Lexical Bundles

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Examining Novices' Selection of Lexical Bundles: The Case of EFL Postgraduate Students in Applied Linguistics

Examining Novices' Selection of Lexical Bundles: The Case of EFL Postgraduate Students in Applied Linguistics

Probably also, lexical bundles are retrieved and stored whole from memory through holistic rather than analytical processes (Conklin & Schmitt, 2008), and therefore, postgraduate students may have difficulty not only in understanding but also in producing lexical bundles in this study and many others used quite pervasively in academic writing. While there may be a processing advantage in the use of lexical bundles as some formulaic sequences have been shown to be easier to use (Conklin & Schmitt, 2008), it can also be postulated that lexical bundles can act as handy short-cuts or frames (Biber & Barbieri, 2007) through which writers can scaffold their propositional meanings with a relative ease. It seems that postgraduate students, unlike published writers, need more exposure and practice in the use of these building blocks of discourse. Furthermore, automatic acquisition of lexical bundles should not be taken for granted as this study showed that there are lexical bundles in applied linguistics published writing on which students may not draw quite frequently. These word sequences are not idiomatic in meaning and hence they may be easy to understand, but they do not seem to be marked and perceptually salient (Cortes, 2006).
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The Applicability of Teaching Lexical Bundles on Medical Students' Writing Proficiency in an EFL Context

The Applicability of Teaching Lexical Bundles on Medical Students' Writing Proficiency in an EFL Context

number of words he/she attempts to use in a more limited time. Through learning lexical bundles, the writer can avoid putting single words together which might build wired, noncollocating and unnatural phrases that may harm the writing performance and negatively influence the intended results. Moreover, according to Wood (2010), lexical bundles are holistically stored in the long term memory and are treated like single lexical units. This probably increases the writers' capability to produce more content in a shorter time. Tremblay et al. (2011) noted that sentences containing lexical bundles are processed faster and are more likely to be remembered and recalled correctly than those containing novel phrases. Therefore, incorporating teaching lexical bundles in the writing course syllabus can help the writers in remembering and recalling the word chunks and reduce the time they need to process and produce the written language. In other words, using lexical bundles can buy us time in writing and increase the naturalness and native- likeness of the produced texts. Bagheri and Riasati (2016) recommended that the IELTS writing candidates should read authentic and natural reading texts to improve their lexical resource and gain a better result. This study was a step toward this recommendation as it exposed the learners to a giant corpus containing hundreds of authentic texts in the field of medicine. This exposure to the authentic texts can familiarize the learners with the academic discourse and word combinations frequently used by different specialists. According to the second phase results, the students' lexical resource improved following the intervention containing lexical bundles.
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A bibliometric analysis of lexical bundles usage in native and non-native academic writing

A bibliometric analysis of lexical bundles usage in native and non-native academic writing

Formulaic language structures which can be seen as a part of phraseology include multi-word units, idiomatic structures, repetitive sequences, lexical bundles or collocations. With the advancement of computer-mediated research methodology, studies in different disciplines and genres are developing rapidly within the context of phraseology. In addition, studies in this field are becoming part of both linguistics and applied linguistics. Corpus data has been used in the literature especially in the field of linguistics, psycholinguistics and foreign language teaching in order to carry out studies related to formulaic language structures. For example, the structure of “as can be seen” is frequently encountered in academic writing, while “as you can see” or “as can be observed” structures are rarely encountered, which represents a psychological relationship between words and a real relationship between users' communicative experiences (Hyland, 2008a: 5). In recent years, especially in countries such as the United States where English is the mother tongue or dominated, the majority of studies focuses on the writing of university students (Staples & Reppen, 2016). In addition to the studies focusing on the second language academic writing, the studies focusing on LBs or repetitive multi-word structures used in written language (Biber, Conrad, & Cortes, 2004; Cortes, 2004), comparison of academic articles written in mother tongue and second language (Adel & Erman, 2012; Bychkovska & Lee, 2017; Chen & Baker, 2010; Huang, 2015) comparative and bibliometric analysis of these structures (Chen &Baker, 2016; Lu & Deng, 2019; Shin, 2019) are also included. When we look at the study related to phraseology in the past by Ang, Tan and He (2017), it can be understood that it is necessary to know these structures for natural and fluent use of language. As a paramount component of a contentful text, LBs are very common in language, but it might be a complicated issue to find the appropriate LB for non-native writers. The widespread use of idiomatic sequences in discourse depends on the storage of phraselogic structures based on creating and understanding meaning in the lexicon of language user. Within the academic discourse, the expertise gained in the relevant phrasal structures is important because it enables academic writers to reach the relevant academic community.
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The Impacts of Accelerated Learning and Explicit Instruction on the Retention and Application of Lexical Bundles in Writing

The Impacts of Accelerated Learning and Explicit Instruction on the Retention and Application of Lexical Bundles in Writing

This investigation indicated that the use of music can solve the problems of EFL learners in the learning process. Lexical bundles can be taught through this type of teaching procedure to promote the writing skill of language learners. Considering the use of explicit instruction in language teaching, it should be stated that such an approach to foreign language instruction has been the prominent teaching procedure in Iran to teach English. It must be mentioned that the results of the present study are in line with some studies which reported that the accelerated learning of lexical bundles was useful for EFL learners, and learners generally had a positive attitude toward using these bundles in writing (e.g. Cooter, 1986; Felix, 1992; Prichard & Taylor, 1980; Rose, 2003; Silberbach, 2007). It is worth mentioning that some researchers refer to the fact that the employment of lexical bundles improves the writing skills (e.g. Simpson-Vlach & Ellis, 2010) and facilitates the process of writing (Rica-Peromingo, 2009).
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Structural Analysis of Lexical Bundles in EFL English Majors’ Theses of an Ordinary Normal University in China

Structural Analysis of Lexical Bundles in EFL English Majors’ Theses of an Ordinary Normal University in China

Lexical bundles are not only important in the fields of register and style research, they are also significant in L1 and L2 acquisition research, mainly involved in the description of language learners’ proficiency development and the differences between L1 learners and L2 learners in language development. Cortes(2004) made a comparative analysis on the usage of lexical bundles in academic articles published by the professionals of history & biology and those in the theses of the learners of three grades of the corresponding specialties and found that the learners seldom used the lexical bundles usually used by the professionals. Shirato (2006, pp. 828-838) used the lexical bundle as one of his parameters for corpus analysis on Japanese EFL learners’ English proficiency and English native speakers’ language proficiency , showing that the two parties are significantly different in their usage of the two- to four-word bundles. Chen & Baker (2010) made a quantitative and qualitative comparative study on the lexical bundles in three corpora: one of the published academic texts and two of students’ academic writing(one L1, the other L2). The results of the analysis showed that the published academic writing had the widest range of lexical bundles , while L2 students’ writing had the smallest range. Furthermore, some high-frequency expressions in published texts were underused in both of the students’ language corpora, while the L2 student writers overused certain expressions which native academics rarely used. Annelie & Erman (2012) made a quantitative analysis of the use of four-word English-language lexical bundles and also a qualitative analysis of the functions the lexical bundles serve in advanced learners’ writing by L1 speakers of Swedish and in comparable native-speakers’ writing, all writings being produced by undergraduate university students in the discipline of linguistics. It was found in the study that native speakers have a larger number of types of lexical bundles.
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A Corpus-based Study of Lexical Bundles in Discussion Section of Medical Research Articles

A Corpus-based Study of Lexical Bundles in Discussion Section of Medical Research Articles

in each lexical bundles, but the problem arises when they encounter these bundles with different functions even in the same text as it was shown in some examples from the corpus previously. Consequently, it would be useful to help students to get familiar with these expressions and their discourse functions and be encouraged to use them in academic discourses. Therefore, some pedagogical techniques should be applied in order to encourage students to learn how to use lexical bundles as part of their writing repertoires. Cortes (2006) discussed that the exposure to lexical bundles should be long enough for the students. Pang (2010) introduced text analysis, disciplinary ethnographies, concept or semantic maps, writing sentences and comparing registers as techniques which can improve students’ awareness of lexical bundles. Pedagogically, it would be useful if teachers of EAP or EMP (English for Medical Purposes) courses include lexical bundles in teaching syllabi as a learning input. They should encourage activities which raise awareness toward lexical bundles and show their structures and functions.
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A Corpus Study of Structural Types of Lexical Bundles in MUET Reading Texts

A Corpus Study of Structural Types of Lexical Bundles in MUET Reading Texts

In view of the recurrent issues concerning university students’ inability to comprehend reading passages in their studies, texts used in a Malaysian examination for tertiary education were analysed. This study investigates the use of lexical bundles (LBs) in the reading passages of Malaysian University English Test (MUET). A specialised corpus of MUET test papers comprised of only the reading passages grouped into two main disciplines namely arts and science was built. Besides identifying commonly used LBs, this study aims to compare and contrast structural types of LBs found in arts and science-based texts. Using WordSmith Tools version 5, the lists of LBs of the identified disciplines were generated. They were analysed qualitatively based on Biber, Conrad & Cortes’ (2004) Structural Taxonomy. Findings revealed that the number of LBs in both disciplines differs significantly but many similar LBs are employed. It was also evident that science-based texts tend to employ more NP-based and VP-based LBs while the most commonly used structure in arts-based texts is dependent clause. In general, PP-based LBs are very significant in both science and arts-based texts. The extent to which LBs are specific to particular disciplines is therefore confirmed and an overview of how LBs in texts construct information is also obtained. Pedagogically, teachers should consider incorporating corpora-based material, to exploit consciousness raising tasks and not to emphasise too much on grammatical items so that LBs do not go unnoticed.
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ACADEMIC WRITING REVISITED: A PHRASEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS HIGH-STAKE GENRES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF LEXICAL BUNDLES

ACADEMIC WRITING REVISITED: A PHRASEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS HIGH-STAKE GENRES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF LEXICAL BUNDLES

Lexical bundles, also known as clusters and chunks (Hyland, 2008b), are a particular and relatively new category of word combinations with a possibly formulaic status (see Biber & Barbieri, 2007). These word combinations were introduced and defined by Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad and Finegan (1999) in their innovative and extensive treatment of English grammar. They defined lexical bundles as "recurrent expressions, regardless of their idiomaticity, and regardless of their structural status" (p. 990). More importantly, they referred to frequency as the most salient and defining characteristic of bundles; to explain further, in order for a word combination (e.g. on the other hand, at the same time, in the case that, etc.) to count as a bundle, it must occur at least ten times in a corpus made of one million words with the additional requirement that this rate of occurrence be realized in at least five different texts to guard against idiosyncratic or repetitive uses. Fixedness of form (e.g., on the basis of not on a basis of) and non- idiomatic meaning (e.g., the meaning of a four-word bundle like in the presence of is almost easily retrievable form the meaning of its individual parts) are among other properties of bundles.
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The Effect of Pre-teaching Extended Prefabricated Lexical Bundles on the Writing Development of

The Effect of Pre-teaching Extended Prefabricated Lexical Bundles on the Writing Development of

What poses grave difficulties for EFL learners at any level of learning is, as even most professional writers agree to be, the ability to write in the foreign language. Not surprisingly, writing, in a majority of cases, is believed to be the last thing learners tend to deal with, in the light of the hardship it imposes even on advanced level learners. Particularly, prevalent among EFL learners is the feeling of apathy when it is realized that their writing skill does not advance in parallel with other skills; in other words lagging behind them. Without a shadow of doubt, the ability to write effectively is not confined to the mastery of a set of grammatical rules to put sentences together; rather, it is by far very complicated in nature and demands certain instruction and guiding on which this study attempted to focus. This research was carried out with the aim of helping advanced EFL learners to improve their writing ability which had been suffering and had stagnated over time, giving rise to the frustrating feeling of dissatisfaction with their ability to write effectively and accurately. Taking into account that every literate person can write but few can do it exceptionally well and in the light of the fact that all professional writers perceive writing to be a painfully arduous task, one can be forgiven for thinking that the difficulties which reside in writing can inhibit writing development. What particularly caught the researcher’s attention was advanced EFL learners’ dissatisfaction with their writing performance which as they firmly maintained had not substantially developed over time. This study was conducted with the intention to remedy this problem and the findings on the effectiveness of extended prefabricated lexical bundles reveal that not only does the collaborative construction of longer chunks of language by putting together the relevant bundles assembled in terms of the topic of the writing, activate relevant elements stored in memory, but also triggers students’ interest and motivation and assists learners to improve their writing skill, injecting into them a sense of satisfaction with their work which; consequently, bears higher lexical density and complexity.
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Specificity in English for Academic Purposes (EAP): A Corpus Analysis of Lexical Bundles in Academic Writing

Specificity in English for Academic Purposes (EAP): A Corpus Analysis of Lexical Bundles in Academic Writing

The lexical bundles were identified using the frequency-based approach. There was a minimum cut-off point for retrieving the lexical bundles (Biber et al. 1999). Another important statistic used to create the list of lexical bundles is the Mutual Information (MI) score. MI is a measure of the strength of association between words. A higher MI score means a stronger association and thus a more coherent relationship between words (Simpson- Vlach & Ellis 2010, Salazar 2014). This metric was applied in order to eliminate those word sequences that do not have meaning or function but occur often because of the high frequency of words that they contain. It was also used to avoid discounting useful but less frequent phrases that tend to end up at the bottom of frequency-based lists (Simpson-Vlach & Ellis 2010). Also, the dispersion criterion is necessary to avoid individual writers’ idiosyncrasies (Hyland 2008b).
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Lexical Bundles in English Abstracts of Research Articles Written by Iranian Scholars: Examples from Humanities

Lexical Bundles in English Abstracts of Research Articles Written by Iranian Scholars: Examples from Humanities

Fourth, one remarkable difference between the two corpora is the significant underuse of lexical bundles comprising passive verbs in research corpus . As shown in table 5.5, passive bundles comprise 19.3% of all bundles employed Hyland corpus but only three percent of all bundle types and tokens in research corpus . As Hyland (2008, p.11) points out, passive bundles are employed in the discussion of research methods and logical reasoning, so as to depersonalize these statements and make them more objective and universal. On the other hand, the bundles with anticipatory it usually are used to communicate the writer’ stance by presenting the proposition as an obvious and widely accepted fact. In the case of bundles beginning with anticipatory it , as shown in table 5.5, this structure is rarely employed in research corpus . These findings, altogether, demonstrate Iranian writers’ inability to employ passive structures and impersonal form in the construction of convincing argument.
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Structural and Functional Analysis of Lexical Bundles in Medical Research  Articles: A Corpus-Based Study

Structural and Functional Analysis of Lexical Bundles in Medical Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study

The results of this study demonstrated that the frequency of the identified lexical bundles is really high and most of them happened in more than five different texts. As a consequence, it may be thought that it is not necessary to raise the awareness of EMP (English for Medical Purposes) students toward these clusters because they encounter them in the texts repeatedly, but some researchers have emphasized the fact that perceptual salience and developmental readiness are more important than frequency (Gass & Mackey, 2002). It means that in addition to frequency, learners should be aware of the function of lexical bundles. Schmidt (1990) argued that one useful way to help students get familiar with lexical bundles is to have them notice the frequent use of bundles and various contextual and discoursal functions they perform in academic discipline.
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STRUCTURE OF LEXICAL BUNDLES IN ECONOMICS RESEARCH ARTICLES

STRUCTURE OF LEXICAL BUNDLES IN ECONOMICS RESEARCH ARTICLES

structural taxonomy to group the bundles in various registers, especially in the academic writing, and came to conclusion that the “principle structures of bundles differ across fields” (Hyland, 2008, p. 10). The bundles in the academic prose are “phrasal rather than clausal” (Biber, Conrad and Cortes, 2004, p. 382), with 70% of the bundles consisting of noun phrase expression (the nature of the), or a sequence that bridges across two prepositional phrases (as a result of). On the contrary, bundles in conversation are “parts of declarative clauses or questions” (Conrad and Biber, 2005, p. 63). Hyland (2008) states that most bundles in academic writing are parts of noun and prepositional phrases, and reports different patterns across disciplines: social sciences (business studies and applied linguistics) employ more bundles beginning with a prepositional phrase, while science and engineering texts use more passive bundles. Jalali (2015) found that the largest structural category of lexical bundles in medical research articles was prepositional phrases. Cortes (2004) also reports that the majority of the bundles used in academic history writing in English and Spanish are prepositional phrases. The current study follows this line of research, through a frequency-driven analysis of the structure of lexical bundles in the register of economics research articles written by non-native speakers of English. It focuses on the following research questions:
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Native and Non-native Use of Lexical Bundles in Discussion Section of Political Science Articles

Native and Non-native Use of Lexical Bundles in Discussion Section of Political Science Articles

The study of lexical bundles, among types of text analysis, is gaining importance over the others in the last century. The present study employed a frequency-based analysis approach to the use of lexical bundles. The discussion section of 60 political science articles, with corpora around 253,063 words were investigated in three aspects of structure, form, and function of lexical bundles. The present study selected its data pool out of scholarly articles from qualified journals in the field of political sciences. One part of the data pool was made up of 30 articles written by American native speakers. The second half of the data comprised the 30 articles written by Iranian scholars in political sciences. The findings showed that native and Persian-speaking writers employed the same forms of lexical bundles, and there were significant differences concerning the nativeness and functions. Bearing in mind the findings of the present study, material developers would think of the possibility of the addition of lexical clusters into the materials. It can similarly be valuable for the development of the second language writing strategies, for those who need to write in academic contexts especially political contexts.
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From Lexical Bundles to Lexical Frames: Uncovering the Extent of Phraseological Variation in Academic Writing

From Lexical Bundles to Lexical Frames: Uncovering the Extent of Phraseological Variation in Academic Writing

In an early study of discontinuous phraseological sequences, Renouf and Sinclair (1991) examined frames formed by function words which are termed the collocational frameworks, for example, a + * + of. They showed evidence that the slot fillers in their collocational frameworks are not random selections. Instead, these slot fillers are seen as belonging to particular semantic groupings. They also asserted that language patterns are not only concerned with lexical words, but also with grammatical words. Language patterns are relatively variable, determined by the elements surrounding them. Biber (2009) expanded on Renouf and Sinclair’s (1991) work by introducing a corpus-driven approach to investigate frequent lexical bundles and their variation in conversation and academic writing. He adopted bundles-to-frames approach in identifying the variation of lexical bundles, describing the variation of lexical bundles as phrase frames with slots that are potentially variable (e.g. 1*34, 12*4, *234, 123*). Biber reported that academic writing relies heavily on frames with intervening variable slots and frames are usually formed by function words while variable slots are mostly filled by content words. In contrast, conversational discourse depends more on phrase frames with external variable slots and both the frames and the variable slots are typically filled by function words. Biber insightfully demonstrated that lexical bundles can be approached by looking at the fixedness or variation associated with lexical bundles. Römer’s (2010) work on establishing a phraseological profile of a text type included the identification and profiling of phrase frames using bundles-to-frames approach. She concluded that the phraseological profile of a text type is central in determining “the extent of the phraseological tendency of [a] language”, which provides “insight into meaning creation in the discourse” (Römer 2010, pp. 309-325). Similar to Biber (2009), Gray and Biber (2013) analysed both lexical bundles and lexical frames in academic prose and conversation. In particular, they examined the characteristics of lexical frames by classifying the structural patterns of lexical frames into several categories. Using direct approach in identifying lexical frames, Gray and Biber (2013) worked on the predictability score of lexical frames and found that lexical frames with low predictability score are usually not associated with any highly frequent lexical bundles, and vice versa. They concluded that the phraseological variation of lexical frames in academic writing is “inherently” associated with grammatical constructions (Gray & Biber 2013, p. 128).
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Structural Analysis of Lexical Bundles in University Lectures of Politics and Chemistry

Structural Analysis of Lexical Bundles in University Lectures of Politics and Chemistry

The main purpose of the present study was to identify the structural characteristics of the most frequent four-word lexical bundles in university lectures of two disciplines, politics and chemistry. In order to pinpoint any similarities and differences, the frequency as well as the structural analysis was conducted. The analysis of the frequency indicated that, overall, the four-word lexical bundles were more frequently used in the lectures of politics, which suggests that lecturers in politics relied more heavily on the use of multi-word expressions in presenting their disciplinary materials in English. Structurally, the two disciplines were found to use the three main structural categories in a distinctive way. Noun and prepositional phrase fragments were the most frequent structural type used in the lectures of the two disciplines, with of- phrase fragment being the most prevalent sub-category. However, this structure was more favored by the politics lecturers, which is indicative of the fact that the language of the lectures in politics was more varied than those of chemistry. In contrast, dependent clause fragments were more popular among chemistry lecturers. For example, they appeared to use a range of to-clause structures such to look at the or to talk about the in order to attract the students’ attention towards the coming information. The first structural category, verb phrase fragments, was, however, reported to be used almost at a similar rate in the two disciplines. This shows the dependence of academic lectures on the use of a variety of verb phrases to convey their messages in their specific disciplines.
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Investigating criterial discourse features across second language development: lexical bundles in rated learner essays, CEFR B1, B2 and C1

Investigating criterial discourse features across second language development: lexical bundles in rated learner essays, CEFR B1, B2 and C1

Different from the traditional L2 developmental research described above, a new trend in recent years has been to use candidate responses in language tests in a search for language features that distinguish learner performance across proficiency levels. This new thread of research has led to collaboration be- tween practitioners from the fields of language testing and SLA. Studies with empirical data retrieved from candidate scripts in high-stakes exams generally include discourse features such as coherence and cohesion in their investiga- tion of learner language development. For instance, with the aim of develop- ing a common scale for the assessment of writing in the Cambridge Main Suite, Hawkey and Barker (2004) describe in detail how they adopted intuitive, qualitative, and quantitative methods and grouped their findings into versatile distinguishing features. The features explored included fluency, organization, lexico-grammatical accuracy, vocabulary range, collocations, and so on. Among studies of this type, Kennedy and Thorp’s project (2007) is probably the one that has considered aspects of discourse the most thoroughly. Working with IELTS candidates’ argumentative essay-writing across several band scores, 1 the researchers looked at a variety of features, such as rhetorical ques- tions, modality items, discourse markers, subordinators, and coordinators. One of their major findings was that compared with candidates who received lower band scores, the more proficient IELTS candidates used lexico-grammatical markers (e.g. however), enumerative markers (e.g. firstly), and subordinators (e.g. because) much less frequently, and they appeared to be closer to native- speaker usage in this respect. With 130 essays in total, containing 35,464 words across three levels in IELTS writing, their findings underpin the argument that there is some linear relationship underlying the acquisition of discourse fea- tures in learner language development. Mayor et al. (2007) reported a similar investigation which included discourse features in learner writing at different levels, but with a slightly larger data set from IELTS—186 essays totalling 56,154 words. Using the same corpus-driven approach as in the current study, Staples et al. (2013) examined idiomaticity through the use of lexical bundles across three proficiency levels in the TOEFL iBT—defined as high, intermediate, and low—with 480 participants contributing 249,417 words in total. Their quantitative analyses show that learners at lower levels used more
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Processing of Lexical Bundles by Persian Speaking Learners of English

Processing of Lexical Bundles by Persian Speaking Learners of English

Formulaic sequence (FS) is a general term often used to refer to various types of recurrent clusters. One particular type of FSs common in different registers is lexical bundles (LBs). This study investigated whether LBs are stored and processed as a whole in the mind of language users and whether their functional discourse type has any effect on their processing. To serve these objectives, three self-paced reading experiments were set out using the DMDX computer program. The stimuli consisted of target constituents containing LBs (discourse organizers and referential bundles) and control constituents containing non-lexical bundles (NLBs). Ninety intermediate Iranian EFL learners were selected and assigned to three groups randomly. Participants were asked to read each stimulus and answer the question that followed. The stimuli were presented word-by-word, portion-by-portion, and sentence-by- sentence in three experiments. The results showed no significant difference between LBs and NLBs in all three experiments, meaning that LBs are not stored and processed as a whole in the mind of language users. In addition, participants read referential bundles significantly faster than discourse organizers in the word-by-word experiment.
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LEXICAL BUNDLES IN JOURNAL ARTICLES ACROSS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES

LEXICAL BUNDLES IN JOURNAL ARTICLES ACROSS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES

The data in Table 3 indicate that in terms of structural forms, lexical bundles in the academic journal articles are mostly prepositional-based and verb-based bundles, i.e. each of them covers 37.1%, making a total of 74.2% for both structural forms. The lowest number of structural forms is the noun- based, which is only approximately a quarter of the total (i.e. 25.81%). These results are different from those shown by Pan et al. (2016) who found that the noun-based form is the most frequent one, i.e. 36.4% (20 LB types out of 55 LB types) in their corpus of telecommunication journals. The prepositional-based and verb-based forms are 32.7% (18 out of 55) and 25.4% (14 out of 55), respectively. The results of the current study are similar to those made by Qin (2014) who analysed applied linguistics journal articles. Qin (2014) found that the prepositional-based form covers 41.46%, the verb-based form includes 33.46%, and the noun- based form only contributes 12.27%. These studies show that in telecommunication journals, the noun- based and the prepositional-based are the most frequent forms; whereas, in applied linguistics journals, the prepositional-based and the verb-based are the most frequent ones. In this current study, which includes journal articles from all major disciplines, the prepositional-based and the verb- based are the most frequent ones.
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Paradigmatic influences on lexical bundles in research articles in the discipline of education

Paradigmatic influences on lexical bundles in research articles in the discipline of education

Wray, 2002). A wide range of terms have been used to describe phraseological patterns, including ‘formulaic sequences’ (Wray, 2002), ‘lexical bundles’ (Biber et al., 1999), and ‘lexical phrases’ (Nattinger and DeCarrico, 1992). The present paper focuses on lexical bundles (LBs), i.e., ‘sequences of word forms that commonly go together in natural discourse’ (Biber et al., 1999: 990), in English academic writing. This study extends the knowledge of LBs in English academic writing by examining the influences of quantitative and qualitative research paradigms within a single discipline - education - that embraces quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods research (Cohen et al., 2013). A research paradigm, which can be defined as ‘a shared belief system or set of principles on what problems are to be investigated and how to investigate them’ (Cohen et al., 2013: 13), can influence the construction of disciplinary knowledge-making practices in social science research articles (RAs). This definition of a research paradigm is consistent with those given in previous studies that investigated
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