In the previous chapter, the problems faced by the local entrepreneurs in running their leather, footwear and leathergoodsindustries have been discussed. A few suggestions have been made in this chapter to overcome these problems and also to develop leather, footwear and leathergoodsindustries in the state. The Government of Assam in consultation with the entrepreneurs and all the Government and Non- Government organisations engaged in the promotion of small scale, tiny and village industries, especially in the leather and allied sector, should formulate a policy to restrict the sale of local hides and skins to the outside the state. This would ensure that the existing tanneries do not face scarcity of raw hides and skins. The concerned state Government should encourage the establishment of new leather finishing units in the state so as to cater the needs of the local footwear and leathergoods manufacturers. Till the time such finished leathermanufacturing units come up in the region, the state Government can set-up raw material banks in certain central areas to make the raw material available for footwear and leathergoodsindustries at a comparatively cheaper rates. This will enable to bring down the cost of raw material and prevent blockage of working capital of the entrepreneurs and enable them to utilize their capital in more productive way.
The study of employees' safety and health hazards measures of leathergoodsmanufacturing companies in chennai. The development of welfare at work should contribute not only to strengthen the company's position on the market. Environmental aspects which affect the workers current behavior as well as the state of things among employees 'needs: job security, welfare etc. The aim of this study was to evaluating and determining the exiting safety and health hazards of various small scale leatherindustries with the overall population of 50 employees. To gather the required data, a questionnaire was developed and analyzed by using simple percentage, correlation, chi-square and t-test was done to determine the effectiveness on safety and health between organization and employees'. Based on the findings,conducting safety training programs, Guiding employee on health hazards, Review & respond to employees' safety suggestions, Job safety analysis (JSA), Periodic safety and health inspections are having a positive and significant relationship with organization and employees', housekeeping area of the workplace, providing personal protective equipment and using of safety posters, health fairs, etc.,for promoting health & safety are not having a significant relationship with employees'. Conclusions as well as implications are discussed.
Industries located in this region have shown very fast growth in the recent past. This region is located far away from the mineral and power resources, and therefore, the industries are light and market-oriented. Electronics, light engineering and electrical goods are major industries of this region. Besides, there are cotton, woollen and synthetic fabrics, hosiery, sugar, cement, machine tools, tractor, cycle, agricultural implements, chemical and vanaspati industries which have developed on large scale. Software industry is a recent addition. To the south lies the Agra-Mathura industrial area, which specialises in glass and leathergoods. Mathura with an oil refinery is a petrochemical complex. Among industrial centres, mention be made of Gurugram, Delhi, Faridabad, Meerut, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, Ambala, Agra and Mathura.
The impact of manufacturingindustries on Ghana’s economy ERP strategies made it difficult for the government to assist local enterprises. Committed to privatization and the rule of free market forces, the government was constrained from offering direct assistance or even from moderating some policies that had a detrimental impact on local manufacturers. Nevertheless, the Rawlings government initiated programs to promote local manufacturing. In 1986, the government established the Ghana Investment Center to assist in creating new enterprises. Between 1986 and 1990, the vast majority of projects approved 444 of 621 were in the manufacturing sector. Projected investment for the approved ventures was estimated at US$138 million in 1989 and at US$136 million in 1990. In the initial phase, timber was the leading sector, giving way in 1990 to chemicals. In 1991 the government established an office to deal with industrial distress in response to complaints that "unrestrained imports" of foreign products were undermining local enterprises. The 1992 budget included assistance for local industrialists; ¢2 billion was set aside as financial support for "deserving enterprises."
To present a better explanation about the changes in these industries, the estimated equations by MATLAB software is used and presented in Table 2. These equations will provide the estimation of Gini coefficient or the space between the Lorenz curve and line 45 ○ . The estimated results of Gini coefficient is provided in Table 3. Table 3 shows that the industries had the concentration ratio more than 0.6 in all of studied years. In other words, all of these industries has a monopoly structure but with different degree. For example, the Gini coefficient amounts have decreased in these industries in terms of employment variable from 1995 to 2005, but about the production of food and beverages industry, at first the amount of Gini coefficient has declined from 1995 to 2000 and then increased in 2005 in terms of value added variable. Also, the amount of Gini coefficient in other industries (production of textiles and Production of other non- metallic minerals industries) has increased until 2000 and then decreased in 2005 in terms of both employment and value added variables. Summing up, the concentration ratio of food and beverages industry has declined in terms of value added and output during the studied years. But the intensity of monopoly in both production of textiles and Production of other non- metallic minerals industries has increased by contrast.
Machine learning is a subfield of data science that evolved from study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory. It uses algorithms that generalize and perform the assigned task very effectively. Nowadays machine learning is being widely used in many manufacturingindustries for various purposes such as spam filters, fraud deduction, drug designing, data prediction, speech recognition, diagnosis of diseases etc. This paper emphasizes on designing a model which uses machine learning in a manufacturing industry to maximize its efficiency. A computer learns based on previously provided sample data called as training sets to predict output for any input and its efficiency improves with experience.
Results from the pooled OLS estimation with differences indicate that TECDIF has the biggest impact on agglomeration and the relationship between technological differences and agglomeration is negative, suggesting that as technological differences increase this increases firm exit via increasing the number of firms that cannot keep up with the technological advancement, become inefficient and hence exit the industry. The result from this type of estimation differs from the fixed effects estimation on the variable INTERM. Table 5.5 indicates that INTERM variable is insignificant. Furthermore H-O variable is significant and has a positive impact on agglomeration when interactions are assumed to be zero. Finally, SCALE has the best explanation power on agglomeration. As a result, in Turkish manufacturingindustries, new economic geography theory best explains the agglomeration process according to the results from pooled OLS and Ricardian trade theory and also factor abundances seem to explain agglomeration. Therefore it is possible to say that the agglomeration process in Turkish manufacturingindustries is driven by the relative technological differences between regions and the factor abundances, but most importantly it is characterised by spatial dynamics under the assumptions of imperfect market conditions, increasing returns to scale, labour mobility and transport costs; suggested by the new economic geography theory. When the results from 5 th differences are further examined it can be seen that the impact of all the variables decrease dramatically.
This research paper explains an in depth body of literature to inquire in to the factors effective on performance of firms implementing Advanced manufacturing technology (AMT).The aim of this analysis is to supply a comprehensive viewpoint of problems associated with roaring implementation of AMT and supply some directions to managers and investigators to create a corporation well-prepared to just accept new technological advancements. The factors are classified in to three classes technological, structural, internal or outside factors. A spread of pressures either domestically or globally encourage makers to become additional agile, responsive and versatile within the event that they wanted to survive .The literature showed that so as to own a fruitful result from AMT investment, the structure, culture, operational strategy and human resource got to be organized and integrated fittingly with one another to stay faraway from probable barriers or problems. Corporations that operate in developing AMT, fresh industrialized countries face lots of uncertainties once venturing in to the fashionable world markets . Planned framework will be used as a suggestion for managers and investors in lifting up their AMT implementation system therefore, it absolutely was important for manufactures to own the flexibility to contend owing to the globalization altogether aspects of product producing like product variations, labor, market experience etc . These enclosed massively enlarged competition and globalization of production process they served to position stress on a good set of value factors like style, product innovation frequency, and customization and delivery responsiveness .
Karlsson and Ahstrom(1995)  asses the changes towards the lean production. They observed a significant role of remuneration system on the lean production management. They realized a need for congruence between the principles of organization and remuneration. They also proposed a remuneration system for lean manufacturing implementation.
‘Revenue and expenses that relate to the same trans- action or other event are recognised simultaneously; this process is commonly referred to as the matching of revenues and expenses. Expenses, including warranties and other costs to be incurred after the shipment of the goods, can normally be measured reliably when the other conditions for the recognition of revenue have been satisfied. However, revenue cannot be recognised when the expenses cannot be measured reliably; in such circumstances, any consideration already received for the sale of the goods is recognised as a
Labour health, safety and medical facilities measures and improves the performance and efficiency of the organization and employees. The various welfare measures provided by the employer will have immediate impact on the health, physical, morale and overall efficiency of the worker and thereby contributing to the higher productivity. This paper highlights the welfare measures taken in SR Leather, the employees’ satisfaction level, and to identify the overall quality of work life of the employees. The Data collection was done through self designed questionnaire. To analyze, the collected data the researcher used simple percentage analysis, and Chi-Square test.
Several research papers describe benefits obtained by increasing environmental proactivity. For example, Aragón-Correa (1998) defines the positive impact of environmental proactivity in terms of the competitive advantages it affords to companies. There are situations wherein proactive behavior produces benefits for both the environment and companies (King, Lenox, 2001). A current research trend specifies and analyzes each benefit afforded to companies by increased environmental proactivity, such as corporate image improvement (Buysse and Verbeke, 2003). González-Benito’s paper (2005) reveals that some aspects of environmental proactivity lead to positive effects in both company performance and marketing. In the research of Gadenne et al. (2009), more benefits conferred to companies by environmental proactivity are listed, including waste reduction, cost savings, increased customer satisfaction, product improvements, and public relations benefits. More recent research adds that environmental proactivity aids internationalization processes (Martín-Tapia et al., 2010) and even leads to improvements in companies ‘financial resources (Clarkson et al., 2011).Other researchers explore the link between environmentally friendly management techniques and value creation. For example, a case study verifies that certification under ISO 14001 (the International Organization for Standardization’s environmental management standard) leads to company changes that may be transformed into benefits (Rondinelli, Vastag, 2000). Melnyk et al. (2003) demonstrate in a larger study of the US industrial sector that ISO 14001 certification brings real benefits. Darnall et al. (2008) find, in a sample of industrial companies in Canada, Germany, Hungary, and the United States, that implementing environmental management systems confers empirical benefits and creates potential business value for companies. In Spain, Segarra et al. (2011) reveal the same positive relationship in the food industry. Rivas and Magadán (2010) propose a theoretical framework under which the Spanish government could reduce taxes on green companies and increase control over industries that pollute the most.
operations like soaking (rehydration), liming, deliming & bating, pickling, tanning, posttanning and finishing processes . Chrome tanning system in the leather industry because of the excellent qualities of chrome- tanned leather like high hydrothermal stability, good dyeing characteristics as well as softness . There is an average estimation that approximately 90% of the raw hides in the world are tanned by chrome . However, chrome tanning is controversial due to high Cr(III) content in the wastewater . Only 60%-70% of the chrome added is absorbed by leather in the conventional chrome tanning process, and the rest is discharged into spent tan liquor (about 2-4 g.L -1 ), resulting in serious environment pollution and a great waste of chrome resource . Furthermore, the ecological status of chrome is now being questioned for the possible conversion from Cr(III) to carcinogenic Cr(VI) under an oxidizing environment . Therefore, tanners have been showing great interest in developing chrome-free tanning technologies in recent years. But, in general, the comprehensive performance of chrome-free leather is not comparable with the chrome-tanned one [8-10].
The older markets for high-volume, low cost clothing, textiles and footwear, have been taken over by overseas, low-cost producers. In their place, UK manufacturers have embraced newer opportunities for technical textiles, designer-wear, branded footwear and clothing, high-quality dyeing and finishing, and other high value niche markets. In contrast, whilst not facing the same issues as yet as the other three industries, there are signs to suggest the same fate awaits the furniture industry unless it becomes increasingly proactive.
Properly all the firms have to evaluate the capital structure so for the implementation to get the optimal capital structure for decision of the finance otherwise firm will have to face different financial problems, such as bankruptcy and financial torment, etc. it is necessary for those firms which want to maximize the profit and minimize the cost of debt. The behavioral signaling theory was defined by the good progress of agreement with CEO and CFO (Baker and Wager, 2012). On the practical focal point is depending on the risks of future earning so in which, finally making a decision for good performance of the banking industry of Pakistan. The agency size of the firms depends on the effect of the agency's ability in which describes the efficiency and effectiveness of the banking industry. The agency represented in two ways of agencies in which first the small agencies and other is the large agencies. The small agency is considered as a lower ability and to also the lower level of performance in which industries face the failure.
Nowadays firms are facing a growing pressure to turn greener and more environmental friendly in the manufacturing approaches. Different firms contribute differently towards their environment like some implement reverse logistics, some green supply chain management, some green purchasing and marketing. All these and other factors combined form the basis of green manufacturing technology implementation. GM stresses on reducing parts, rationalizing materials, and reusing components, to help make products more efficient to build. In this paper we describe a case study where ITC Limited, an FMCG goodsmanufacturing industry has been considered. Using MINITAB 17, factor analysis and regression have been used to validate how green manufacturing has successfully been implemented at ITC Limited.
The concept of MC was first fully expounded by Pine (1993) who implied a view of MC as in some sense of a historically inevitable successor to mass production, the principal in which to complete in the future. It is essentially an oxymoron since it puts together seemingly contradictory notions of the production and the distribution of customized goods and service on a mass basis (Chen J. and Hao Y., 2010).