More specifically, do students communicate effectively? Do they function effectively on teams? Does their solution meet the user needs? Do they use and apply current concepts and practices to complete their projects? The source of data we used to find answers to these questions was the student performance measured in the two courses with which we implemented our model. The diversity of assessment tools helped us focus on **learning** outcomes of interest, which fall into five broad skill categories: user centeredness, team work, communication, **problem** **solving**, and project planning **skills**.

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From the CSR activies, there are many direct and indirect benefits and exposures to the students through specific responsibilities in the field work. Also, students use multiple **learning** approaches to ensure CSR activities are successful and fulfill the objectives of the programme designed by the organization. Student-centered **learning** has been developed including task assignment, group discussion, **problem** **solving**, teamwork assessment, sharing knowledge and so on. Indirectly, this **learning** process establishes and improves the level of soft **skills** development. Futhermore, CSR activities have the potential to build character of leadership and communication **skills** among the students. Thus far, by contributing to the CSR activities, students of different races and religions can work together and mutually assist

From the meta-analysis, the knowledge domain only focused on statistics and calculus at the tertiary level, in which the students were able to revise what they had learnt in previous knowledge. At tertiary level, PBL gives a positive impact on **problem** **solving**, effective verbal and communication **skills**, collaborative (Tarmizi & Bayat, 2012; Tarmizi et al., 2010), performance (Gürsul & Keser, 2009; Tarmizi et al., 2012), conceptual knowledge (Leppink et al., 2013), perceived value (Leppink et al., 2013), useful **learning** (Leppink et al., 2013), cooperation (Gürsul & Keser, 2009), retention (Ahmad et al., 2008) and confidence (Ahmad et al., 2008). However, more generic **skills** should be emphasized for future employment. PBL can offer an excellent platform for the development of generic **skills** (Baharom & Palaniandy, 2013). Moreover, students should be equipped with technical **skills** for the workplace. PBL can be integrated with the technology to be implemented as an innovation in **learning** (Tarmizi et al., 2012). Therefore, students will be ready with generic **skills** and technical **skills** in the working environment.

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Non-technical **skills** - Non-technical **skills** have been referred to by different names, for example, „soft **skills**‟ (Ahmad Nabil et al., 2011), „professional **skills**‟ (Colwell, 2010), „key competencies‟ (McLeish, 2002), „generic **skills**‟ and „employability **skills**‟ (Shahrin, 2004). Zubaidah et al. (2006: 30) defined non-technical **skills** in her research as “**skills** that refer to general **skills** such as communication, negotiation, teamwork, **problem** **solving**, positive work attitudes and cooperation, which are not specific to any particular job position or workplace environment”. According to Noor Azizi et al. (2001), non-technical **skills** comprise the ability to carry out specific tasks. They include initiative, group work, reading and writing abilities, computerization, **problem** **solving**, personal attitudes, ethical and professional **skills**, communication **skills**, accounting and financial **skills**, leadership, decision-making skill, general knowledge to execute tasks, analytical, mathematical, statistical, interpretation, project management, knowledge from other relevant disciplines, self- projection, and awareness on global issues. Non-technical **skills** consist of many **skills** were stated in conceptual definitions. Nonetheless, this research will adapt non- technical **skills** from the students‟ attributes as stated in the engineering accreditation of a few countries from Washington Accord. There are five non-technical **skills**, which are identified by looking at the similarities of respective accreditation. The non-technical **skills** are communication **skills**, **problem** **solving** **skills**, teamwork **skills**, lifelong **learning** **skills** and engineering ethics.

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