The last question that has to be addressed is that of legitimacy. Have we seen instances of what Barnett and Finnemore call undemocratic liberalism in global governance? Two perspectives are possible. Some people would answer this question with a definite ‘yes’. International organisations clearly seem biased towards the global gay rights movement, ignoring the more conservative NGO’s and movements who do not accept the concepts of ‘sexual orientation and ‘gender identity’. Almost all people in leadership positions within the international organisations come from the West and have had their education in the West. At the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, more than half of the staff comes from European countries, and most of their work on LGBTrights is funded by Norway. At the Council of Europe, a special LGBT project is funded by 6 western countries. By making international organisations the mouthpiece of liberal ideologies, their independence and legitimacy is undermined.
Having discussed the effectiveness of conditioning domestic invest- ment in a developed state, this section examines whether FDI can be used to effectuate social change in developing nations. In particular, this sec- tion defines FDI and discusses its importance to global development. Thereafter, this section examines the conditions that United States’ compa- nies and banks placed on South Africa during the apartheid era. In a racially divided nation, conditioning and withdrawing FDI promoted unity and equality. Various schemes in the last decade have replicated the human rights principles that United States companies required South Africa to respect. Exploring these schemes will illustrate how investors can effectively condition FDI on states’ LGBTrights protections.
surrender the liberty and culture of the eater.” Yet there are many brands coming forward to doing promotions in support of LGBTrights only for personal gains but still there are some genuine cases. ‘McDonald’s knows how to attract protests-this time from anti-gay religious groups’- states the magazine Business Insider. McDonald’s Taiwan created and posted an ad for McCafe which portrays young boy’s meeting with his father. It is a 90- second video which presents an emotional moment between a father and a son at a cafe and the son passes a coffee cup to his dad reading ‘I like boys’ and father first withdraws from the table and seems to be upset and son becomes really emotional . After a while the father comes back and picks up the same cup and modifies the sentence like ‘I accept that you like boys.’ This video was highly promoted by many people at same time there were many comments which opposed the main message or idea of this ad. There were many demands to boycott McDonald’s for this ad but still social media response to the ad has been overwhelming and encouraging. It can be considered as immense effort in changing the mind-set of people, and world itself. When this video was released, it didn’t receive a heart-warming appreciation. There were many critics who argued that it is creating a bad impact on the next generation. There was also another ad by McDonald’s “Come as You Are’’ in promotion gay community. This 48- second campaign shows a young man looking his class photo and speaking to one of his friend through the mobile phone, from his conversation the audience could make out that he is speaking to one of his friend who is a male, and the conversation revels that they are having a deep bond andthey are gay couples. Yet what makes this ad different from
include a refreshed strategy to guide, shape and re-energise the work of the ERC; and the coordination of the ERC’s work plan with the Global Equality Caucus. The ERC co-chairs will host an international conference in London in 2020 that seeks to address the key issues facing global LGBT equality. The Government Equalities Office, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Department for International Development have established a working group and are facilitating discussions between civil society stakeholders to support planning and delivery. The UK also has the honour of hosting the 2020 European LGBTI Focal Points Network’s IDAHOT+ Forum and we are considering how best to facilitate hosting two LGBTrights’ related events in one year.
Acts of mass protest and political activism are in the roots of what originally constituted Pride. On the 28th June 1969, police raided the Stonewall Inn, a well-known ‘gay bar’ on Christopher Street, Greenwich Village, New York. The resulting ‘disturbances’, better known as the ‘Stonewall Riots’, led to several marches for LGBTrights, and demonstrations of solidarity, around the US (Carter, 2004). On the 2nd November 1969 Craig Rodwell, and others of the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organizations (ERCHO), passed a resolution for a commemoration ‘…annually on the last Saturday in June in New York City to (mark) the 1969 spontaneous demonstrations on Christopher Street and this demonstration be called the Christopher Street Liberation Day’ (Kohler, 2015). The popularization of the term ‘Pride’ to refer to similar and sympathetic demonstrations, often associated with a more extended period that incorporates a wider programme of events, is credited to Brenda Howard. Pride, and the attached ‘parade’, as a week-long celebration, seems to have marked the beginning of an evolution. In many neo-liberal democracies, Pride has moved from its roots in political activism to one that frames it more as a celebration of otherness.
The Universal Declaration for Human Rights 8 , though does not specifically include sexual orientation still states that: “Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty”. 9 Now more and more people are openly expressing their sexual orientation, and organizing and demanding their rights. Because of the work of these groups and their allies, acceptance of LGBTrights around the world is growing, and governments in certain countries are beginning to legislate in favor of LGBTrights and hindering anti-discrimination laws. 10
The current study sought to examine the potential differences of three training focuses in the pursuit of increasing pro-LGBT attitudes. Based on the results, the hypothesis that individuals exposed to the combined Biological Cause and Social Disparity condition would have significantly more positive post-test attitudes toward the LGBT community was not supported. In fact, the results suggest that regardless of the content of the training video, participants’ pro-LGBT attitudes were significantly decreased. This effect may be due, in part, to over-exposure of LGBTrights and equality arguments in mass media. Individuals who initially held high pro-LGBT attitudes reported significantly lowered pro-LGBT attitudes when challenged on those attitudes and presented with video footage that demonstrated differences between heterosexuals and homosexuals, possibly due to a psychological satiation effect (McSweeney and Swindell, 1999). The satiation effect suggests that people may become habituated to constant exposure to an idea or topic and that after a certain point, any additional attempts to sway or change their opinions may result in a negative effect on the part of the viewer. For instance, in recent years, more media attention has focused on the struggle of LGBT members in our society and their gains and losses in terms of civil rights. Heterosexual people may become worn out by the messages and topic as a whole and, when exposed to a direct message concerning LGBTrights, may be more likely to report negative attitudes. Similar effects have been reported in diversity training, in which companies have seen massive levels of backlash when employees feel as though they have been scolded or perceive that the training mechanism or trainers think they already hold negative viewpoints (Holladay, Knight, Paige, & Quinones, 2003; Kaplan, 2006; Karp & Sammour, 2000).
The Center’s main obstacle to growth and impact is its limited space. Our staff share offices with one or two other colleagues, and are spread across campus buildings with no room to add even one more person to the team. Both the Belknap and Health Sciences Center teams are limited by the small amount of space we have to carry out our mission. Working with our community partners and committed donors, we will build a center that accommodates the important work we do and creates a sense of welcome and comfort for LGBT students, faculty, and staff.
identities. However, this welcoming and inclusive culture is not universal among all sports societies and teams. We asked survey respondents and workshop participants how sport could be made more inclusive. When survey respondents were asked about how LGBT students could be encouraged to become more involved in sport, the most popular solution was tackling homophobia/transphobia/biphobia in sport within schools (48.3 per cent), an issue which has already been explored in this report. The second most popular suggestion was celebrating LGBT role models in sport (33.3 per cent), highlighting the importance of changing the culture of sport and making it more inclusive (figure 9).
At first there are some basic terminologies which are to be known before going into this concept. Basically the word ‘sex’ is something which is a cursory examination that is assigned by birth. The word ‘gender’ is the one that reflects the social or cultural difference rather than biological reflection, which in simple words can be said as state of being male or female. The other term ‘sexual orientation’ is the feeling of emotional or sexual attraction for others. The Constitution of India has given the right to life and personal liberty in Article 21 as a fundamental right conferred to all people within the territory of India. And by this it can be said that even the people belonging to transgender and the LGBT community shall exercise this birth right.
“Hate Crimes, Homosexuals” and resulted in a mix of both quantitative and qualitative studies. Such limitations of the sample populations used included location, demographic areas, self-reporting, race, small sample sizes, and the reliability of participants’ report, particularly those with mental illnesses. Some studies relied only on zip codes of the sampling site, rather than where the victimization took place. A large portion of the surveys used men as the only source of data, limiting the information about female sexual assault victims. This may be attributed to individual study concern or resultant of the finding that enforcement are less likely to report the abuse. As it stands, the level of inquiry and the information of the demographic is not comprehensive or reliable enough to accurately assess this population’s needs. There is a need to further identify Causal factors of victimization, such as gender deviance (non-conformity) are reported in the findings. Additionally, disparity regarding the mental health function of LGBT individuals that are victims of hate crimes and the subsequent effect of those crimes were reported in the findings. The findings appear to support that “Hate Crimes” has a negative impact on the mental health of LGBT populations and quality of life. In addition, stressors such as violence decrease the mental functioning and impacts the quality of life of LBGT. Unfortunately, the children of this population needs further investigation. Additionally, the prejudice, anger, knowledge and mental a physical health status of perpetrators is not fully understood as the determinants of discrimination is hindered by definitions and policies. Not only are politicians involved but perceptions of jurors in hate crime cases needs further health educational resources. The research appeared to indicate a gap among health professionals and the role in the identification of hate crimes due to lack of screening and health education needed to provide resources for victims, it is hoped that new training and policy development can be implemented. Providing health educators and psychosocial professionals with the tools such as education needed to identify instances of domestic violence would precipitate effectual interventions and allow children to have a better chance at academic success and obtain positive efficacy. However, it appears to be evident that more longitudinal 30Vanderbeck, R. M., &
discriminated against within LGBT communities, as well as in their everyday lives, and such experiences could impact on their mental and physical health. In examining the social construction of LGBT communities I have thus identified implications for current policy and practice, especially where use of the term community can act as a barrier to participation or engagement. Nevertheless, with many caveats and nuances, I would suggest that the phrases ‘LGBT community’ and ‘LGBT communities’ have some validity because some LGBT people choose to use them, and in doing so give the terms some meaning, albeit meanings that are not always shared. Whilst the concept of community might be a social construct, it is a social construct that matters to many people. For some, the notion of community enabled a feeling of, what I have termed, solidarity without similarity. That is, whilst participants did not necessarily perpetuate an illusion that LGBT people are all alike, some did draw on the ideas of difference and sameness simultaneously to explain their acknowledgment of diversity at the same time as maintaining a sense of belonging and connection. Despite (some) recognition of difference, there were often still assumptions of a collective identity, and beliefs about communities were frequently predicated on dichotomous notions of safety and comfort among LGBT people, and a lack thereof elsewhere. LGBT people can thus distinguish themselves as different from heterosexual cisgender ‘others’ as much as, if not more than, they conceive themselves as similar to each other. Overall, a social context that was assumed to be negative towards LGBT people was regularly the reason people chose to invest in the idea of, or engage with particular, LGBT communities – so they could feel safe and understood. This was usually by sharing space with, and/or feeling connected to in other ways, other LGBT people with whom there may be no direct personal ties.
IN ADDITION TO THE 10 QUESTIONS CONSTITUTING THE CORE Four Leader Criteria, the Healthcare Equality Index 2014 asked participants 31 other questions about best practices in LGBT patient-centered care. These questions constituted the Additional Best Practices Checklist, a unique and comprehensive tool for respondents to use in needs assessment and strategic planning. Responses to the Checklist questions do not determine Leader status and are not reported by name. But documentation is requested for all “yes” responses and they are reported in aggregate, to facilitate benchmarking and indicate national trends and interests. In addition, all HEI 2014 respondents receive a customized document showing their current and aspirational practices, as indicated in the Checklist, and are provided resources to help them implement these best practices.
Client feedback is a very valuable source of information in the initial assessment phase of the project, in monitoring progress, in identify- ing specific areas that need improvement, and in soliciting suggestions on how improvements could be made. Client satisfaction surveys can include questions to assess the LGBT friendliness and competence of the staff and facility. Questions can be indirectly worded, as seen in the sample survey form (exhibit 16–1). Another tool that might prove useful is the guest client—a volunteer who visits the facility, uses some aspect of care, and then reports his or her experiences. Guest client activities can range from a simple phone call for information to completing a formal intake. Participation in group therapy is probably not appropriate. It is important to inform staff that such a program is being implemented and present it as a way of gathering information rather than as a way of checking up on people. If the agency is unable to find appropriate volunteers, seek assistance from local LGBT social service agencies or other organizations. Exit interviews and patient satisfaction interviews are also excellent ways to obtain direct feedback and solicit suggestions. All clients should be asked routinely to participate in these interviews, not just openly gay,
As advocates, pediatricians wield powerful voices that have contributed, and can continue to contribute, to change in the political discourse surrounding LGBT civil rights. The AAP has spoken against several public campaigns promoting LGBT stigma. The AAP released a policy statement advocating for same-sex marriage to support the health and well-being of youth amid national campaigns to ban same-sex marriage. 13 The AAP has also joined with other organizations to oppose bathroom bills and other policies promoting transgender stigma. 14,15 Individual pediatricians can add their voices to that of the AAP to denounce bathroom bills, no promo homo laws, and other policies that restrict the civil rights of LGBT individuals. Pediatricians can also advocate for the establishment of Gay-Straight Alliances at schools, often now referred to as Genders and Sexualities Alliances to include the full spectrum of diversity of youth experiences. Pediatricians may seek to partner with school health professionals, such as school nurses, psychologists, and guidance counselors, to advocate for these alliances and address
Comparing the themes cutting across their specific concerns to those described by all participants in the Burning Issues 2 report gives some insight into the unique needs and experiences of LGBT migrants in Ireland. The LGBT migrants who took part in Burning Issues 2 were a relatively diverse group, with people of all ages, genders and sexualities contributing. However the highest percentage were males, aged between 26 and 45, and gay. The participants reported living in 29 different counties on the island of Ireland. Most lived in Dublin (54%), Cork (10%) or Galway (7%). Most LGBT migrants in the study were British. 48% were from EU countries with the remainder mainly coming from the UK, Poland, France, Italy and Spain. Over a fifth of the sample was from outside the EU, most commonly Brazil and the US. The majority had lived here for more than 5 years. We cannot know how representative this data is as the census in Ireland does not collect data regarding sexual orientation.
It could be argued that, with many caveats and nuances, the phrases ‘LGBT community’ and ‘LGBT communities’ have some validity because (some) LGBT people choose to use them, and in doing so give the terms (some) meaning, albeit meanings that are not always shared. Particular caution is needed, however, when the terms are used by people who may have less understanding and believe that there is one singular community and/or that LGBT people are more alike than not. The concept of community can pose both potential benefits in terms of a suggestion of affirmation and safety, at the same time as posing potential ‘dangers’ through perpetuating misconceptions or stereotypes about LGBT people, which were very real concerns for some participants. Policy and practice that draws on the concept of community in the future should attempt to acknowledge the diversity, inequality and power dynamics embedded within LGBT communities, and within broader society - use of LGBT communities in the plural is just the start to this. There is no one community, just as there is no one experience of the commercial scene, so everyone needs to be aware of the potential pitfalls of over-simplification.
It is the policy of The National LGBT Health Education Center, Fenway Health that all CME planning committee/faculty/authors/editors/staff disclose relationships with commercial entities upon nomination/invitation of participation. Disclosure documents are reviewed for potential conflicts of interest and, if identified, they are resolved prior to confirmation
In 2011 Alissa Hernandez proposed to her girlfriend two days after the New York state legislature passed a bill legalizing same-sex marriage and Governor Cuomo signed it into law. Active duty military marched in San Diego's parade two months before the federal government officially ended the “Don' Ask, Don't Tell” policy that prohibited gays and lesbians from serving openly in the military 1 . Despite these legal gains, same- sex marriage and gays in the military remain hotly contested political and cultural issues (the former much more than the latter). These two scenes illustrate much of what Pride is about. Externally, it is a public demonstration to contest the cultural marginalization of LGBT people. Through their acts, Hernandez, San Diego military, and the crowds that supported them took a stance for visibility and celebration of queer sexuality in contrast to cultural messages to silence and condemn it. Internally, Pride is a grand celebration for the LGBT community in which all who count themselves members or supporters gather to honor their achievements and support one another in difficult times.
Members of the LGBT community often take one of two approaches to dealing with the uneven power dynamics inherent in the structure of archives: either they subvert the power structures in order to re-build and reclaim them, or they build their own, more democratic or non-hierarchical alternatives. Using LGBT models to disrupt power structures is a popular element of modern queer theory, resulting in the use of “queer” as more than just a reclamation of a once-derogatory term, but also as a verb, meaning to disrupt, subvert, or consider in alternate ways. This subversion can be seen in LGBT culture in instances ranging from the homosexualizing of authority figures in gay erotica (Barriault, 2009, p. 238) to the creation of extensive oral history projects where the interviewer strives to eradicate the typical researcher-research subject dichotomy (Chenier, 2009, p. 251). Numerous articles refer to “queering archives” as a process of recreating the foundations of archival practice, such as Gentile's “Resisted Access?” (2009). Others describe LGBT subversion of archival practice using more playful terms, such as Topher Campbell's comment that “There's always a bit of mischievousness in us. rukus! is the finger up at the same time as the embrace and the kiss... We're not far away from the punk generation of the seventies, so there's a kind of shiftiness and abrasiveness about the way that we are” (X, 2009, p. 292-293). Rawson (2009) extends this subversion of archival practice to an entire re-imagining of the research process, describing a