On the one hand, strategic orientations seemed able to improve the success of SMEs. It can be explained further that strategic orientations are more likely to establish the firm’s competitive advantage that leads to better performance. According to Herath and Mahmood (2013), understanding the influence of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), market orientation (MO), and learningorientation (LO) on performance of SMEs particularly in developing countries is very important since it might enhance the better performance. Moreover, there has been a lack of study to investigate the influence of these three strategic orientations on performance of SMEs at the same time, although there have been a lot of strategic orientations studied in existing literature (Herath& Mahmood, 2014). In addition, access to finance is the life-blood for business firms to prosper by helping them to exploit growth and investment opportunities (Ahmad &Arif, 2015; Musamali&Tarus, 2013). Therefore, EO, MO, LO, and access to finance can be viewed as the vital resources of SMEs to improve their performance.
In spite of the recognized significant contribution of SMEs to the nations’ economy, Nigerian SMEs performance is below expectation. Their low contribution to GDP and employment shows this gross underperformance. Moreover, the SMEs high failure rate is another indication of their low performance. Hence, past literatures suggest that strategic orientations have a significant effect on firm performance, even though most of the studies concentrated on investigating one or two strategic orientation at a time. Research on the combination of these important strategic orientations in a single model is scarce, and there is paucity about the best orientations to be adopted. The objective of this study is to investigate the positive influence of entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, learningorientation, and technology orientation on SMEs performance in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of questionnaire survey research design was conducted and data was generated from 362 usable questionnaires of owner-managers of small firms. To conduct the analysis, the study applies PLS-SEM to understand the positive effects of entrepreneurial, market, learning and technology orientations on the performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The results indicate that entrepreneurial, learning and technology orientations have positive affect on performance, however, in this context, the result do not support the view that market orientation positively affect firm performance. Essentially, the findings suggest that SMEs need to combine their entrepreneurial ability with learning from their environment and adopting new technology trends in the markets.
In general, learningorientation (OB) is associated with the process of knowledge creation. According to Levinthal & March (1993), learningorientation shows the ability of organizations to carry out the learning process. A set of organizational values that influence actions and efforts to obtain and share information related to customer needs, competitor actions, and market changes that drive products beyond competitors (Calantone et al., 2002). Learningorientation shows a framework of organizational values such as principles, morals, ethics, standards, and ideas that give rise to action activities to broaden decision-makers' perspectives and exploit opportunities. Values such as commitment to learning, open-mindedness, and sharing of vision are the keys to being able to adapt to dynamic environmental conditions and competition (Wolff et al., 2015). Likewise, the level of learningorientation that is indicated by the willingness to learn, open-mindedness in facing the challenges of a competitive environment, and the value of sharing a shared vision and commitment to deal with partners increase the effectiveness of the utilization of knowledge (Darroch, 2005). Previous research confirmed the positive relationship between learningorientation in knowledge management. The ability of organizations to continue learning as a process of gaining knowledge, disseminating, and interpreting information and external knowledge supports knowledge management activities (Ho, 2008). The view of the importance of learning to build the company's future through activity interactions with customers and exploration of opportunities supported by human resource practices influences the attitude of organizations in knowledge management (Griese et al., 2012). Learningorientation as a set of characteristics, ethics, norms makes learning possible by combining knowledge, new knowledge creation, and utilization (Huang & Li, 2017). Therefore:
In a developing country as Mexico, where its regional systems of innovations has been increasing, is necessary to refocus the efforts, especially on the support of the small and medium enterprises. Especially in the actual context, where the investment on supporting innovation in the country still low. This is because the efforts have been focused in regulation issues and it has been investigated too few in matters of economies of knowledge. These last ones can impulse significant changes in the corporation, especially in the small and medium companies, which represent a very important sector in the economy of any country, because probably each one has by itself a medium impact; but together have a relevant contribution. In Mexico strong barriers of innovation are identified (OECD, 2009) and therefore the companies constantly take decisions in order to adapt to the necessities of the market. These decisions are made with the purpose having presence and to belong in the market, of course all the time they are searching strategies that improve their performance and advantages in relation with the competence. Using structural equation models it was inquired the influence that has the strategical learningorientation over the innovation of the enterprises and their effects in the performance of the SMEs, in one of the states of the Mexican Republic situated in the centre of the country.
Of late, information technology (IT) is considered as a key component in every organisation. Improving IT competence to become agile and retain its competitive advantage is an important part of any organisation’s strategy. Organisation Integration of IT and learning is very crucial. Continuous learning enables organisations to enhance their performance. LearningOrientation (LO) is a pillar of strength in every organisation. LO is also a vital part in organisational learning, which explains organisation’s values of learning culture, shared goals and sharing knowledge. The research issue highlighted in prior studies emphasised on the link that relates organisational performance, competitive advantage, and agility. Agility refers to the response characteristic of the organisation, which implies organisations’ quick response internally and externally and capability to gain an advantage in cost and time. Consequently, the aims of this research are to investigate the relationship of LO, IT Infrastructure Flexibility (ITIF) and organisational agility in the context of Malaysian organisations. Specifically, this paper discusses the pilot study procedures conducted and findings from surveys. Data collected from 50 participants were analysed statistically using SPSS 23.0 and SmartPLS 3.0. The results indicated that the research instruments are reliable and valid for a larger sample size. The descriptive statistics also show the existence of a learning culture and IT capability in Malaysia in enhancing organisational responsiveness.
Another important implication for managers is that generative learningorientation is crucial for firms to fully benefit from their competencies in CRM. In addition to its direct effect, generative learning also increases the performance contribution of CRM capabilities. In total and all other variables being equal, an increase of generative learningorientation by one unit (seven-point scale) can command an increase of up to 0.31 in customer performance. In perspective, the average customer performance in our sample was 4.96 (Table II). Thus, an increase by 0.31 equals almost 7 percent of the average customer performance. Since even small changes in customer performance have a strong impact on financial performance (also ct. Fornell et al., 2006; Gupta and Zeithaml, 2006), this finding indicates a remarkable and substantial result for managers. Managers should therefore incorporate double-loop learning that leads to new mental models into their firm’s CRM activities. Appropriate measures to increase generative learning include a strong commitment from top management, a shared vision within the responsible department, and more generally open-mindedness for new influences of all employees involved (Sinkula et al., 1997). In doing so, firms can better extract hidden information from large databases, predict future behaviors and preferences, and eventually identify valuable customers.
The present study was conducted to evaluate e-learningorientation of post-graduate students in regular and distance education programs. The main objective of the study was to compare the e-learningorientation of post-graduate students in regular and distance education programs. The investigator selected 180 post- graduate students in regular and distance education programs as sample through stratified random sampling technique (90 students of regular education programs and 90 students of distance education programs) from Lovely Professional University. E-LearningOrientation Scale developed and standardized by Dr.Saurabhi Chaturvedi, Dr. Santosh Dhar and Dr. Upinder Dharr was used for collection of data. For analysis and interpretations of result the investigator used t-test as statistical technique. Analysis of results shows as: (1)There exists no significant difference in e-learningorientation of post-graduate students in regular and distance education programs, (2) There exists significant difference in e- learningorientation of male and female students in regular education programs.(3)There exists no significant difference in e-learningorientation of male and female students in distance education programs.
According to the definition by Kohli and Jaworski (1990), market-oriented organizations should understand the needs of customers, collect relevant market information, and transfer the information between marketing department and cross-functional department, and then organizations carry out diversification strategy based on the needs of customers through combining all resources of organization. While a series of latest studies indicate that learningorientation has an impact on performance through improving the quality of market orientation behaviors and a direct impact on performance through learning promoting innovation of products, processes and systems. Slater and Narver (1995) also consider that market orientation and learningorientation interact; both of them can effectively improve organizational performance. They also consider that learningorientation is a link between market orientation and organizational performance. While Baker and Sinkula (1999) find that learningorientation (which is the higher level of learningorientation) and market orientation have a distinct positive impact on performance, besides, learningorientation and market orientation also have an integrated impact on performance according to the survey on top managers of marketing and non-marketing departments of 411 American companies. It means that the market orientation behavior of organization can hardly improve performance faster than its competitors if the organization does not have strong learningorientation. In addition, Lin (2001) has an empirical study about the relationship chain of market orientation-learningorientation-organizational performance through surveying high-tech enterprises in Taiwan. The result validated that learningorientation is a mediator between market orientation and organizational performance. Thus, we hypothesize
This study enriches studies in strategic management theory in the context of Knowledge-Based View of SMEs. The practical implications for SME owners and managers in improving their performance; a) can increase their market orientation in oder to be consistent and always committed to serving the needs of customers in the future; b) can increase the entrepreneurial orientation to be more proactive by always looking for new opportunities to improve the performance of the company in the future; and c) can improve the learningorientation by means of setting clear management vision for the future understood by all parties within the company a clear vision will create cooperation to achieve company goals; d) can enhance innovations in the way companies continue to create new products, especially in terms of motives, which is supported by the improvement of administrative procedures of servicing customers and suppliers; e) can enhance the company's competitiveness by creating quality and durable products, and customize the products to customer needs; and f) can improve the performance of the company by way of creating customer loyalty.
This study aims to investigate the effect of Market Orientation (MO), Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO), LearningOrientation (LO) and Performance (P). The study was greatly motivated by the inconsistent findings and the gaps indicated in the contemporary literature regarding those relationships. First there were contradictory findings between EO and Performance, MO and Performance and LO and Performance relationships. Second, the three strategies; MO, EO and LO were not investigated together within the context of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Data were collected from SMEs operating in the Punjab Province, Pakistan. By using questionnaire survey, and a random sampling was used for sample selection. 380 questionnaires were distributed to SME owner/managers but only 330 of them were returned, giving a response rate of 83 percent. Only 318 useable questionnaires were used for further analysis. The findings revealed that EO, MO and LO were significantly related to performance. The findings of this study provided significant insights for both managers and researchers to further understand the effects of implemented strategies on performance. Finally, limitations of study and necessary recommendations for future research were discussed.
The structural results exceed established benchmarks; the R 2 were equal to or greater than the recommended 0.10 (Falk and Miller, 1992) and the critical ratios (t-values) were all above 1.96 indicating that each of the structural paths (hypotheses) were significant. The results indicate that learningorientation positively influences LTMO (H1: r=.60; t= 7.91) accounting for 36% of the variance in LTMO indicating that if an organisation is committed to learning, has a shared vision and is open minded they are more likely to gain advantages from MO practices in a market oriented environment. Similarly, positive results were found for the impact of LTMO on new product success (H3: r= .44; t=7.20) and brand performance (H5: r=.45; t= 3.48) with LTMO accounting for 19% of the variance on new product success and 10% of the variance on brand performance. A strong positive relationship was also found between new product success and brand performance, indicating the more successful the product is the more likely the brand will perform (H4: r=.69; t=12.92) as new product success accounted for 41% of the variance in brand performance.
technology influenced globalization, competition and business environment. Learning is an important for organizations in order in order to respond to uncertain circumstances faced by the organization to survive in competitive environment. In addition, the world’s trends are complicated, so individuals need improve their learning for understanding these complications. The leader ability to command and control the processes on organization depend on its learning. Learning increases the knowledge of employee’s which the source of competitive advantage is. The imitation of new product development requires the learning capability. Therefore, learningorientation is one of the most important factors for new product development and innovation capability. The learning of an organization is an important factor that can let organization be successful in its organizational learning process and for positive outcomes.
The dual construct of MO in this paper has been expanded in four ways. First, learningorientation was defined within the context of market driven and market driving behaviour and different learning types of behaviour were outlined. Second, the discussion explored how customer, competitor, and inter- functional coordination variables could be expanded through more recent scholarly contributions to MO. Third, innovation was outlined as an additional MO orientation and linked to different learning type actions. Fourth, the discussion explored how new product success and brand performance is perhaps a more reliable measure of MO.
Outliers are common not only because of illumination changes, occlusions or cast shadows but also because the depth measurements provided by an depth camera could be very noisy and the obtained depth maps usually contain “holes” or miss- ing parts. It should be mentioned here that there are several cases that should be considered as ”partial occlusions”, i.e. in case of extreme facial expressions when a face is tracked, or when an hand/object covers partially the tracked object by touch- ing it or not. Figure 1 depicts a few examples for all those common cases by using Kinect, in both texture and depth information. In contrary to the texture informa- tion, there are cases of partially object occlusions where there are not significant differences in the depth information when a hand/object touches an object, as the raw Kinect depth data is of low resolution with high noise levels. Furthermore, as it is shown in Figure 1, there are many cases when the estimation of the nose tip in the 3D space is very possible to fail, such as cases of extreme facial expressions or when a hand covers partially the object by touching it. This is a problem for all methods for both 3D tracking/pose estimation and 3D face recognition such as [1,2] that are based on an accurate nose tip estimation. In , the use of random re- gression forests for real time head pose estimation from high quality range scans, is introduced. Note that subspace learning for visual tracking requires robustness, ef- ficiency and online adaptation. This combined problem has been vary rarely studied in literature. For example, in , the subspace is efficiently learned online using in- cremental ℓ 2
This paper presents a general strategy for inferring semantic orientation from semantic asso- ciation. Section 1 gives two examples of this strategy, one based on mutual information (Church & Hanks, 1989) and the other based on Latent Semantic Analysis (Landauer and Dumais, 1997). Related work is examined in Section 2. Hatzivassiloglou and McKeown (1997) have devel- oped a supervised learning algorithm that learns semantic orientation from linguistic constraints on the use of adjectives in conjunctions.
By adopting a Grounded Theory approach to the investigation of activities supporting students’ active participation, the study described in this paper enabled the university to access rich information. The findings of this study suggest that having an orientation strategy clearly communicated to students, alongside expectations and available support, is the first step in engaging students. Students who are both practically orientated and orientated to the demands of their course are empowered to participate fully and actively in their course. At the highest level, course orientation, supported via an organised, relevant curriculum and practical orientation and realised through a responsive learning environment, should provide embedded opportunities for new students to become active participants in their learning. An active participation model
In response, many organisations implement performance measurement systems (PMS). Performance measurement represents the process through which data on performance indicators is collected, evaluated, analysed, and utilised (Samsonowa, 2012). While its foundations lie in organisational control theory, growing calls suggest that the main purpose of performance measurement should be ‘organisational learning’ (Davenport, 2006). A well-designed PMS, which engages employees in conversations centred on firm performance, can stimulate entrepreneurial orientation, improve learning outcomes, and increase firm performance (Bititci, 2015). Through MFL and entrepreneurial orientation, PMS enable firms to become more responsive within turbulent markets; reacting better to customer demands whilst achieving cost reductions (Nudurupati et al., 2011). Within hospitality and tourism, studies on performance measurement typically focus on financial performance (Sainaghi et al., 2017), with discourse often fixated on hotel profitability (Sainaghi, 2010). However, the frequently intangible services provided by hospitality and tourism organisations demand a more nuanced approach (Huang, 2008). This is typically referred to as comprehensive performance measurement, and “provides a certain breadth, reflects strategy and yields information about cause-and-effect relationships” (Homburg et al., 2012, p.1) – presenting a more detailed insight into firm performance.
Interaction of uncertainty avoidance and collectivism Uncertainty avoidance refers to the extent to which people seek orderliness, consistency, structure and clearly articulated expectations (Javidan & House, 2001). High UA is associated with a desire to reduce ambiguity and a need for predictability, whereas low UA is associated with a propensity to engage in novel and risk-taking behaviour (Triandis, 1995). Applied to the work context, these dynamics may influence an individual’s preference for work structures and processes that reduce or do not increase the level of uncertainty or support openness in thought and action. High UA values may enhance one’s motivation to work in a social environment such as in a team, because work teams focus on setting goals, scheduling time and asserting effort towards timely completion of tasks that often have fixed deadlines. There are some studies that suggest that UA values tend to foster pro- social attitudes and behaviours. For example, in their meta- analysis, Taras et al. (2010) found that UA was positively associated with team commitment and cooperation in groups. Mustafa (2015) argues that an interdependent orientation would be more desirable for individuals who endorse high UA values. Furthermore, conservation values that are conceptually related to UA values have been reported to inhibit antisocial behaviour (Schwartz, 2007, 2010). On the other hand, greater emphasis on openness in thought and action by individuals low on UA orientation may lead to reduced interdependence and cooperation by such individuals in group settings (e.g. Schwartz, 1992). Moreover,
and 14 males - 4 people were recorded twice) recorded while sitting about 1 meter away from the sensor. For each frame, a depth image, the corresponding texture image (both 640x480 pixels), and the annotation is provided. The head pose range covers about ±75 degrees yaw and ±60 degrees pitch. The subjects were asked to rotate their heads trying to span all possible ranges of angles their head is capable of. Ground truth is provided in the form of the 3D location of the head and its rotation. In this database, the texture data are not aligned with the depth data, while in many videos the problem of the frame dropping exists. Because of that, we were able to test our method only on 10 videos in which the misalignment difference in pixels was almost constant and the number of the dropped frames was quite small. The best configuration of our method (3D+IGO+AA) was compared to the state-of-the art method presented in  which is based on discriminative random regression forests: ensembles of random trees trained by splitting each node so as to simultaneously reduce the entropy of the class labels distribution and the variance of the head position and orientation. The results are given in Table I, where mean and standard deviations of the angular errors are shown together. The last column shows the percentage of images where the angular error was below 10 degrees.