The newspapers are often influenced by different socio-political, economic and security conditions, which certainly limit the freedom of the press. On the other hand, the political elites often use ethnic nationalism and ideology language, which is literally reported in the the daily news. That is why this research is based on Fairclough’s (1989) critical discourse theory as it analyses the “social interaction in a way that focuses upon their linguistic elements and which set out to show up their general hidden determinants in the system of social relationships, as well as hidden effects they have upon that system” (5). Therefore, critical discourse analysis is in its nature critical as it goes beyond the text, context and socio-cultural conditions. Although it is interpretative, it avoids subjectivity. Fairclough, in Critical Discourse Analysis (2010) and Analyzing Discourse (2003), examined the relationship between language, ideology and power on one hand and the relationship between text and language, genre and orders of discourse, society and culture on the other hand. By using critical discourse analysis Fairclough (1989) emphasized “a range of properties of texts is regarded as potentially ideological, including features of vocabulary and metaphors, grammar, presuppositions and implicative, politeness conversations, speech exchange, systems, generic structures and style” (2).
12 Read more
The article begins with a brief review of the relevant academic literature on cyberterrorism. Here, we argue that, with few exceptions, this literature is overwhelmingly oriented toward three research questions: (i) what is cyberterrorism?, (ii) what threat does cyberterrorism pose, and to whom?, and (iii) how should this threat be countered? This orientation is problematic, we suggest, for two reasons. First, because it neglects the constitutivity of linguistic and other representations of cyberterrorism. And, second, because it prioritises problem-solving, policy-relevant research over critical enquiry. A second section situates this article within constructivist approaches to security discourse, upon which we introduce our research methodology and analysis. The article concludes by reflecting on the significance of our findings, before pointing to scope for future research.
36 Read more
The discourse-historical approach which started in Vienna tries to incorporate much available knowledge about the historical sources and the background of the social and political fields in which discursive "events" are embedded. In addition, it analyzes the historical dimension of discursive actions by investigating the ways in which particular genres of discourse are subject to diachronic change. Lastly, it aims to integrate social theories to be able to explain text. On the methodical level, one of the most salient distinguishing features of the discourse-historical approach is its endeavour to work interdisciplinarily. It attempts to transcend the pure linguistic dimension and to include more or less systematically the historical and political dimensions in the analysis, theory and interpretation of a specific discursive occasion. Finally, the approach is problem- oriented and not focused on specific linguistic items. It aims to analyze the linguistic items in terms of their locations in the discourse with all the sociological and political ends embodied in it (Wodak, 2002; Meyer& Wodak, 2009). According to Wodak (2002), one of the main discursive strategies is referred to as “Meta strategy of us vs. them”: the discursive construction goes in the following stages:
10 Read more
Stylistic awareness of a text-the knowledge of syntactic, semantic, and/or pragmatic features—leads to an overall understanding of a discourse. The study will focus on the stylistics of news genre as authentic material in class- rooms. The aim of this article is to draw a comparison between the language features used in online news and those used in the printed newspapers to un- derscore the linguistic characteristics of such media. The data to analyze will be collected from two European news media. The electronic tool will be the BBC online news http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/, while the printed one will be International Herald Tribune . The purpose of this study is to highlight the linguistic variations, if they exist, between the two media. The language will be studied in terms of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, showing how these linguistic subfields can affect the language and determine the level of compli- cation in understanding meaning. For discourse analysis, the same theme and topic will be selected. Examples and samples from both media will be posted to display the differences of language use. The comparison will be organized and divided into three subtitles: Syntactic Differences, Pragmatic Differences, and Semantic Differences. The paper will also focus on the effect of hyperlinks on the language and how the unlimited amount of information compressed in the virtual media make the online news unique. In addition, the limitations and weaknesses of both media will be addressed to take the research a step forward in order to make teachers aware of the flaws while using these ge- nuine objects in language classrooms.
12 Read more
Politics has proven to be a linguistic activity that utilizes language to mold people’s beliefs. This study explores of the language of politics in two Lebanese newspapers - As-Safir and The Daily Star. Three different frameworks were chosen to carry out a critical discourse analysis. The frameworks used are that of Michael Halliday, Teun van Dijk, and Norman Fairclough. Findings show that the language of politics is never an impartial and objective one. It is structured in a way that supports respective political beliefs and sustains respective ideologies; hence, shaping the readers’ thoughts into believing that the “enemy” is hateful. Nonetheless, future research could develop instruments that aim at analyzing the perceptions of the vast audiences to further objectify the act of critical discourse analysis.
10 Read more
Online news reports are usually structured by linguistic grammars, which include the words used, sentences formed, and also the meanings produced. Grammatical analysis of the discourse is like the “system of rules” (Teun, 1988). The meaning of the previous sentence needs to be considered in order to understand the next sentences. Teun (1988) further asserts that the properties of the sentence form or the meaning applied in every sentence depends on other sentences in a discourse. Online news reports are a formal situation, which the readers can expect a disciplined style of writing like the formal choice of words, complex sentences, complete articles, and accurate grammar in every sentence. The style of writing is influenced by the author‟s gender, ethnicity, power, and status. From that, the perspective of the author can also be exposed by looking at the grammatical analysis. Teun (1988) adds that sentence syntax allows analysts to dictate the meanings of subject roles according to the word order, such as the usage of subject or object, or the application of active and passive forms. It is supported by Emily (2012) in which various grammatical means may represent people, actions and events in different ways.
SPC provide a number of interactive features that support data analysis. To highlight and accentuate selected parts of the data, an axis can be put into focus and parts of axes can be selected. Lines are colored according to the axis under focus, and fil- ters apply to the selected portions of axes, with the other data rendered in gray. Users can switch be- tween discrete colors and scaled coloring of con- necting lines. The scales of numerical axes can be adjusted interactively, as described above. Hover- ing over a determined connecting line brings it out as a slightly wider line and gives a written sum- mary of the values of that record.
At this point, I would like to address a question I posed in the introduction to this thesis: Does CrossFit represent a shift toward gender equality in the physical cultural realm? Through my analysis and the themes presented, I hope that I have at least partially demonstrated the way in which this is a difficult question to answer with a simple yes or no. For the women whose testimonials suggest that CrossFit has empowered them, their subjective reality suggests yes. However, considered in a broader cultural context, it becomes murkier. Consider, for example, the way that the association of strength with beauty may in fact make a woman feel strong, and therefore beautiful, and empowered. However, this must be tempered with the way in which this reifies appropriate femininity as necessarily encompassing beauty, which might factor into a continued objectification of women and their bodies. The individualistic and bodily-based empowerment offered up via CrossFit can be considered a form of “popular feminism,” which has been criticized for transferring energies “away from collective organizing to change institutions” and onto women’s individual bodies. 4 In line with other critical feminist researchers who have
119 Read more
Examples such as ‘flamboyantly bisexual’ – also in the ‘modifiers of “bisexual”’ category - also indicate a level of judgment when considering bisexual identity. A Word Sketch of flamboyant and flamboyantly in the British National Corpus (BNC) reveal that their subjects are often negative and would therefore benefit from being less flamboyant and more covert, such as flamboyant ‘voyeurs’, ‘exhibitionists’, ‘charlatans’ and ‘homosexual(s)’. This negative discourse prosody would also suggest that one’s bisexuality is something that ought to be kept secret as a source of shame and certainly not to be displayed ‘flamboyantly’. Such negative representations of bisexual people were echoed in fictional discourses as well. There were certainly associations with bisexual that appeared neutral, such as ‘teachers’, ‘writers’ and ‘characters’ but, echoing the evaluative discourses in the 1980s, there continued to be collocates which suggested the inherent promiscuity and depravity associated with bisexual people (Johnson 2016). In the ‘Word Sketch’ grouping that shows collocates connected to bisexual through and/or, ‘voracious’, ‘promiscuous’, ‘manipulative’ and ‘psychotic’ were all notable suggesting that bisexual people, if represented as such, are likely to be perceived as such as well.
32 Read more
Abstract: Recent research (e.g., Hunston 2007; Hyland 1999; 2008; 2009) has marked and evidenced the importance of effectively using linguistic features as a major component in expressing stances and as an essential part of the shared knowledge of a professional discourse community by giving space for negotiation and evaluation of viewpoints. The present study is concerned with the use of the expression of evaluation in academic discourse, focusing on some communicative strategies for indicating stance. With the corpus-based approach, research articles on applied linguistics and language teaching selected from top-ten journals were systematically complied and analyzed. The results revealed that professional and experienced writers variably exploit stance markers including epistemic modality, extraposed ‗it‘, communication verbs, and personal pronouns in terms of different functional types of evaluative stance. The findings highlight the importance of understanding the use of stance devices in academics, facilitating a better understanding of novice readers and writers when writing academic productions. Pedagogically, the description of this study contributes to ways to improvement of practical language and academic writing courses to suit the discourse community.
16 Read more
Some works tackling fake news and mislead- ing information favor to discover the truth (Xiao et al., 2016; Wan et al., 2016) through knowledge base (Dong et al., 2015) and truthfulness estima- tion (Ge et al., 2013). These approaches may not be feasible for satirical news because there is no ground-truth in the stories. Another track of works analyze social network activities (Zhao et al., 2015) to evaluate the spreading informa- tion (Gupta et al., 2012; Castillo et al., 2011). This could be ineffective for both fake news and satiri- cal news because once they are distributed on the social network, the damage has been done. Fi- nally, works evaluating culture difference (P´erez- Rosas and Mihalcea, 2014), psycholinguistic fea- tures (Ott et al., 2011), and writing styles (Feng et al., 2012) for deception detection are suitable for satirical news detection. These works consider features at document level, while we observe that satirical cues are usually located in certain para-
11 Read more
recently been resettled in Cadeville. Due to historical refugee resettlement policies, many refugees had arrived in Cadeville over the 15 years prior to data collection for this study. As of 2014, it was estimated that over 53 percent of Cadeville’s population of 7,717 was born outside of the U.S. (with 12 percent of the overall population having arrived in the U.S. within the previous 12 months), over 40 countries were represented in the town’s one square mile, and nearly 60 percent of the population over age five spoke a language (or languages) other than English at home (U.S. Census Bureau, 2016). These are important changes, considering that Cadeville’s population was 90 percent White in the mid-1980’s (Rossenwasser, 2012). These changes have contributed to the town’s fame: more than one national best-selling nonfiction novel is set there, and national public television programming has twice profiled this small town as a case study of the changing nature of U.S. ethnolinguistic landscapes (Rossenwasser, 2012). Through prior work in immigrant and refugee communities in the metro area where this study took place (i.e., non-profit board service, adult EAL teacher development, teaching adult EAL, grant writing consulting, and data collection for this dissertation), I noticed that the name Cadeville evoked myriad meanings and imaginings amongst my interlocutors—even those who have never visited Cadeville—such as linguistic diversity, cultural diversity, compassion, conflict, hope, helplessness, and more. These are some of the historical, political, and
268 Read more
2.4. Discourse structure and discourse relations Theories of discourse structure address three main aspects, i.e., (1) discourse structure (‘constituents’ of discourse and their structure), (2) discourse relations (relations be- tween utterances), and (3) accessibility domains (how rela- tions and structure influence the realization and interpreta- tion of utterances, e.g., through constraints on anaphora or information structure). Most theories aim to combine these aspects, or emphasize one of them. In terms of annotated corpora, the most important theories of discourse structure are the Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), and discourse relations of the Penn Discourse Treebank (PDTB). RST (Mann, W. and Thompson, S., 1988) defines discourse structure as a tree, where discourse segments are connected by subordinating (mononuclear) or coordinating (multinu- clear) relations. Further, relations between discourse seg- ments are distinguished with respect to their meaning or function, e.g., one discourse segment can represent express the cause, the justification, or just background informa- tion for the information conveyed by another discourse seg- ment. Further, discourse structure interacts with anaphora (Cristea et al., 1998). Several corpora annotated with RST are available, the most important being the RST Discour- se Treebank (Carlson et al., 2003, RSTDTB) for which an OLiA Annotation Model has been developed as described below.
section 3) have prompted a second round of annotations that includes non-linguistic events. This involves importing descriptions of the non-linguistic events (dice rolls, card plays, etc.) from the game log into the annotation files. The full game log temporally orders all linguistic and non-linguistic game events, yielding an automatic alignment of each utterance with the current game state and an explicit numbering of each turn in the game. Because not all turns from the game log were originally assigned numbers, some server turns are given decimal numbers (e.g. 222.4, vide infra) to preserve the original numbering. Many descriptions of non-linguistic events from the game log are public to the players. These de- scriptions, whose interpretations are determined by the game rules and state, give the Settlers corpus a major advantage for the study of non-linguistic events in discourse: they minimize the effects of the individuation and conceptualization problems, and they also allow us to presuppose joint attention of the players, ensuring that all information can be considered to have entered the common ground. 1
11 Read more
As a type of media text, newspaper has an important role in human’s life because it presents various local, national and international information and events. In order to attract readers’ attention, journalists make the headlines as ambiguous and confusing as possible so that readers are curious to know the content of the whole story and they would read it. Moreover, in presenting the information or events, different reporters will have different linguistic choices which include the choice of words and expressions and different linguistic structures. Thus, this paper analyzes how the different linguistic choices and structures used in the headlines of The Jakarta Post and Indonesian Daily News would construct different linguistic representations of events in the world.
13 Read more
Research literature is critical of aggression in bouncers, with demands for more training and legislation in the industry (Clancy, 2011). However, one question must be asked. Is the training of bouncers deficient, or rather, is the portrayal of bouncers in the news media, especially about violence against the public, out of line with what is really happening? Are bouncers who behave badly just a few ‘bad apples’, or is the industry an orchard full of ‘bad apples’? (Punch, 2009: 2). How are bouncers being portrayed in the news media and is this leading to a societal view of bouncers as fundamentally violent thugs? These broad questions and others will be addressed in this thesis, using a critical discursive analysis of news reports involving bouncers to unpack the factors contributing to the thuggish view of bouncers held by the public and policy makers. A review of the literature revealed only one study that was a discursive analysis of news reports of bouncers (see Wadds, 2010). This research will contribute to the dearth of literature around bouncers and licensed premises’ private security, specifically in relation to studies using discourse analysis. While there is a small but growing body of research around bouncers and licensed premises in relation to alcohol-related violence, there is no literature using discourse analysis to investigate the influence of the mass media in public portrayals of bouncers. Moreover, there is little or no critical discourse analysis of violence involving bouncers, alcohol-related violence or the media
272 Read more
The term terror and its derivatives (i.e. terrorist/s and terrorism) appeared 744 times during the Fox News and CNN coverage throughout the 225 transcripts, which accounts for the appearance of 3.3 terms in each transcript. Other violence-related terms like Hamas, Al-Qaeda, and Bin Laden were grouped on the basis of Fox News and CNN quoting Hamas and Al Qaedawith thesame agenda—Bin Laden is also considered a symbol of terrorism in the transcripts. A number of 417 appearances, of the three terms combined, were found, leading to a mean visibility of more than one term per transcript (n=1.18).Similarly, the term radical and its derivatives (i.e. radicalism, radical, etc.) appeared abundantly in the text and forced a negative tone and imminent danger from the mosque construction. The visibility frequency was articulated at (n=339), with three appearances per transcript. Extremism and extremist also recurred during the coverage resulting in a negative tone surrounding the news reporting—216 in total, appearing once per transcript (0.96).
28 Read more
Abdullah, H.‟s study on Azmah Nordin‟s novel entitled “Menongkah Lumrah: Satu Analisis Wacana” (Against the Norms: A Discourse Analysis) was aimed to examine techniques used in a discourse. The results of the study showed that general nouns, special names, pronouns, references, replacements, repetitions, disappearances and lexical were used extensively in this novel. The study concluded that a literary work can be used as a linguistic study material especially for a discourse analysis that still lacks the attention of language enthusiasts and learners.
About 112 news articles were located randomly within the period of January to April 2016. However, only 94 articles were chosen for analysis. Other 18 news articles were eliminated because of redundancy of the topic reported. The time frame was chosen because, in the early of 2016, the Malaysian government announced to suspend the hiring of foreign workers in Malaysia. There was debate among various parties about the issue. Some people happily agreed with the decision because they think the influx of foreign nationals in Malaysia create uncomfortable environment but some are disagreeing stating that ‘the country’s economy is powered by foreign workforce [14,15].
Most of these studies used very small sam- ples (8-32 AD patients and 16-51 controls) taken in different settings (phone/face-to-face conversa- tions, hospital/familiar environment, inconsistent thematics, etc.). These differences make it diffi- cult comparing their findings. Given the small size of the samples, it would be helpful to use corpora with constrained settings, like restricted discourse and controlled environments, in order to discard differences attributable to factors unrelated to lan- guage. Moreover, further studies with non-English speakers would help us to enrich our understand- ing of language alterations due to AD.