The use of biomass can reduce reliance on fossil fuels, to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to in- crease energy resource diversification. Among the dif- ferent renewable energy sources, biomass is one of the promising choices, which has the potential to be used as the raw material to generate electricity . In Thailand, an agricultural-based country, there are many sources of agricultural residues  that in total amount of about 61 million ton per year , which are used as the main source of biomass energy for industry. However, there are limitations on biomass utilization in Thailand such as the problems of collection, transportation and storage, and availability. For these reasons, fast-growing tree farming for biomass production is likely to be a solution and the most sustainable method of fuel supply for bio- mass gasification electricity generation . Leucaena is expected to become one of the biomass energy resources, because it is a fast growing tropical tree  and with a high yields of woody material . Moreover, leucaena can be used for many purposes including forage, wood, shade, green manure, live fences and erosion control .
Energy requirements in both urban and rural areas are increasing giving added stress to the power generators and energy sources, thus blackouts are becoming common scenarios. Renew- able energy from tree biomass is being eyed to provide solution to insufficient energy supply. A component of the green energy generation project is to assess the biomass potential of major in- dustrial tree plantation species in the region at various ages, to determine the sustainability of a biomass-based green energy generation. Actual field measurements of biomass in selected planta- tions were conducted. In the field inventory, a plot measuring 10 × 50 meters was laid out ran- domly on the sampling site. For all trees inside the plot, the basal diameter and diameter at breast height for ages 1 to 2 years old and 3 to 5 years old, respectively were recorded. The results re- vealed that the biomass of major industrial tree species in Year 1 followed the order: Mangium (Acacia mangium) > Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) > Falcata (Paraserianthes falcataria) > Ba- gras (Eucalyptus deglupta). However, as the trees mature, the biomass generation changed with Falcata overtaking Mangium. The order then was: Falcata (Paraserianthes falcataria) > Mangium (Acacia mangium) > Ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) > Bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta). Of the major industrial tree species, Falcata (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Mangium (Acacia mangium) are noted to have the biggest potential in supplying the biomass requirement of the green energy plant.
The heavy reliance on non-renewable energy sources from fossil fuel such as petroleum, natural gas and coal has led to the scarcity of these sources and occurrence of global warming. This phenomenon raises the public concerns to diversify the energy sources to sustain energy availability. To address these predicaments, biomass is among the prominent alternative energy sources since it is renewable and possesses minimal harms to the environment. Leucaena leucocephala, or locally known as ‘Petai Belalang’ is one of the potential energy crops. In this study, 3 portions of Leucaena leucocephala stem which are bottom, middle and top have been divided and 2 different particle sizes which are 0.5 and 1.5 mm were used to determine their influences on the properties of the samples. Proximate analysis (moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon), physical analysis (specific gravity and bulk density) plus calorific value of Leucaena leucocephala were conducted as the parameters to determine the properties of the samples. Among the proximate parameters, portions differ significantly (p < 0.01) in moisture content, volatile mater and ash content except for fixed carbon. Whereas, particle sizes shown significant differences (p < 0.01) in moisture content, ash content and fixed carbon while differing (p < 0.05) in volatile matters. Both independent factors differ significantly (p < 0.01) in the physical parameters, including specific gravity and bulk density. The highest calorific value was observed in the bottom portion with particle size 0.5 mm which is 18.56 MJ/kg, whereas calorific values are significantly differing (p < 0.01) for both independent factors. In conclusion, Leucaena leucocephala species show a good result to be as potential biomass energy sources.
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Figure 1 shows that Pb was the highest bioaccumulated metal in LL bomass. Pb increased by 3366.04% in LL biomass after harvest. Juson et al. (2016) have reported the ability of LL to bioacculate Pb in its tissues from polluted soils. This also agrees with Yitao et al. (2014) that high concentration of Pb can be bioaccumulated by LL in its above ground parts. Cu, Ni, Zn also increased in plant biomass after harvest (125.53%, 85.46% and 73.41% respectively). Studies have reported the ability of LL to accumulate Zn and Cu in its root and shoots (Gupta et al., 2000; Schneider et al., 2013).
Recently, formic acid has attracted significant research and commercial interest in paper making industry and bioethanol fuel process as it is an organic solvent and medium for organosolv extraction. Organosolv extraction is recognized as an effective alternative method for delignification as the process using cheap and readily available organic acid for biomass fractionation. Formic acid have similar physical properties with water and being relatively stable it is amenable to recovery and recycling from upstream or downstream operations (Haverty et al., 2012). During formic acid treatment, lignin β-O-4 bonds break down and dissolves in the black liquor while hemicellulose convert into mono- and oligosaccharides leaving solid cellulose in the residue. After treatment, formic acid can be recover by distillation (Haverty et al., 2012 ; Zhang et al., 2010).
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To develop Leucaena leucocephala (lmk) De Wit seeds as a herbal medicine preparation, some issues related to the quality of the extracts need to be taken into account, This was due to the fact that the natural constituents contained in simplicia constitute the mixture of some secondary metabolites that may quantitatively be changing due to a variety of genetic or environmental factors . Therefore, the recent study aimed at determining the quality of ethanolic extracts of Leucaena leucocephala (lmk) De Wit seeds collected from four different areas; and the age of the seeds used in the study was based on the specific and non-specific parameters. The specific parameters were used to determine the level of chemical content; meanwhile, the non-specific parameters were used: to determine water content, to determine total ash content, and to determine acid-insoluble ash content. In addition, antidiabetic assay was conducted in vitro with the method of α- glucosidase inhibition.
Results of this study revealed that rabbits would prefer Leucaena leucocephala when offered with Gliricidia sepium, Caliandra calothyrsus and Sesbania sesban in a cafeteria type of feeding. The study has further indicated that the most preferred feed is not necessarily the most nutritious. Sesbania sesban was the least preferred feed by rabbits, however higher growth rates and body weights were recorded when rabbits were fed on Sesbania sesban. Conversely, Leucaena leucocephala was the most preferred among the four feeds, but it had a negative effect on weight gain and growth rates.
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In a novel trial we successfully modify the structure of the extracted L. leucocephala polysaccharide by pentane-2,4-dione and by a further sulphation. Taken together, our results showed that the GE inhibited carcinogen metabolic activation and suppress the cancer cell growth. While the SGE showed a strong non-speciÞ c antiproliferative activity against different types of tumor cells and a promising antiinitiation property. In conclusion, these findings suggested that simple chemical modifications might convert the inactive extracted polysaccharide into a cancer chemopreventive and/or antiproliferative agent. A scope that may provide a broad spectrum of new probes, which exhibit cancer preventive properties derived from save nutritional resources. In vivo investigation of these probes may help in progression of a new anticancer food supplement of need in cancer risk areas.
In indeterminate nodulating legumes (most temperate legumes, including pea, vetch, clover, alfalfa and Leucaena), the nodule primordium originates in the root inner cortex, generally opposite a xylem pole of t he root vascular system (Newcomb et al., 1979). Nap and Bisseling ( 1990) have suggested that xylem derived factors may also be involved in triggering cell division and that an opposing gradient of the xylem factor(s) and the lipo-oligosaccharide signal molecule (or a plant factor induced by the lipo-oligosaccharide) may determine whether cortical cells divide to form the nodule primordium or prepare themselves for infection thread penetration. Within the developing nodule, rhizobia are released into new cells from the infection threads, which arise in the root hair, pass through the outer cortical cells, then ramify in the inner cortex. The cells, initially in the nodule primordium in the inner cortex, remain meristematic, forming a persistent apical meristem ahead of the advancing infection thread, which reverses its original direction of passage. The direction of infection thread growth therefore appears to be correlated to the position of mitotically active cells. Cells that are invaded by the advancing infection threads cease to divide and enlarge and swell. In this way five separate developmental zones can be recognized in t he indeterminate nodule. In the invasion zone, situated immediately behind the meristem, bacterial release from advancing infection threads continues to establish newly infected cells. The early symbiotic zone exists immediately behind the invasion zone and is characterized by elongating plant cells and bacterial proliferation. In the (late) symbiotic zone, which follows the early symbiotic zone, infected cells are filled with bacteria which have completed differentiation into bacteroids, which are able to fix nitrogen. A fifth zone, the senescent zone, in which both plant and bacterial cells degenerate, is found in older nodules. As a result of their development, indeterminate nodules are club shaped.
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The significant difference (p<0.05) observed in head without tongue and gut fill between the sheep fed on control diet and supplements does not agree with earlier report of Endalew (2011) in Farta goats fed hay and supplemented with dried foliages of kosheshila (Xanthium spinosum), wheat bran and their mixture. Amount of gut content of the sheep fed on control diet was higher than leucaena supplemented sheep which agrees with earlier reports (Endalew, 2011, Michael and Yaynshet, 2014). Animals on poor feed are enforced to eat and fill their gut with less digestible roughage and have proportionally more gut content.
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B. Litter Decomposition (Litterbag Technique) Litterbag technique makes it possible to recover the residual experimental material even after the material has undergone some decomposition . The experiment was carried out during the farming season to compare the rates of decomposition of the resource materials. Standard samples of 200g each of S. spectabilis, S. siamea, L. leucocephala, G. sepium and A lebbeck were placed in litter bags (50x50cm) made from mosquito nets (1.0mm mesh size) and buried in the soil at plough depth of 15cm in the same experimental plot for the same edaphic effect at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute’s field at Kwadaso-Kumasi. Samples were recovered from the soil at an interval of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12weeks (Anderson and Ingram, 1993).
Para instalação do experimento, foram adquiridos 150 kg de esterco bovino fresco, e 300 kg de matéria verde de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) e sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana Haward). O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se em diferentes proporções de esterco, leucena e sombreiro, distribuídos da seguinte forma: T1- 75kg de esterco bovino + 25kg de folhas de leucena; T 2- 50kg de esterco bovino + 50kg de folhas de leucena; T3- 25kg de
The medicinal plants are sources of important therapeutic aids for alleviating human health and improving the quality of life. The present research study was undertaken with an objective to investigate the phyto-chemical and standardization of the leaf part of the plant- Leucaena leucocephala lam. of Sikkim Himalayan region. It is locally called Subabul in hindi, an ethno-medicinally important plant belonging to the family-Fabaceae. The phyto- chemical analysis was performed by using different types of solvents system ranging from non-polar to polar solvents in the well equipped laboratory and revealed the presence of maximum phyto-constituents in the leaf part of the plant such as Alkaloids, Sterols, Tannins, Proteins, Terpenoids, Carbohydrates, flavenoids, Sugar Moieties and Cardiac glycoside. On other hand, the loss on drying of the powder of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) was found to be 9.8% w/w. The ash value of powder leaf was determine as total ash, water soluble ash and acid insoluble ash was found to be 17.33%, 7.73%and 6.8% respectively. The Extractive Value was found to be 1.82%, 1.6%, 1.83% and 0.83% in Hexane, chloroform, Ethyl acetate and Methanol extract.
In conclusion, L. leucocephala leachate effectively attenu- ated plasma membrane functions, tissue respiration and antioxidant defence of the water hyacinth leaf tissues. Ana- lyses carried out suggest that multiple phytotoxic com- pounds in the leachate may be acting in concert to compromise multiple target sites at the cellular level. More detailed biochemical and molecular studies are desired to further elucidate the modes of action of the leachate on specific target sites. Our study has demonstrated the bioherbicidal potential of L. leucocephala leachate on water hyacinth leaf discs under in vitro conditions. Future inves- tigations using a whole-plant assay are required to confirm if L. leucocephala leachate has similar effects on intact water hyacinth plants under more natural conditions.
Heavy metal accumulation in the leaves of L. leucocephala collected from industrial and residential sites were presented in Table 3. Although there was no morphological symptoms of contamination observed but the concentrations of essential heavy metals, Cu and Zn, in the leaves of plant samples collected from the industrial site were reported as significantly higher (p<0.05) than those collected in the residential site. However, in case of non-essential metals, Cd and Pb, there was no significant difference was observed in the metal concentrations in leaves samples collected from both sites. These results were congruent to the findings of Rehman & Iqbal (2009) in the study of metal transfer ratio in L. leucocephala by using soils of industrial areas of Korangi and Landhi, Karachi. Results of this study revealed that the presence of high concentrations of metals in the leaves of the plant could be attributed to other sources like aerial deposition.
Three land use systems all situated on the same soil were selected. These were 1) an over 60-year-old natural fallow site with indigenous plant species and a soil sur- face covered by a fairly thick layer of residue of leaves and twigs; 2) an adjacent plot with a history of continu- ous cultivation using conventional methods of farming for more than five decades; and 3) a 20-year-old Leu- caena leucocephala woodlot adjacent to the cultivated field but originally cultivated before its conversion to a woodlot for the collection of fuel wood (firewood); the surface was covered with a thin layer of leaf litter. One representative profile was dug on each land use system and characterized. A grid plot (10 m by 10 m) was de- marcated on each land use system and samples from the 0 - 20 cm depth were collected at 2 m along the vertical and horizontal axes.
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Agroforestry means practice of agriculture and forestry on the same piece of land. Bene et al. (1979) defined agroforestry as a sustainable management system for land that increases overall production, combines agricultural crops, tree crops and forest plants and/or animals rearing simultaneously or sequentially and applies management practices these are compatible to the cultural pattern of the local population. Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) belongs to the family Leguminaceae and sub-family Mimosaceae, it is also known as `miracle tree’ due to its paramount economic importance. It is a native of southern Mexico (region of Chimpus and Yucatan) has been introduced in many countries of the world namely pacific Islands, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, Eastern and Western Africa.). It also fixes atmospheric
L. leucocephala legume pod was collected from Pekan and Kuantan in the year of 2016 because this plant can grow wild and rapidly. Then, by using distilled water, the legume pod was prewashed thoroughly and dried using the paper towel. by using the sample grinder, the legume pod was ground to increase the surface area to contact with solvent extraction (Namiesnik et al., 2003).
pots on surface soil sampled under the tree plantations are presented in Tables 5 and 6. Soil from Leucaena leucocephala which had the highest amount of nitrogen also produced the best crop yield. This was followed by soil from Azadirachta indica which also had fairly high nitrogen and potassium content. Although Acacia nilotica soil had relatively low nitrogen content, it produced the third best crop yield. This was probably due to the high amount of potassium which it contained. Except perhaps for the very low phosphorus content of the crop from Khaya senegalensis soil, nutrient content of the crop yields did not show peculiar features of major interest. They however gave an indication of how much the soil can be depleted of nutrients if the trees are cleared and cropped.
with pure or distilled water to remove all the dust particles or impurities and then kept in shade to dry properly. This plant species was identified and authenticated as Leucaena leucocephala by Dr Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture & forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pardesh (H.P), vide Book no. 3818, Reciept no. 009 and reported as the sample is linked with UHF- Herbarium with field book No. 13578. The herbarium is kept at Nauni University for reference.
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