Learning and Thinking Skills in English

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THINKING SKILLS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

THINKING SKILLS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Thinking is as natural as breathing, drinking and eating. People have an innate eagerness to discover things, to reason about the processes and activities they are involved in. But for adults learning a second language in an academic institution various dimensions of thinking play a significant role, including their beliefs, at- titudes, their capacity to remember, and the use of strategies. The aim of the article is to list, categorize and define a few (lower order and higher order) thinking skills (according to Bloom’s Taxonomy of 1956 and Newcomb’s and Trefz’s model of 1987) which might contribute to the enhancement of communicative compe- tence in learning and which students might need when studying at the university, particularly when learning the English language. Finally, an implementation of thinking skills and the development of the receptive and productive communication skills in teaching and learning are demonstrated on two university courses run in the English language.
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DEVELOPING SKILLS FOR A LIFETIME OF LEARNING: STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP FLEXIBLE THINKING

DEVELOPING SKILLS FOR A LIFETIME OF LEARNING: STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP FLEXIBLE THINKING

these assessments were supported by evidence from the teachers’ assessments of progress in english using the agreed sample outcomes from the english K-6 english syllabus (board of studies, 1998) and the students’ work samples. they were also confirmed by student comments in their reflective responses which were compiled at the completion of each task. the data was also gathered from each of the three groups of students across the three classes. although each class had a different number of participating students, it can be observed that the class that had the most student participants also had the students who had the strongest flexible thinking skills. this finding may simply have been the result of the impact of the type of interaction, social support and common focus amongst these students, although all students in all classes participated in the intervention irrespective of whether their data was able to be included or not in the research results. other evidence indicates that the teacher of class a was more enthusiastic about the potential of the intervention program and spent an increased amount of time developing strategies to overcome the inevitable challenges that the implementation of the intervention program presented.
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An investigation on the relationship between critical thinking skills, language learning strategies, and thinking styles of Iranian EFL learners

An investigation on the relationship between critical thinking skills, language learning strategies, and thinking styles of Iranian EFL learners

One of the main purposes of every teacher is to equip the students with the required resources to understand the content of the materials being taught in the class, and even to help them to become independent problem solvers (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000). Hence, three major factors that seem to play a role in this process are student thinking styles; critical thinking skills and students' learning strategies . However, many scholars tried to investigate the relationship between critical thinking and thinking styles or critical thinking and learning strategies; few studies, if any, tried to shed light on the relationship among critical thinking, thinking styles and learnings strategies. To this end, Sternberg’s (1988, 1997) theory of thinking styles and California’s critical thinking questionnaires as well as Oxford's (1990) language learning strategies will be utilized as three main instruments which will be filled out by 30 female and 30 male students majoring English.
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ENGLISH TEACHERS’ EFFICACY IN USING PEDAGOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO PROMOTE HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS

ENGLISH TEACHERS’ EFFICACY IN USING PEDAGOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO PROMOTE HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS

In the critical thinking pedagogical techniques, the results showed that English teachers have high self-efficacy to use some following techniques: putting the students in a group to solve the problem, discussing the answer and applying information in a particular situation, asking the students to do reflective thought, encouraging the students to do “think out aloud” when answering a question, asking questions from simple factual recall to more analysis and synthesis, modelling contextual examples when discussing content material, and evaluating student learning by allowing students to provide real-life examples. Critical thinking has become the main issue in the field of education to prepare students for the 21st-century learning (Ab Kadir, 2017; Stupple et al., 2017; Alnofaie, 2013; Petek & Bedir, 2018). On the other hand, it was clearly stated that the proper cultivation of these skills in learners was heavily dependent on teachers (Petek & Bedir, 2018). Therefore, English teachers with high self-efficacy will give the positive assumption that they will implement the critical thinking pedagogical techniques in their classroom to promote higher order thinking skill needed in the 21st- century learning.
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Adaptation of Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Towards Teaching Thinking Skills Scale Into English

Adaptation of Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Towards Teaching Thinking Skills Scale Into English

Apart from these approaches, some other programs were applied in many different countries for teaching thinking. The first program was Odessay Program in Venezuela and the second one was Smart School Project in America. For understanding the different results of the programs, other variables such as school atmosphere, teachers’ attitudes, teaching techniques, teacher motivation, course books or course materials, students’ individual differences, teaching and learning styles and teachers’ self-efficacy level which affect on teaching thinking were hold in many researches (Alnesyan, 2012; Burke & Williams, 2008; Mansour, 2009; Zhang, 2006, Fisher, 2005; Newmann,1995; Baumfield, 2006, Dilekli & Tezci, 2015; Goelz,2004; Ritchhart & Perkins, 2000; McGrane & Sternberg, 1992; Wassermann, 2010; Dori & Hertzovich, 1999; Newmann & Wehlage, 2002; Tebbs, 2000; Zohar & Schwartzer, 2005, Dilekli & Tezci, 2016; Yenipınar & Akgün, 2017). Self-efficacy is one of the dominant figures on teaching styles while applying teaching techniques, teachers’ motivation and creating friendly atmosphere for teaching thinking classrooms and schools (Dilekli & Tezci, 2016; Dilekli & Tezci, 2015; Tebbs, 2010). In many study (Baumfield & Oberski, 1998; Nair & Ngang, 2012, Wasserman, 2010; Tebbs, 2010; Dilekli & Tezci, 2015; Soh, 2017), classroom climate was mentioned as one of the important barriers standing in front of teaching thinking process. Therefore, classroom climate has strictly connected with teacher’s self-efficacy level (Alnesyan, 2012; Alwehaibi, 2012; Beyer & Ronald, 1986; Dilekli, 2015; Otman & Muhammad, 2014).
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Manifestation of critical thinking skills in the English textbooks employed by language institutes in Iran

Manifestation of critical thinking skills in the English textbooks employed by language institutes in Iran

All learned skills to be useful should be put into practice. As a critical thinking skill, the application skill requires materializing the blueprint in the mind. It also obliges learners to apply what is learned in the classroom milieu to novel real life situations. The findings of the study indicated that this skill had been moderately touched in the three books. Moreover, the results of the analysis showed that although Top notch, English files and Interchange series ranked first, second and third respectively, there was not a significant difference among the three books regarding the inclusion of this skill. As in the process of language learning learners should make use of, manipulate, modify, produce and regenerate the learned concepts in novel though artificial situations communicatively, more attention is to be paid to this skill. The current trend in ELT also calls for fostering communicative ability of learners which requires putting into practice the learned concepts and converting the concepts into action plans. The findings revealed that the difference among the books is not significant, and the overall size of this skill is not satisfactory and needs nourishing. To enrich the books in this skill, material developers can implant questions, tasks, activities and exercises which require learners to relate the concepts in the book to their context of learning and personal life. These tasks can be role play, simulation, developing portfolios and writing journals. These activities help students to materialize the ideas in their mind, identify genuine problems, and take constructive measures to solve the problems.
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CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AND MEANING IN  ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS AND MEANING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

Indonesian students, especially those from rural areas, are not accustomed to the idea that learning activities are student-centered. The features of commu- nicative competence discussed above seem to challenge the values and beliefs in the dominant culture of this nation, which is heavily influenced by the Java- nese tradition. For example, two famous Javanese philosophies such as manut lan piturut (to obey and to follow) and ewuh-pakewuh (feeling uncomfortable and uneasy) still dominantly exist in Indonesian people’s way of thinking. The impact of these cultural principles in English classes is that good students are generally those who follow their teacher's ideas without necessarily analyzing or evaluating them. Even, if they oppose the teacher’s opinions, they tend to be silent and seem to accept what the teacher says. Consequently, it is not easy to expect the students to communicate and interact openly and critically with their teachers. They might feel uncomfortable and uneasy to say something directly to their teachers, to talk about controversial matters, and to disagree with them (Setiono, 2004).
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The African Universities' Response to the Undergraduate Students' Need for Independent Learning and Critical Thinking Skills

The African Universities' Response to the Undergraduate Students' Need for Independent Learning and Critical Thinking Skills

Whatever terminology is applied and indeed many have been used% study skills , academic communication skills, learning skills, independent study skills, learning support skills , thinkin[r]

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Application of Discovery Learning to Train the Creative Thinking Skills of Elementary School Student

Application of Discovery Learning to Train the Creative Thinking Skills of Elementary School Student

From the above description, it is necessary to act in the learning of the application that is active learning. In the process, the learning method has a lot of variety, a lot of creative learning model that could potentially improve the ability of students in thematic learning. One of them, learning discovery learning, the method is to develop active learning how to find their own, investigate itself, then the results will be obtained last long in the memory so it is not easily forgotten by the students (Kristin, 2016: 86). The stages of discovery learning models, consisting of observation to find the problem, formulate the problem, propose hypotheses, planning experiments or solving problems through other means, carry out observation and data collection, data analysis, and draw conclusions on experiments that have been done or invention. If students are involved constantly in discovery learning, then students will better understand and be able to develop its cognitive aspects (Suryasubrata, 2002). Through the model of discovery learning students to be closer to what the source of learning, self-confidence of students will increase because he feels what he has understood invented by himself, in cooperation with his friend was going to increase, and certainly adds to the experience of students (Putrayasa, 2014) ,
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Higher Order Thinking Skills Among Secondary School Students in Science Learning

Higher Order Thinking Skills Among Secondary School Students in Science Learning

A central goal of science education is to help students to develop their higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of daily life. Enhancing students’ higher order thinking skills is the main goal of the Kurdish Science Curriculum in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. This study aimed at assessing 7th grade students’ higher order thinking skills level. The higher order thinking level test (HOTLT) was developed based on the Bloom Taxonomy of cognitive domain and consisted of 20 multiple-choice questions. The test was distributed to a randomly chosen sample comprising 418 7th grade students in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. The overall findings revealed that the majority of the 7th grade students were at lower level of thinking skills (LOTL) n = 278 (79.7%). More male students were at lower level than female students. However, there was no significant difference between students’ level of higher order thinking skills and their gender (p > 0.05). Based on the results of students’ level of higher order thinking skills, the study provided evidence that almost all students needs to improve their higher order thinking skills especially the synthesis and evaluation skills required for improving students’ creativity in science.
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Disparity of learning styles and higher order thinking skills among technical students

Disparity of learning styles and higher order thinking skills among technical students

Learning styles and higher order thinking skills are an important aspect in teaching and learning especially at higher education institutions. The purpose of this research was to analysis the disparity in learning styles on the level of higher order thinking skills (HOTS) among technical students. A total of 375 technical students from four technical universities in Malaysia were randomly selected as samples. The Kolb Learning Styles Inventory and a set of questionnaires adapted from Marzano Rubrics for Specific Task or Situations were used as research instruments. This is a quantitative research and the gathered data was analyzed using SPSS software. The findings indicated that the most dominant learning style among technical students is Doer. The findings also depict none of the students perceived their thinking skills’ levels to be high. Only four Marzano HOTS, namely comparing, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning and investigation are rated at the moderate level. On contrary, nine Marzano HOTS are rated as low. The Cramer V analysis showed that there is a very low relationship between Kolb Learning Styles and the level of 13 Marzano HOTS. Besides that, the findings revealed that there is statistically significant difference in Kolb Learning Styles on the level of 13 Marzano HOTS. However, only two Marzano HOTS are significant difference in Kolb Learning Styles. Therefore, the identification of learner’s learning styles could serve as initial guide in developing more effective and conducive teaching-learning environment for learning HOTS.
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Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills by Task Based Learning in Chemistry Experiment Teaching

Developing Students’ Critical Thinking Skills by Task Based Learning in Chemistry Experiment Teaching

To achieve the aims, a pre-test and post-test experimental design with an experimental group and a control group was employed. Students in the experimental group were taught with TBL, while students in the control group were taught with tra- ditional teaching methods in the experiments. Five chemical experiments were chosen as the main instructional materials because they represented that the chemistry knowledge applied in real life, which were “Reaction between sodium peroxide and water”, “Esterification”, “Alum for water purification”, “Preparation of silicic acid” and “Preparation of ferrous hy- droxide”. The experiment lasted one semester. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was used as the data collecting tool. At the beginning of the semester, the CCTST was conducted in the control group and the experimental group to assess their CT skills level and examine whether there were differences. At the end of the semester, the CCTST was also implemented in the two groups to make a comparison with the pre-test and test the hypotheses.
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Critical Thinking Skills Across the Semester in Lecture- and Team-Based Learning Classes

Critical Thinking Skills Across the Semester in Lecture- and Team-Based Learning Classes

& Eison, 1991; Gokhale, 1995; Johnson & Johnson, 1989; Laal & Ghodsi, 2012; Panitz, 1999; Penningroth et al., 2007; Roberts, 2004). Collaborative learning is defined as a situation in which people interact in ways that enhance learning and achieve academic goals (Dillembourg, 1999; Gokhale, 1995). The goals of collaborative learning include students taking responsibility for working together and evolving as individuals and as a group (Dooly, 2008). Collaborating on critical issues is a necessary part of today’s academic world (Austin, 2000; Laal, Naseri, Laal, & Khattami-Kermanshahi, 2013; Welch, 1998). Studies have shown that students who participate in a collaborative learning perform better on critical thinking tests compared to students who participate in individual learning (Gokhale, 1995; Johnson & Johnson, 1989; Laal & Ghodsi, 2012; Panitz, 1999; Roberts, 2004). Groups engaged in discussion and active learning displayed greater increases in content- specific psychological critical thinking components, such as analysis and application, when compared to groups that received a standard lecture (Penningroth et al., 2007). Additionally, participating in active learning produces increases in critical thinking skills when compared to passive learning (Burbach et al., 2004; Walker, 2003; Youngblood & Beitz, 2001). As a broad definition, active learning is defined as any form of learning in which students engage in an activity that results in concept reflection (Cohn, Atlas, & Ladner, 1994; Linton, Pangle, Wyatt, Powell, & Sherwood, 2014; Prince, 2004). For students to engage in optimal active learning, they must not only listen, but also read, write, discuss, and engage in problem solving as well as interact with peers (Bonwell & Eison, 1991; Linton, Farmer, & Peterson, 2014). In addition, students should engage in higher-order thinking tasks, including analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Bonwell & Eison, 1991). Therefore, general and content-specific critical thinking skills should increase over the course of a semester if argument analysis, small group/collaborative learning, or active learning methods are utilized.
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Mathematical Module Design To Improve Creative Thinking Skills Based On Problem-Based Learning

Mathematical Module Design To Improve Creative Thinking Skills Based On Problem-Based Learning

The The 21st-century learning process is a student-centered learning process. In the learning process, students are required to think critically and creatively in solving problems [1]. Creativity is one of the most important features because of industrial and economic dependence on innovation [2]. The level of creativity is still at a basic level [3]. The teacher as a facilitator of students can build knowledge for themselves. In the process of learning mathematics, some students choose to be quiet and wait for the teacher to explain. Mastery of the material being studied is still low and the activity of discussion is also lacking [4]. Teachers must teach teaching materials to improve student creativity [5]. Modules are a book written with the aim that students can learn independently without or with teacher guidance [6]. One important role in the learning process is the existence of learning resources or teaching materials that can help students understand the material easily and learn independently. Learning resources are materials that can be utilized and needed to help teachers and students in the learning process [7]. One of the goals in mathematics learning is that students can solve problems so that the problem-solving process becomes an important part of the learning process. The ability to think creatively has an important role in life because creativity is a powerful source of human resources to drive human progress in terms of tracing, development, and discoveries in the fields of science and technology and all fields of human endeavor [8].
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TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HIGHER-ORDER THINKING SKILLS AND ITS LEARNING STRATEGY

TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HIGHER-ORDER THINKING SKILLS AND ITS LEARNING STRATEGY

Higher order thinking skill (HOTS) is one of the students’ abilities that should be developed through teaching and learning. Teachers’ knowledge about HOTS and its teaching and learning tactics is a key to successful education. The purpose of this research is to describe teachers’ knowledge about higher order thinking skills (HOTS). The research involves qualitative study with the phenomenological approach. The research participants are 27 mathematics teachers from state and private junior high schools across 7 provinces in Indonesia. The researcher collected data with a test followed by focus group discussion (FGD) and interviews. The analysis of data involved Bogdan & Biklen model and descriptive statistics for data from the test. The analysis of FGD, and test data intends to get information on 6 sub-themes; teachers’ knowledge about HOTS, importance of HOTS, teaching about HOTS to students, improving students’ HOTS, measuring and assessing HOTS, and teachers’ ability for solving HOTS-based problems. The results indicate that teachers’ knowledge about HOTS, their ability to improve students’ HOTS, solve HOTS-based problems, and measure students' HOTS is still low. There are facts, however, that teachers already understand the importance of HOTS and teaching it by using various innovative learning models. Keywords: HOTS, measurement and assessment, teachers’ knowledge, teaching and learning
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Critical Thinking Skills Based–Physical Activities Learning Model for Early Childhood

Critical Thinking Skills Based–Physical Activities Learning Model for Early Childhood

In doing physical activity, there is an input accepted by the brain and then there is a command to do action (Deborah et al., 2009). There are three stages in motion learning through the stages of development such as cognition, fixation, and autonomy (Anson et al., 2005). Adaptive and flexible modifications from motoric behaviors are rudimentary to various skilled actions that characterize human behaviors (Seidler, 2010). Motoric learning is a series of processes related to the practice or experience which direct to the change of permanent relative in the ability to skilled movement. Motoric activity, and especially training coordinative capacity, can become one of the factors, which gives a contribution to increase potency to cognitive development on the children (Galdi et al., 2015). All cognition is built from lower-order brain systems, including (1) sensory and motor systems, (2) auditory and language systems, (3) attention and executive function, (4) social and emotional systems, (5) memory systems, and (6) behavior and reward systems (Jensen, 2005).
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ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH SKILLS THROUGH GAME BSED LEARNING (GBL)

ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH SKILLS THROUGH GAME BSED LEARNING (GBL)

The teaching of English is a growing focus of many nation, states as English is considered to be a Key competence in the information society. (Graddol, 2006.) India is not exceptional to this, NCF (2005) focus on teaching English to the children at the early stages of English. So it may create both competent citizens and competitive nation, (Hansbol and Meyer, 2011. Shore & Wright, 1997.)

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The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

The role of critical thinking skills and learning styles of university students in their academic performance

are ranked from 1 to 4 in which 4 is most consistent with the participants’ learning style 3 to some extent, 2 poorly consistent and 1 not consistent. To find the participants’ learning styles, the first choice of all 12 questions were added together and this was repeated for other choices. Thus, four total scores for the four learning styles were obtained, the first for concrete experience learning style, the second for reflective observation of learning style, the third for abstract conceptualization learning style and the forth for active experimentation learning style. The highest score determined the learning style of the participant. The California critical thinking skills test (form B) includes 34 multiple choice questions with one correct answer in five different areas of critical thinking skills, including evaluation, inference, analysis, inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The answering time was 45 minutes and the final score is 34 and the achieved score in each section of the test varies from 0 to 16. In the evaluation section, the maximum point is 14, in analysis section 9, in inference section 11, in inductive reasoning 16 and in deductive reasoning the maximum point was 14. So there were 6 scores for each participant, which included a critical thinking total score and 5 score for critical thinking skills. Dehghani, Jafari Sani, Pakmehr and Malekzadeh found that the reliability of the questionnaire was 78% in a research. In the study of Khalili et al., the confidence coefficient was 62% and construct validity of all subscales with positive and high correlation were reported between 60% -65%. So this test was reliable for the research. Collecting the information was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the questionnaires were given to the students and the objectives and importance of the research were mentioned. In the next stage, the students' academic performance was reviewed. After data collection, the data were coded and analyzed, using the SPSS 14 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). To describe the data, descriptive statistics were used such as mean and standard deviation for continues variables and frequency for qualitative variables. Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine the relationship between variables at a significant level of p<0.05.
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Promoting higher order thinking skills through outside classroom strategy in learning mathematics

Promoting higher order thinking skills through outside classroom strategy in learning mathematics

It is clear that these major elements in both assessments reflect the pattern of Malaysia students’ thinking. Learning Mathematics is not just memorizing and do the exercises, but it needs to relate and apply the concepts into real life situations. Therefore, through outside classroom learning strategy, it provides student with real experience and helps them to appreciate the importance of mathematics in their everyday life (Moffett, 2011). HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS AND CREATIVE THINKING IN MATHEMATICS
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Teachers Challenges in Teaching and Learning for Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in Primary School

Teachers Challenges in Teaching and Learning for Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in Primary School

With respect to teacher knowledge of HOTS, majority of teachers only had very basic knowledge of HOTS and they had misconceptions on some key components of HOTS. It can be concluded that teachers need to be given extensive training about HOTS. The biggest challenge for these teachers were to teach something that they did not fully understood; and to transfer skills that they did not fully master to pupils. Teachers who did not understood HOTS would not have the competencies in HOTS which in turn would affect their skills in teaching for HOTS. Therefore, this study found that teachers faced the biggest challenge in innovating new ideas for teaching for HOTS. Majority of the teachers would work with the methods of teaching and the thinking tools suggested by Ministry of Education which were available in Standard Document of Curriculum and textbook. But they still could not innovate their own ways and tools.
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