This notion of syndrome-specific autism phenotypes gives rise to novel hypotheses. First, it is important to note that beyond formal diagnostic classification, non-syndromic autism is associated with a unique visuo-attentional and perceptual profile. This includes a local or featural processing bias, on account of which individuals with autism have difficulty processing complex social information, like faces (Behrmann et al., 2006; Gauthier, Klaiman, & Schultz, 2009; Scherf, Elbich, Minshew, & Behrmann, 2014). This is substantiated by brain imaging research documenting atypical neural responses to eye gaze and diminished face inversion effects in individuals with autism (McPartland, Dawson, Webb, Panagiotides, & Carver, 2004; Tye et al., 2013). Now, consider that, as stated previously, relative social competency in DS is considered to be a protective factor against certain elements of the autism phenotype, including diminished social reciprocity and environmental withdrawal (DiGuiseppi et al., 2010). If the expression of autism in DS is indeed coloured in this way, it should be evident across multiple levels of description. Beyond overt phenotypic
Throughout this editorial, there has been a tension between emergence and the philosophy of reductionism. The latter holds that it is possible – indeed valuable – to explain a complex phenomenon or system by the interaction among its parts. Anderson (1972, p. 393) says of reductionism “. . . among the great majority of active scientists I think it is accepted without question” while Crick (1994, pp. 8–9) writes “. . . it is the main theoretical method that has driven the development of physics, chemistry and molecular biology”. So how can this pervasive and obviously effective doctrine be squared with a notion in which it is “impossible to deduce marks of a higher level from those of a lower level” (cf. Pepper) or that “a property is emergent if it is irreducible in terms of the arrangement and properties of the system’s parts” (cf. Stephan)? To some extent, we have downplayed, if not actually rejected, this formulation of emergence in favour of one in which the litmus test is the appearance of new, qualitatively different phenomena at higher levels of the hierarchy of abstraction/description. Yet the tension remains because the two creeds seem to work in opposite directions. If reductionism is so powerful and useful, who needs emergence?
First, we studied the mechanisms underlying preferential ion heating in our hybrid simulations. We found that different levels of intermittency for a given broadband spectrum of Alfv´en waves lead to different temporal and spatial dynam- ics of the mechanisms underlying preferential ion heating, namely, gyrobunching and ion trapping by the electric field. (Figs. 4.2 to 4.5). These mechanisms ini- tially produced strong localised heating of protons and alpha-particles (Figure 4.6), and consequently we could not meaningfully define average heating rates and to- tal temperatures at early times in our simulations. Should this strong localised heating occur in the intermittent solar wind, this would make it difficult to obtain good estimates of mean ion temperatures and ion heating rates. By the end of the simulation, however, the protons and alpha-particles temperature became spatially homogeneous; then we could meaningfully define total temperatures in order to study the temperature anisotropy T ⊥ /T k in our simulations. We found that T ⊥ /T k
The most prominent argument for the incompatibility of free will and determinism is Peter van Inwagen’s consequence argument (e.g., 1975, 1983, 1989). In this paper, I offer a new diagnosis of what is wrong with this argument. Both proponents and critics of the argument typically accept the way it is framed and only disagree on whether the argument’s premises and the rules of inference on which it relies are true. I suggest that the argument involves a category mistake: it conflates two different levels of description, namely the physical level at which we describe the world from the perspective of fundamental physics and the agential level at which we describe agents and their actions. My diagnosis is based on an account of free will as a higher-level phenomenon that was developed in List (2014). 2 I will call this account ‘compatibilist libertarianism’, for reasons that will become clear below. 3
Serum-based inflammatory biomarkers as a measure- ment of subclinical inflammation have been implicated in the development of T2DM, with several cross-sectional and prospective studies describing elevated circulating levels of acute-phase proteins as well as chemokines and cytokines (Table 1). For example, elevated levels of IL-6 (a cytokine that induces differentiation of Th17 cells), IL-8, IL-17, TNF- α, TGF-β, and IL-1β secreted from monocytes in T2DM patients have been reported [33–35, 43, 53–59]. Elevated lev- els of IL-1 β , IL-6, and C-reactive protein are predictive of T2DM [115, 117, 118], while elevated levels of IL-1 recep- tor antagonist are observed during obesity and prediabetes . Moreover, patients with T2DM also have elevated serum levels of IL-12, a cytokine that promotes Th1 cell dif- ferentiation and increased INF- γ production [47, 48, 59, 63]. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines are increasingly thought to contribute to the dysfunction and death of β cells during the progression of T2DM . More specifically, it has been established that pancreatic β cells, as well as neural cells, can be destroyed by several toxic agents and noxious stimuli, such as reactive oxygen species, NO, and cytokines (TNF- α , IL-1 β , and IFN- γ ) . The subsequent proinflam- matory cytokine balance has been directly linked to T2DM by several in vivo studies showing that the inhibition of key inflammatory cytokines protects rats from insulin resistance [120–124]. These reports suggest that increased cytokine pro- duction not only precedes but also maintains insulin resist- ance in animals, hence adding detail to the current model of T2DM being an inflammatory disease.
A complementary set of field and laboratory studies was conducted in order to establish the best form for an assessment method. In the field studies, eleven cases of reported LFN were investigated, as well as five control cases where no complaints about LFN had been received. Analysis of recordings made over three to five days at each location distinguished three groupings: positively identified LFN, unidentified, and marginal. Three cases were positively identified, meaning that the various national criteria were exceeded and there was correlation between the resident‟s logged comments and the LFN level. Five cases were unidentified: the criteria were generally not exceeded, (except perhaps by traffic noise), and there was a lack of correlation between comments and noise levels. Three cases were marginal in that the LFN was marginal with respect to the criteria and did not correlate with comments. It was concluded that the criteria were successful at distinguishing cases where an engineering solution could be applied from those where no such solution could be found.
One approach that can be used in testing the construction of a measuring instrument is Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is one of the main approaches in factor analysis. CFA can be used to test the aspect of a construct. This test is used to measure the model (model measurement) in that it can describe the aspect and indicators of behavior in reflecting latent variables namely sibling rivalry by looking at the factor loading of each aspect that forms a construct. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) is also used to test the validity of the extracts and the reliability of the constructs of the indicators (items) forming latent constructs . The CFA used in this study is a second order confirmatory factor analysis (2nd Order CFA), a measurement model that consists of two levels. The first level of analysis is carried out from the latent construct of the aspect to its indicators and the second analysis is carried out from the latent construct to its aspect construct . Based on the description that has been described, it can be concluded that sibling rivalry is an important thing in relationships between siblings. Considering the importance of sibling rivalry, the formulations of the problem in this study are: 1) whether the sibling rivalry construct is valid and reliable; 2) whether aspects of jealousy between siblings and competition between siblings are able to form construct or sibling rivalry variables. The purposes of this study are to: 1) test the construct validity and construct reliability of sibling rivalry scale; 2) find aspects that can form construct or variable sibling rivalry.
Age effects on neopterin levels were found in a num- ber of studies. In humans, children have higher urinary neopterin levels, declining with increasing age, which then increase again with senescence in adulthood. How- ever, this effect might be mainly driven by age-related changes in creatinine clearance rate, since creatinine was used as a correction factor for urine concentration . A pattern of increasing urinary neopterin levels with in- creasing senescence was found as well in Barbary ma- caques . Such an effect might also be caused by an increase in chronic health problems with increasing age [47, 48]. However, age dependent effects are less pro- nounced than changes in clinical neopterin levels changes  and might therefore be difficult to find in populations experiencing constant immune challenge. For example, no age effect was found in two studies on urinary neopterin levels in wild chimpanzees [36, 49], and urinary neopterin levels were independent of sex and age as well in this study.
authors; with differences in training and experience ex- pected to lead to reduced concordance. The authors spec- ulated that because of long disease duration and high seizure frequency in the majority of patients, most care- givers are likely to have experienced several seizure epi- sodes first-hand, and thus their increased familiarity with the condition would increase the similarity of their ratings with physicians. This could be investigated in veterinary patients, with owners with differing levels of experience of canine epilepsy (e.g. newly diagnosed vs. longer-term cases) and between owners of dogs experiencing different seizure phenotypes (e.g. high vs. low frequency, clustering etc.). If good concordance is seen between vets and owners, then greater confidence may be given to owner descriptions for those cases where videos are not provided.
are evaluation of global life satisfaction and evaluation of satisfaction in domains such as physical and mental health, work, and recreation, social and family relationships. Global life satisfaction is intended to present an individual's overall and reflective assessment of his life. More specifically, individual life satisfaction involves individual perceptions of the comparison of their living conditions with their unique standards. Evaluation of satisfaction in certain domains is an assessment made by individuals in evaluating domains in their lives, such as physical and mental health, recreation, and work, social and family relationships. Evaluation of life satisfaction globally is a reflection of individual perceptions of things that individuals experience in their lives. Individuals with high levels of life satisfaction have good acceptance, positive relationships with others, and life and personal goals that develop. Life satisfaction makes individuals want to continue to live and work, even to produce something and indirectly can make individuals live long. The lowest component that reflects subjective well-being is the negative affect component with a loading factor of 0.664. The main indicator of negative affect is guilty. The emergence of negative affect in the self indicates that the individual experiences negative emotions in carrying out his profession. Negative affect is the prevalence of unpleasant emotions and reflects negative responses experienced by individuals as a reaction to life, health, circumstances, and events experienced. The findings of this study are in line with research conducted by research conducted by Akhtar  which proves that subjective well- being meets the reliability requirements of 0.80 with the highest component being cognitive or life satisfaction with a loading factor of 0.826 and the lowest component is affection with loading factors of 0.853 while the reliability in this study was 0.679 with a cognitive component or life satisfaction with a loading factor of 0.910 and the lowest component was an affection with a loading factor of 0.664. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of the validity and reliability of the construct of subjective well-being on online motorcycle taxi drivers in Yogyakarta so that it can be used as a reference in subsequent studies related to subjective well- being, especially relating to subjective well-being of public transportation drivers.
Many studies have stressed how complex this activity actually is, and have provided evidence of substantial functional variations that depend on the age and degree of expertise of the writers, or upon other contextual variables (task, text type, etc.). These variants have been qualified as strategic. In our review (Piolat & Roussey, in press), the expression «revising strategy» refers essentially to two levels of the revising activity: