Implementing instructional techniques designed to maintain student interest, especially in the Moral Education classroom is still a major challenge for teachers. The conventional classroom teaching seems difficult to attract the attention of students to engage themselves physically and mentally in the learning process. Therefore, this article introduces Forum Theatre as a technique that can be utilized to improve the effectiveness of teaching and enhance learning. After describing the framework of the Forum Theatre (develop a script, anti- model play, forum and intervention play), the article also describes how this interactive technique could enhance learning, its impact, and how it can be used as a teaching tool. The study also showed that Forum Theatre increases student engagement and their ability to explore real moral issues which they facing in their daily lives.
As evidence of the importance of the combined face-to-face assisted by lecturers with e-learning, it was found that 24 lecturers were participating in applying the blended learning method. The lecturer participation was proven based on the lecturer work report. It was found that all lecturers in micro-teaching courses participated in applying the stati-rotation, lab-rotation, and individual rotation models. Six lecturers (25%) worked in the English study program, six (25%) in the Mathematics study program, six lecturers (25%) in the Islamic Religious Education study program, and six others (25%) in the PGMI study program. Furthermore, in term of the flipped classroom model, lecturers’ work reports showed that lecturers give assignments to students, such as having them carry learning tools when they want to practice teaching, including education calendar, syllabus, Teaching Program Plan, and programs, both semester- and annual-based ones. Students fulfilled the tasks assigned by lecturers by doing it outside the face-to-face meetings. In this case, the participating lecturers implemented a flipped classroom, where learning time in class with homework was integrated and harmonized according to the micro-teaching curriculum. In fulfilling the assignments ordered by lecturers, the students did browsing and searching for the assignment materials through online coursework. That way, lecturers could use their teaching time by making assignments and learning projects. Lecturers and students combined the results of the face-to-face lecturers compiled from the project work with those the students browsed and written in the assignment sheets (Beaumont, 2018). It was found that twelve lecturers participated in implementing the blended learning model of the flipped classroom (50%).
We frequently make use of arts-based methods in research projects, and we are always keen to explore alternative strategies for reflection and professional experience presentation. Kathleen suggested that we collaboratively prepare a readers’ theatre script as a vehicle to explore our object activity; she had attended an interesting conference presentation where she was introduced to readers’ theatre as a form of creative analytical practice in qualitative inquiry. Because the object activity had been video recorded, we could later view the 11 participants’ object reflections to find material for our script. Each participant explained the entanglement of HIV and AIDS and the object using unique, thought-provoking metaphors. We limited our object descriptions to three because we wanted to provide the detailed discussion offered by particular participants. Through consensual choice we then selected the descriptions of Crispin, Nareen and Delysia as representative of the workshop participants’ responses. Only after we had selected these three object descriptions to create the readers’ theatre script did we note that all of the objects were containers ‒ a plastic bag, an empty container, and a container filled with jam. In this way the script became a mirror in which we could see our own learning about the value of arts-based, participatory activities for containing and connecting professional learning in higher education, particularly in relation to emotionally sensitive areas such as HIV and AIDS.
Learning via an online module can be challenging for adolescent students. Previous research has shown that despite modern secondary school students having a high degree of digital literacy and social skill, there is a reluctance to transfer this skill and enthusiasm to an educational setting (Bolstad & Lin, 2009; Parkes et al., 2011; Wright, 2010). From the pre-course questionnaire (Appendix 12) 11 of the 16 students were unsure about learning online and lack of computer skill was most frequently identified factor which would affect their participation. These initial responses suggesting apprehension to learn online were not evident throughout any part of the study. From my observations, interview responses and discussions with the classroom teacher, all students appeared to be enthusiastic and ready to learn via the online module. This enthusiasm was observed in class, and during post-course interviews several students explained their preference for learning via an online module rather than in face-to- face lessons. Based on my experience at School A and knowledge of boys’ education, I expected students’ involved in the study would show enthusiasm for learning with technology. Findings from the present study were similar to Gunn, et al., (2003) who reported males were not apprehensive about using online material and were confident in their overall technical ability when learning online. The high level of confidence also observed in the present study was demonstrated through students’ eagerness to participate. This readiness to learn with technology potentially contributed to high levels of NCEA achievement.
In recent years, the information technology and internet technology in particular, has developed rapidly, and our society has entered the “ Internet+ ” era. In the field of education, the information technology has increasingly and profoundly affected the development and reform of education in China. In 2011, Salman Khan made a brilliant speech on “reproducing education with video” at TED, drawing the atten- tion of educators around the world to “ micro-lectures ” and “ flipping classroom ” . Due to the rise of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), a large number of micro-lectures have been developed. On the one hand, MOOCs offer quality courses from top universities to any learner in the world. On the other hand, they can be redeployed as supplementary residential courses in which students first use MOOCs to interact with online courses and then attend face-to-face classes to focus on the specific questions they have. Researchers and educators are convinced that flipped classroom practices based on open online videos can promote student participation, resulting in better learning outcomes (Kong, 2014; Tune, Sturek, & Basile, 2013). In addition, some researchers have shown the impact of flipped learning on student-centered learning variables, such as self-efficacy (SE) and self- regulated learning (SRL) (Lai & Hwang, 2016; Lin, Hsia, Sung, & Hwang, 2018).
Logistic regression modelling was used to de- termine which student characteristics were as- sociated with regular participation of each of the four distinct factors obtained in the preced- ing factor analysis. Students aged 23 years or over, or studying health, life, social or philo- sophical subjects were more likely to participate regularly in the use of ICT for information and communication purposes. However, in Croatia, students studying these subjects were less likely to participate than business students. Male stu- dents were more likely than females to use spe- cialised softwares for designing, drawing, math- ematics or statistics, as were students in Croa- tia and students studying engineering, physics, computing and creative industries. Scottish stu- dents were more likely than Croatian students to use ICT for acquiring educational informa- tion, and females were more likely than males to participate in writing essays and preparing presentations. Previous studies have also found that women are more suited to e-learning activ- ities [ 7 ] .
guidance on accessing HE in their ESOL classes, none of the other participants responded (see screenshot of this post in Appendix E). He then cited this lack of response back to me as a reason for not posting again. This seems to relate to the persistent tacit assumption I think I held about participants in the earlier stages of the research, that by agreeing to be involved in the research, they were fully identifying with being a member of a ‘refugee community. In this way, I was unknowingly cementing an arbitrary interpretation of what it meant to be an ‘insider’ or ‘outsider’ in the research. That is, my positionality as an ‘outsider’ (non-refugee) was defining how I assumed participants might identify with the ‘refugee’ label. Hynes (2003) points to multiple factors which may contribute to refugee mistrust of others, accumulating over the course of leaving their home country to the point of settling elsewhere. This includes the interpersonal dynamics with other refugee people within a perceived ‘refugee community’, in which intersectional cultural and social dimensions create tensions and power imbalances, as within any other social context. In this way the forum became an important boundary setting tool in signalling how people chose to engage in the research on an individual basis, requiring me to reflect on how I understood research participation as it was developing. Rather than close it down I decided to use it as dissemination tool for
Given this paucity of information, it is not surprising that about half of all students were unaware of the various sources of student financial support available. Even if students were more knowledgeable, they would not necessarily receive any help because of the increasing constraints on these funding sources. However, this should not be seen as a reason for denying students access to high quality information. Ironically too, there was a tendency for students from social classes D and E, those potentially in the greatest need of such financial aid, to be less knowledgeable about student funding than students from social classes A and B, especially in relation to charitable organisations, LEA grants, college ad hoc schemes, and tax relief. After lack of knowledge about student financial support, the next main reason students gave for not receiving it was that they were ineligible. This was the case even among those students who, in reality, were likely to be eligible. So again, this suggests that for certain types of student support such as Career Development Loans and tax relief, students had misunderstood the eligibility criteria or had been misinformed. What these findings strongly suggest is that more students could benefit from student financial support if more high quality information was more widely disseminated within the student body as a whole and among potential students. There were so few students receiving financial support that it was not possible to explore how they used their money, in any reliable way. The indications are that students receiving Access/Hardship Funds and LEA aid most often spent their awards on books or equipment and travel to and from college. Their most costly items of expenditure, however, were childcare and general living expenses.
responsibility, they are expected to convene inter-agency forums which include the key providers of further education and LEAs. This emphasis on increased consultation and partnership applies equally in the realm of bidding for funds. Organisations are generally expected to consult employers and the community in preparing their bids. Some require, in addition, that bids be made on an inter-agency or partnership basis. Many of the key local stakeholders in post-16 education and training therefore meet repeatedly in different forums to discuss similar and linked issues. Equally, many work together to deliver specific initiatives. We are concerned that this flowering of consultation, partnership and inter-agency network is often focused on single issue activities and masks the absence of any fully effective local strategic dimension in determining the character of, and priorities for, public investment in further education. The absence of a strategic dimension at local level, in our view, is a major weakness in the system which significantly reduces the potential for widening participation. While acknowledging that the rich diversity of provision, providers and delivery mechanisms within further education must be recognised and celebrated, the diversity in arrangements for collecting data and monitoring performance, which are so crucial to planning, are its AchillesÕ heel. The potential for collaborative approaches at local level to prioritise needs and to facilitate coherent responses would be greatly increased if government adopted a more consistent approach to collecting data, assessing quality and monitoring performance.
This paper is deliberately autoethnographic, as I am reflecting upon and analyzing my own experiences within an educational context. There are many approaches to autoethnography (Ellis, 2004; Ellis, Jones, & Adams, 2013; Jones, 2015), and this one attempts to draw reflexively on experience to produce a qualitative outcome. The outcome here will be the model for using theatre for education, which I describe later in the paper. I ask the reader, when assessing the rigor of this research, to consider whether the sample-size limitations of my first-person experiences may be offset by the depth of description that can only be gained and explained through authoethnographic research. I will firstly discuss the pedagogical advantages of working with theatre-based methods, and then offer a step by step summary of my Theatre as Education approach, as it has evolved after thirty years of teaching. So, although I am telling my story of teaching theatre for education, I am also offering an analysis and an outcome, which may be useful to other educators. My hope is that teachers will engage with the concept of Drama as pedagogy, and that children might enjoy more arts-based activities to inspire and empower their learning.
I suggest that engaging in collaborations as well as dialogue with theatre artists with different teaching approaches may offer the opportunity for a reflexive examination of the respective ideologies within each teaching practice. It follows that collaborative arts practices as unpacked here highlight “the complex entanglement and struggle of theatre processes and of learningthroughtheatre” (Hladki 2003, p. 145). As it is observed and discussed in greater detail in a later section of this chapter, Rita’s “increasingly clear” habitus becomes destabilised when faced with the practices of a theatre artist with a different habitus, consequently turning the process of collaboration into a challenging experience of (re)evaluation and (re)learning. Collaborative projects involving practitioners with ‘different’ practices offer the possibilities to exercise reflexive critique, not only of the partner’s work, but also of one’s own. Implicated within such collaborations is Lather’s (2008) ‘critiquing across difference’. The opportunity of working with an approach deemed ‘other’ challenges and offers the ‘shock’ that is needed to question existing assumptions. I submit further that collaboration is a site of complex social relations of ‘interacting differences’. It should be viewed as a positive, one that could offer seeds of possible re-learning, re-invention and re-creation.
2) Understanding learning experiences: To understand the learning experiences of the students during the HEC, we asked the students to fill 5-point Likert scale proforma. The questions covered the following twelve areas: collegiality  , safe and non-judgmental environment , participation in community education , assumption of leadership responsibilities , interaction with the community -, participation in the ses- sions , focusing without imposing or being directive , responsibility for identifying learning objectives , post-session self-directed learning , prompt feedback regarding student performance , learning in the community   , and whether the HEP was a success .
Learners had participated in a wide variety of education and training programmes. For some participants, secondary education had been their last experience of education, whereas others had pursued a variety of courses from managerial and accounting to typing and bookkeeping. Other programmes studied focused on areas such as art, calligraphy, pottery, dressmaking, home furnishing, cookery and joinery. Learners often followed courses that related to their current activities, particularly those who were involved in the voluntary sector, who took such courses as counselling, sign language, parenting, handling and lifting the elderly, First Aid, learning about bereavement, befriending training, Age Concern training, and working with children. Learners had also followed subject specific courses like creative writing, IT, English, French, maths, media, music, health, politics history, geology, astronomy and psychology. Prior learning for some learners had been primarily skills based and had focused on courses like return to study, basic skills and adult literacy and numeracy. Participants had also been working towards a variety of qualifications in various subject areas, for example, City and Guilds, CLAIT, GCSE, NVQ, BTEC, A level, Diploma, BA, BSc, MA and various professional qualifications.
After conducting separate analyses of the quantitative and qualitative datasets, a discrepancy in the ﬁndings became apparent. Using a Controlled Before and After (CBA) study design and quantitative analyses, there were no signiﬁcant differences between intervention and control groups in knowledge, perceived skills, and atti- tudes toward teaming pre- versus post-participation in the IEGC project. Qualitative data collected in the IEGC project, however, did capture changes in attitude, team skills, and behaviour. Participants repeatedly indicated that they were more aware of interprofessional teaming, reﬂective of their own practice, and they reported making changes in their own practice and mentorship of students as a result of their engage- ment in the study. As both data sets were collected by the same researchers, at the same time, with the same participants, the researchers are conﬁdent that method- ological issues were not the reason for discrepant results. Moffat et al.  suggest that the collection of additional data to allow for further comparisons may assist in determining reasons for discrepant data. Collecting additional data from the IEGC participants was not possible, due to study timelines. Future mixed method studies should plan for addressing the possibility of discrepant results early in the study design phase. As the quantitative and qualitative methods of the IEGC program were separate and distinct, each measuring different aspects of the phenomenon, it should not be surprising that discrepant results were obtained. This discrepancy supports the process of “treating qualitative and quantitative datasets as complementary rather than in competition for identifying the true version of events” [22, p. 9].
The whole concept of giving students a forum for active participation and experimentation contributes to their psychological, intellectual and social development. Many psychologists have argued that one o f the many Factors influencing intelligence depe., i on the interaction o f an individual with his or her own environment. Expos- i students vicariously, in a “live” environment as the “Albatross” ritual play ^ht to do through interactive play, provided them an opportunity to develo; nous skills. It is worth noting that there is also incidental learning which oc 'ering exploration and discovery, so the students could have learnt more than the communication skills that were intended for them to acquire. In addition, theatre enhances a holistic learning experience, since it promotes a sensuous and intellectual involvement. As a result, young people have a general passion and enthusiasm for theatre. Thus, SPW seeks to provide a form o f learning experience and methodology which is generally crucial but perhaps not getting enough attention in the schools. The use o f theatre provides learningthrough disciplines that combine cognition with personal and affective responses (Courtney, 1984). This generally enhances proficiency in learning provided that the performances and lessor, objectives and aims are properly conceived and structured.
The place of drama and theatre in the Hong Kong education system. One of the goals of the 2001 curriculum reform was to emphasise the role of creative arts in fostering whole person development to moderate Hong Kong’s examination-driven culture (Kennedy et al., 2006). To fulfil this goal, music, visual arts and arts were included in the curriculum. Drama and theatre has received support from the government through various extra- curricular initiatives. Through several experimental drama projects and programmes, drama was expected to cultivate student generic skills of critical thinking and creativity. These projects include funding for annual drama festivals, local theatre groups touring secondary schools, and the hiring of theatre professionals to establish drama clubs (Y. L. Wong, Chan, Shu, & Wong, 2007). Despite these programmes having been effective in uplifting student confidence, motivation, and communicative ability (Hui & Lau, 2006; Kempston, 2007), the current education system has still not formally included drama and theatre in the curriculum (Shu, 2007; Y. L. Wong et al., 2007). Thus, while some students may have had experience in drama and/or theatre in their primary or secondary school, students’ access to drama or theatre has been quite limited.
At the outset, nearly all households were eligible for the food security transfer, which was a fixed amount per household, regardless of household size and regardless of whether a household had children affected by the conditionalities. Households with children aged 7–13 years who had not yet completed the fourth grade of primary school were also eligible for the education component of the program. The initial US dollar annual amounts and their Nicaraguan córdoba (C$) equivalents (using the September 2000 average exchange rate of C$ 12.85 to US$ 1.00) were as follows: the food security transfer was $224 a year, the school attendance transfer $112, the school supply transfer $21, and the teacher transfer 5$. On its own, the food security transfer represented about 13 percent of total annual household expenditures in beneficiary households before the program. A household with one child benefiting from the education component would have received additional transfers of about 8 percent, yielding an average total potential transfer of 21 percent of total annual household expenditures. The nominal value of the transfers remained constant, with the consequence that the real value of the transfers declined by about 8 percent due to inflation during Phase I. In Phase II, which began in 2003 and incorporated new beneficiaries, the size of the demand-side transfers was reduced. The food security transfer started at $168 for the first year of program participation and then declined to $145 and $126 in the second and third years. The school attendance transfer also declined slightly, to $90 per year, but the school supplies transfer rose to $25 per student. These figures represent potential transfers.
skilled citizens. Skills, which we prefer to refer to as media/ICT literacy, include the ability to access, navigate, critique, and create content by the means of information and communication technologies (Mansell, 2009, p.108). From a critical perspective, Mansell argues that people are increasingly dependent on such literacy and therefore we must be aware that media skills and literacy are not equally distributed within society. We argue that skills and competencies are developed comprehensively and socially balanced, if supported by the means participatory culture offers. Participatory culture, in its best form, represents an ideal learning environment. Whereas formal learning usually happens in schools, informal participatory learning takes place in affinity spaces, both offline and online in cyberspace. Affinity spaces serve as powerful opportunities for learning because “they are sustained by common endeavors that bridge differences in age, class, race, gender, and educational level, and because people can participate in various ways according to their skills and interests […]” (Jenkins, 2006, p. 9). They are distinct from formal traditional education in that they are often experimental, innovative and dispose over provisional structures so that they can more easily respond to unprecedented needs. Besides reading, writing and calculating, formal education is teaching people the classical canon of education, but affinity spaces add social skills and cultural competencies on top. Active involvement in online affinity spaces is a form of online participatory culture. According to Kann, Berry, Gant and Zager (2007) online participatory culture’s potential to increase involvement in public life is multifaceted: first, values conducive to democracy, such as openness, honesty and vigilance against tyranny, are promoted. For example, Video the Vote (http://videothevote.org), whose members document disenfranchised voters and faulty voting machines
Along with the exponential growth in the availability of OER and the changing landscape of technology has come a shift in the way in which academics view their learning materials and the practices they employ as their pedagogy. The discussion regarding OER has increasingly evolved to be one of OEP (Open Educational Practices) in which new approaches to delivery, curriculum development, pedagogy and sustainable business continue to emerge. Institutions are now toying with a range of initiatives that will lead to more widespread and effective open pedagogical practices based upon the creative use and management of OER with the intent to improve the degree of openness and the quality of provision. The movement has resulted in a significant number of reports, journal articles, case studies, guidelines and framework documents spearheading open educational developments (Bossu, Brown, & Bull, 2011). Widening participation
Some theorists (Vernant and Vidal-Naquet, 1988) though, although they recognize the importance of action in the world of the tragic plays, as well as the element of human responsibility, they also view a hyper-human quality in the way in which the hero acts. In this frame, they recognize a sense of divine will which either indicates him what he will do or is integral in his proairesis. This perspective does not acknowledge the human initiative in the action of the hero, without, though, fully denying it as it is bound to take into account the entire political activity of 5 th century BC that was based on active participation (Giatromanolakis 2003, p.20, Vernant and Vidal-Naquet, 1988). It can be argued that this approach emphasizes the inclusion of structures and beliefs from the old regime of the archaic era, which are involved in the elaboration of myths during the classical period. This complexity should be related to the fact that the evolution of the Athenian democracy and the changes in beliefs did not take place through an immediate rupture, but through a gradual process. It can be argued that part of this transition is incorporated in the plots of the plays. And therefore, it can be argued that it is exactly this major theme of the autonomy of human action that tragedy aimed among else to discuss, fulfilling its core political role.