This note presents a method to decompose lifecycleinventories derived from integrated and mixed-unit hybrid lifecycle assessment. The approach extends the decomposition method described by Wiedmann (Econ Struct 6:11, 2017. https ://doi. org/10.1186/s4000 8-017-0072-0) by differentiating between impacts from indus- tries, products and processes. The method can be used to quantify the cradle-to-sale impacts of products and processes in the final stage of manufacturing a particular product. We present such a decomposition for the example of lifecycleinventories for different types of concrete and compare it to one where the lifecycleinventories have been decomposed by origin.
In addition, agricultural and food production companies find it often difficult to find a practical way to share their environmental information with the LCA community. Agri-footprint aims to combine information from these disparate sources (scientific literature, statistics and company specific data), into a single internally con- sistent LCI database. Therefore, Agri-footprint will also serve as a platform for companies to communicate their specific LCI data to a relevant audience. Already, some company specific lifecycleinventories are included in Agri-footprint (currently Nutramon fertilizer from OCI and sugar products from Suiker Unie). By making the better performance of specific companies visible, LCA users can more easily identify improvement options in a lifecycle assessment.
Recommendations for including LCA in the specification process Given the current situation in LCA in Australia and in many other parts of the world, it is obvious that we are still some distance from an all inclu sive assessment tool. While advances ore being made in the area of building modeling and LCA data, a bigger challenge still exists in the development of simple yet rigorous indicators of environment. In the meantime the authors suggest the following actions to begin the process of LCA in the built environment. In the first instance, promote the lifecycle view to get specifiers. designers and clients thinking beyond the material itself to the life impact prior to and after, the material installa tion:
LCA according to ISO 14044  consist of four stages: scooping, inventory, environmental impact assessment and interpretation. All stages except the one for environmental impact assessment are considered obligatory. The stages are often repeated in an iterative way that gradually refines the assessment. None of the stages are unique to the LCA methodology. What makes LCA unique is that all (or as many as possible/relevant) lifecycle phases of the analyzed object are included from raw material extraction to the product’s end-of-life . The lifecycle phases are often referred to as raw material production, (own) manufacturing, use and end-of-life , see Figure 1.
Recent years have witnessed an explosion in the power of computer processing. The primary gain to computerization is the ability to manipulate large volumes of digital infor- mation very rapidly. This paper focuses on the increased ability of manufacturing firms to track production and sales data through computerization. A two sector dynamic gen- eral equilibrium model is costructed with firms using inventories to buﬀer diﬀerences in sales and production to avoid stockouts. The model will then be used to examine the changes in aggregate dynamics when firms lower their inventories due to better tracking of sales/production data through computerization.
Based on the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), my paper studies the relationship between a household’s financial vulnerability and its total life insurance held on the lives of both spouses. I focus explicitly on those households with a married couple, with both spouses between 20 and 64 years of age, and at least one of the spouses having regular earnings as an employee. The key determinant of the demand for life insurance is the effect of the insured’s death on the future consumption of the other household members. My financial vulnerability index measures the financial vulnerability by the volatility of a household’s living standard as a whole. It fits into the SCF data nicely because the SCF reports the total amount of life insurance held by each household, and not on the individual demand for life insurance by each spouse. My financial vulnerability index does a good job in explaining the financial vulnerability of a household because it is transparent, easy to implement and based on weaker assumptions. In contrast to previous research, e.g. Bernheim et al. (2001), I find a relationship between financial vulnerability and purchases of term life insurance and a relationship between vulnerability and total (sum of term life and whole life net amount at risk) purchases while this positive relationship is not consistently significant for net amount at risk of whole life insurance. Moreover, my lifecycle empirical results show that the sensitivity of total life insurance to financial vulnerability decreases for older households. It suggests younger households are likely to use more life insurance to manage their financial vulnerability but the household substitutes away from higher priced life insurance towards other assets as it ages.
A Distributed Application is one which runs in the context of browser or World Wide Web and it can be accessed across the globe. Any technology which runs in the browser will have ‘n’ number of lifecycle methods and it does not contain main methods and System.out.println statements.
The ecomaterial related material ﬂow m in Fig. 3 is stands for material of hazardous substance-free, which reduces the environmental burden or energy input in the treatment needed at end of life (EoL). Hazardous substance-free material is the ﬁrst priority of material selection by product manufacturers. Pb-free solder, Pb-free machining alloys, Cr- free surface treated steels, plastics with harmless ﬁre retardant, these are typical development in this approach. For Pb-free solder, load-mapping projects of lead free solder alloys were organized in the USA, Japan and the EU, and many products with Pb-free solder have now been released in the market. Many kinds of gears and mechanical parts also contains dispersed Pb, which acts as a lubricant to enable accurate cutting. Pb-free machinable steel have been devel- oped, steel in which Pb is substituted by other elements or mechanism. The chromate layer on the surface of electro- galvalized steel sheet, which has superior characteristics of rust-resistant, creates the danger that a very small part of the chrome oxide might change into six-valent chromium ions in the process of shredding and incinerations. Therefore, steel makers have developed Cr-free pre-coated electro-galva- nized steel sheet. In order to prevent ﬁre, plastics frequently contain ﬂame-retarding additives, most commonly in the form of organic halogen compounds. Instead of the organic halogen silicon-based ﬂame retardant has been developed.
ried out on multitemporal RTL inventories in Taiwan, Papua New Guinea, Japan and Central Nepal before an earthquake, which supplied a good comparison study for RTLs under the effect and without the effect of earthquakes (Marc et al., 2015, 2019). The problem with the studies indicated above is that rainfall-triggered landslides that occur shortly after a ma- jor earthquake are generally following the same spatial pat- terns, due to the availability of large volumes of landslide ma- terials of the coseismic landslides (Hovius et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2016; Fan et al., 2018a). However, other studies argue that there is not a clear correlation of rainfall-triggered land- slides with the coseismic pattern, as only the 20 %–30 % of the RTLs that occurred just after an earthquake are spatially related to ETLs, suggesting limited reactivation of ETLs by RTLs (Marc et al., 2015, 2019).
PE International developed GaBi, an LCA implementation software, for LCA practitioners. GaBi uses common internationally recognized databases and engineering metrics to evaluate a product or service as defined by the LCA practitioner (PE International. (2013)). GaBi was developed to support business applications for lifecycle assessment, lifecycle costing, lifecycle reporting, and lifecycle working environment. GaBi models every element from a lifecycle perspective, and looks at the impacts from alternative manufacturing, energy sources, distribution, recyclability, and sustainability. GaBi helps protect brands to deliver more sustainable products to better meet customer expectations. The LCA tool can also be used to give feedback to customers about sustainability for a product or service (PE International. (2013)).
This report presents cursory study on the environmental impacts by the cell phones during its lifecycle and various factors are being analyzed and assessed. Cell phones contain materials which are harmful to the environment and humans and are classified as hazardous waste by the EPA and the State of California. They need to be examined carefully and made environmental friendly that minimum environmental pollution is met. Redesigning of cell phone, reducing of harmful metals in cell phone, adhering of ISO standards are the prime need of hour. Apple i Phone are the most environmental friendly devices as stated by ISO 14000 and environmental management standards: ISO 14040 and 14044. The cell phones should be recycled and reused and authorities should try extract as much as they can and avoid the land filling of cell phones which also contaminates the soil. These precautionary methods to be taken accordingly.
Kvale (1996)  stated that the interview as qualitative research method seeks to describe and the meanings of central themes in the life world of the partici- pants. The main task of researcher was to understand the meaning of what the interviewees think through their personal opinions about their experience of lifecycle of these companies. Analyzing the data collected through the interviews, the study used the analysis of content (Badin, 1993) . Content analysis has resulted in qualitative analysis that does not exclude a quantitative interpreta- tion. The simplest and most traditional processes consisted in organizing the contents in the themes and sub-themes, translating into frequencies or simply counting the elements of the analysis. These frequencies have been converted into percentages in order to measure the duration of phases and types of lifecycle of the DRC transpiration companies.
LifeCycle Cost (LCC) consists of all direct costs plus indirect- variable costs associated with the procurement and disposal of the system. Indirect costs may include linked costs s additional common support equipment, additional administrative personnel and non-linked costs such as new recruiters to recruit additional personnel. All indirect costs related to activities or resources that are not affected by the introduction of the system are not part of LCC. LCC comprises the marginal costs (both direct and indirect) of introducing a new equipment or capability. LCC is used as a minimum for the analysis of alternatives; it does not include notional allocation of costs, whereas TOC and WLC might do so. LCC is used to compare options of alternatives, and often for economic analyses.
As we proceed further with the details of the lifecycle rituals, it is becoming clear to us that rituals at regular passage of life, biological processes tie human life. These celebrations were the norms of society which have to be fulfilled by the individual and the people around him. This becomes a way of life and becomes compulsory. The royalty would do it at a grand scale and the common people at an ordinary level. But it has to be accomplished otherwise, the life would be considered devoid of happiness. If the people involved do not do so, the society around would make you feel unhappy and miserable. The culture teaches people how to emote. Without fulfillment of these cultural trends, emotional fulfillment is not attained. Since, there is no other way, leaving these rites unfulfilled would make anyone feel incomplete in life. By these rituals at regular intervals of life people were made to do certain things. With that their lives were controlled and guided by some superior force which ruled the society. Not just certain traditions, there were certain ways of doing them, thus controlling minute details of each one‟s life along biological evolution. Governing the life of masses by the mandatory norms fixes social and personal life in a non-deviant fashion. Eventually people learn to seek joy and find meanings in that sort of life style. It sets their emotional pattern and they keep them on the defined track.
Most of the analysis to determine oil film thickness in machine elements assumes a clean lubricant. The predicted oil films are very thin and usually much thinner than the size of debris particles. This means that should they find their way to a lubricated contact then they are likely to cause some kind of surface damage. This leads to wear or hastens the onset of contact fatigue. The debris in an oil supply can reduce the life of the component considerably. In this paper this process is described in terms of the debris lifecycle. From birth when the particle finds its way into an oil
I would like to take this time to thanks the eternal father for giving me health and strength throughout my journey of study.Let me say special thank you to all the persons involved and contributed towards my trial. Firstly, my sponsor MFAT for providing financial support and granting me the opportunity to further my studies in New Zealand. Special thanks to the Government of Jamaica for granting me leave of absence from my work to take up the opportunity to study. Secondly, to my supervisor Dr Andrew Greer, senior lecturer in the faculty of agriculture and life science for allowing me to participate in this trial. I am very grateful for your deepest gratitude, kindness, guidance,patience and encouragement throughout the trial both in the field, analysis and write up.Thirdly, to Mr Robin McAnulty parasitologist for his expertise guidance in the labaratory. I am very grateful for the time and effort you took in teaching me the different types of procedures in the lab.Special thanks to Mrs Rosemarie and Annabell McAnulty for assisting me with the making up of the solutions, counting of faecal eggs and cleaning up .To everyone who rendered their support in the field and lab such as co-supervisor Mr Chris Logan, JML staff ,Caleb, James, Rebecca ,from the soils department Dr Roger Croswell and Qian Liang and other staff from the RIDDOLS lab.
Chemical alteration of the environment, resulting in hydrogen ions being produced more rapidly than they are dispersed or neutralized. Occurs mainly through fallout of sulfur and nitrogen compounds from combustion processes. Acidification can be harmful to terrestrial and aquatic life.
Lifecycle exergyanalysis(LCExA) is important to evaluate world’s future energy systems to make sure that we are supporting as much net Exergy as possible so as to create a more sustainable energy production for society. Material Exergy of the wind farm, which has a 22% share of the total exergy, has no place in the ordinary lifecycle analysis. This value implies that LCExA is important than other types of lifecycle analysis. ExROI of the wind farm varies between 18 and 22 depending on the different scenarios taken in the system. Disposal, considering recycling of materials, contributes 13% of the total input exergy of the system. Emissions and waste have 37%contribution to the total input exergy of the wind farm. In the study is found out that ExROI is 20 at a capacity factor of 0.36 which also varies as capacity factor of the turbine vary. Exergy return on investment indicates that the wind farm gives back more energy than it uses during its useful life time. This reveals that such types of projects are sustainable for the production of clean and reliable energy in the country.