Linguistic Imperialism in Postcolonial Era and Language Planning and Policy

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Youth Bilingualism, Identity And Quechua Language Planning And Policy In The Urban Peruvian Andes

Youth Bilingualism, Identity And Quechua Language Planning And Policy In The Urban Peruvian Andes

Additionally, other youth described walking away from family interactions where Quechua was spoken. Lesly explained how her mom and grandmother often spoke in Quechua when they did not want her to find out about something. Though she tried to understand, it was difficult as they spoke it too fast. On one occasion, as Lesly and her cousin overheard one of these conversations, she described how her grandmother and mom “empiezan a hablar rapidito y ya nos confundimos, ‘¡Hay que irnos!’” (‘they begin to talk really fast and so we get confused, ‘Let’s go!’’) (I, 2016.08.27), leading the girls to disengage and walk away from this family speech event. The experiences of Milagros and Lesly exemplify instances of othering experienced by youth in rural spaces and in interactions with Quechua-speaking adults. In contrast to altura youth who were otherized because of the fact they spoke, and were perceived as speaking outside of their rural hometowns, Quechua, the girls feel left out for not speaking and not understanding the language. The lack of Quechua within their repertoires limits their ability to participate in interactions with adults in community and home spaces where Quechua proficiency is expected and valued, leading to feelings of social and linguistic incompetence. What is more, these examples also point to how spaces, be them urban or rural spaces, do uphold sociolinguistic norms and language regimes, yet individuals don’t orient nor experience these norms in similar ways.
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Language planning

Language planning

about power distribution and political expediency; it is about economic issues, and it is about the distribution of time and effort of administrators, scholars, teachers and students. Although a concern with theory suggests that such policy decisions should be based on data about learners and community language needs (see, e.g., Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997; van Els, 2005), in fact policy decisions are not about the needs of any given community, nor are they about the needs of learners. They are, rather, about the perceptions of language(s) held in the Ministry of Education and to some extent in the generally perceptions of the society at large. Policy decisions rarely take into account such matters as learners’ age, aptitude, attitude or motivation. They tend to be top-down in structure, reflecting the opinions and attitudes valued at the highest levels in the planning process; they are rarely about the linguistic needs or desires of any given society or community. Indeed, the least important factor in such planning decisions may well be the needs and desires of the target population (Kaplan, 2004).
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Planning language teaching : an argument for the place of pedagogy in language policy and planning

Planning language teaching : an argument for the place of pedagogy in language policy and planning

The second most important theme that emerges from the contributions is the need for the macro- level to articulate clear, coherent and systematic policies on pedagogy. Pedagogy is central to language-in-education and a successful language education largely depends on the ways issues of pedagogy are addressed in policies and implemented in classrooms. The contributions show that in many contexts (e.g. Japan; Indonesia, Vietnam and Ukraine) policy documents elaborated to implement particular pedagogical policy changes may be vague, incoherent and incongruent with other aspects of national education policies. This lack of clarity in policy documents that seek to implement a particular pedagogy is explicit in many contributions such as those by Liddicoat, Glasgow, Hawanti, Goodman and Nguyen. For these contributors the lack of clarity in framing and articulating policies on pedagogy at the macro-level means that implementation agents at the micro- level are required to interpret policies for themselves, but may not have the backgrounded needed to do this successfully. The inevitable consequences of this situation can be tensions among teachers, conflicts in the interpretation of policies and poor implementation of pedagogical activities. Theme 3: Language planning to effectively communicate policy pedagogy
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Divided in the root and dilemma: Re-reading Rajgopal Parthasarathy in Postcolonial era

Divided in the root and dilemma: Re-reading Rajgopal Parthasarathy in Postcolonial era

Contemporary Indian English Literature belongs to postcolonial literature like all other literature as Canadian, Caribbean or Australian literature. In the post-independence era, almost all the poets came with their decolonized approaches and individuality in order to create a poetic tradition in a indigenous way. In that period so many poets came to contribute in Indian English Literature who tried to show in their writing cultural dislocation, linguistic displacement, personal dilemma, acute geographical dislocation, problem of writing poetry in a language which is adopted not inherited. Rajgopal Parthasarathy is one of them who shows similarity with the characteristics mentioned above. He tries to recreate the stability and lost order of the society and culture. This paper attempts to highlight the cultural dilemma ad search for roots and identity Parthasarathy through some of his poems from ‘Rough Passage’.
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Pendulum swings in Australian language policy and planning since the 1990s

Pendulum swings in Australian language policy and planning since the 1990s

cognitive processes underlying adult second language (L2) acquisition. His work focuses on the nature of automatic and attention- based processing underlying L2 fluency. He is especially interested in the problems many adults face in learning an L2, and in how cognitive science might contribute to more effective L2 instruction. He also studies language barriers to healthcare access for linguistic minorities. Prof. Segalowitz has published extensively in leading journals and handbooks. His book Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency (Routledge) appeared recently (June, 2010).
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The Impact of Linguistic and Cultural Imperialism on Iranian ELT Context: Attitudes of Teachers and Students

The Impact of Linguistic and Cultural Imperialism on Iranian ELT Context: Attitudes of Teachers and Students

Nowadays, along with the global spread of the English language, a whole breadth of studies have been conducted to investigate the attitudes of language learners and teachers towards English and cultural imperialism and how it can affect the learning process. In Iran, however, not much research has been done regarding this topic. To address this gap, the present study explored and examined the attitudes of Iranian EFL students and teachers towards linguistic and cultural imperialism and its impact on Iranian ELT context. To this end, the study adopted a descriptive, non-experimental design. The data were collected from questionnaires filled by 50 participants (11 males and 39 females), as well as from the interviews with 20 students, and 10 teachers. The interview data were combined within the main data to provide a supporting role in explaining the questionnaire results. The findings of the study indicated that Iranian students had positive attitudes towards the English language, particularly the American variety. The majority of students and teachers acknowledged that language items were culturally loaded, yet showed positive attitudes towards them which was a manifestation of the influence of linguistic and cultural imperialism on Iranian ELT contexts. As a conclusion, it could be argued that the English language along with its cultural values have influenced the attitudes of Iranian EFL students and teachers and consequently their language learning and teaching. Several implications for English instruction and policy making in English education in Iran can be emerged from this study by evaluating English language learning materials as well as teachers and students attitudes towards English learning and its context.
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A network model of language policy and planning: The United Nations as a case study

A network model of language policy and planning: The United Nations as a case study

Reflecting on paradigmatic shifts in the field, Ricento (2000: 206) asserts that “the key variable which separates the older, positivistic/technicist approaches from the newer critical/postmodern ones is agency, that is, the role(s) of individuals and collectives in the processes of language use, attitudes and ultimately policies.” Agency is now accepted as a critical variable alongside inter alia ideology and ecology, in the development of LPP theory (Ricento, 2006). However the role of individuals in influencing LPP, particularly from the bottom up, whilst recognised as important (e.g. Baldauf, 1997, Canagarajah, 2002, Cooper, 1989, Davis, 1999, Freeman 2004, Haarman, 1990, Hornberger, 2006, Hornberger & Johnson, 2007, Ricento & Hornberger, 1996, Spolsky 2009), has been of comparatively marginal interest until recently (see review by Zhao, 2011). An emphasis on the development of models and typologies of LPP at a national level and the role of Governments in determining language goals and resolving national problems has overshadowed an interest in determining who was/is responsible for influencing the management of linguistic practice at macro, meso or micro- levels. Aware of this lacuna Baldauf (1982, 2004, 2006, 2008) and colleagues (e.g. Kaplan & Baldauf, 1997, Zhao & Baldauf, 2012) amongst others (e.g. Hornberger & Johnson 2007, Pennycook, 2002 1 ) have been instrumental in bringing individual agency into the critical debate. Hornberger & Johnson (2007) appropriating the metaphor of the ‘onion’ (see above) argue for a grounded, ethnographic approach to the study of policy implementation, encouraging researchers to peel back the layers (however eye watering!) to explore locations of acceptance, resistance and reinterpretation of policy
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Promoting diversity through Language-in-Education policies: focus on Australia and the European Union

Promoting diversity through Language-in-Education policies: focus on Australia and the European Union

language-in-education policy development may not be possible, at least not in the ways in which it has been developed during the 20th century. The difficulty in language-in-education policy stems from the fact that such planning has little to do with research in education, linguistics or applied linguistics (i.e. it is not evidence based) but rather constitutes a substan- tially political process based on political assumptions. (Kaplan, 2005: 78–9) Promoting cultural and linguistic diversity has never been as important as it is today, as we live in a ‘global century’ (Cleveland, 1999), where traditional speech communities are replaced by such dynamic communities as, for example, the speech communities of the Internet, or the workforce of multinational corpora- tions. Although the model of the nation-state seems to prevail, nation-states have come under enormous pressure both from below, as articulated by the national- ist movements of smaller ethnolinguistic minority groups in all parts of the world, and from above, where the ideas of internationalisation, globalisation and integration set the new agendas for governments (May, 2000). In our contempo- rary world, the terms such as ‘global citizenship’, ‘multicultural citizenship’ (Kymlicka, 1995) and ‘transnational identities’ seem to be useful concepts for capturing new concepts of identity. These changes in the concept of identity are strong contributing factors in the development of current language-in-education policies, as this paper shows in the context of Australia and Europe.
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Linguistic Imperialism: Native-Speakerism from The Perspective of Non-Native English Learners

Linguistic Imperialism: Native-Speakerism from The Perspective of Non-Native English Learners

Referring to the description above, I asked open-ended questions about why conversation (speaking) skills must be taught by NESTs. The following are the responses given by the majority of respondents: (1) NESTs tend to be more confident when speaking in native languages, (2) NESTs look more fluent in using the original language, (3) NESTs are able to present examples that are in accordance with the natural context, so that informants can feel the use of English in accordance with the context. Meanwhile, five respondents (stating that conversation skills should be taught by NESTs) stated that NESTs could not explain the material in accordance with students’ expectation. NESTs had to have the ability to manage classes both methodologically and technically. The five respondents shared their experiences taught by NESTs who were very fluent in English but were unable to handle the class properly. TEAFL ends in a learning process that is oriented towards NEST (teacher-oriented). In addition, NESTs also had to consider the ability of each student because each student did not necessarily have the same English language competence or equivalent to one another.
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A linguistic review of certain aspects of aviation language  on the lexical level

A linguistic review of certain aspects of aviation language on the lexical level

the International Civil Aviation Organization set world standards for aviation technical matters, as well as necessary language requirements. Clearly the language of aviation is full of complicated terms. These terms and coinages are represented in different forms of codes, acronyms, abbreviations, blends, and so forth. Some linguistic aspects of aviation language are investigated in this article on the lexical level; what is dealt with in this regard is relevant to aviation telecommunications and flight operations. All investigated issues relevant to communications between the pilot and ATC (Air Traffic Control) staff stress the need for a clear and understood language to avoid flight disasters. Flight safety is also taken into consideration in all important conferences around the world. For aviation purposes, there are specialized centers that train pilots on flight technical matters one the one hand, and on language proficiency (based on ICAO's standardized aviation language) on the other.
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Indonesian Language and Literature Education in 2013 Curriculum in Indonesia

Indonesian Language and Literature Education in 2013 Curriculum in Indonesia

Abstract:- The researchaims to describe it forms of learning in the curriculum 2013. Implement as Indonesian language learning in 2013 in the school curriculum. Based on these objectives, the results of this study are: The form of learning Indonesian in the competency-based 2013 curriculum has eight characteristics, namely: (1) The content or curriculum content is a competence expressed in the form of core competencies of the subject and further detailed into Basic Competencies;(2) Core Competencies;(3) Basic Competencies;(4) emphasis on domain competencies, attitudes, cognitive skills, psychomotor skills, and knowledge for an educational unit and subjects are marked by the number of KD subjects;(5) Core Competence becomes an organizational element of competence not a concept, generalization, topic or something that comes from the disciplinary-based curriculum or content-based curriculum;(6) Basic Competencies developed are based on accumulative principles, mutually reinforcing, and enriching the subject matter;(7) The learning process is based on efforts to master competencies at a satisfactory level by paying attention to the characteristics of complete knowledge competency content;(8) Assessment of learning outcomes covers all aspects of competence, is formative and the results are immediately followed by remedial learning to ensure competency mastery at a satisfactory level.
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Technology, education and language valorization: a functional  View of language teaching

Technology, education and language valorization: a functional View of language teaching

Por muito tempo, o Brasil busca ser uma grande potência mundial, para tanto, precisa diminuir a quantidade de pessoas analfabetas, juntamente com os que não possuem escolarização completa (Ensino Fundamental e Ensino Médio), o que acarreta em formação precária de alunos e agrava também o desenvolvimento socioeconômico do país, diante de um cenário competitivo e excludente, no qual a qualificação e a inovação falam mais alto, e a leitura – em seus diversos sentidos (de mundo, da palavra) - passa a assumir um papel cada vez mais relevante. No século XX, a educação escolar era baseada somente na leitura e na escrita, sendo o estudo privilégio de uma pequena minoria, filhos e filhas de nobres da sociedade, e a norma-culta padrão era exigência mínima para avaliar potencialidades e julgar o indivíduo como culto ou não, tornando-o membro efetivo e selecionado da sociedade ou excluído dela. Os anos de 1960 foram considerados promissores para a educação, valorizada pela Lei 4.024/61 das Diretrizes e Bases da Educação. No século XXI, as discussões sobre novas metodologias de ensino e aprendizagem, escolas contemporâneas e inovadores se intensificaram, o que trouxe à tona alguns velhos debates e inquietações: o tabu a ser superado pelos educadores em suas práticas pedagógicas e o abismo que os separa dessa realidade, isto é, o de formar e educar para a autonomia, auxiliando o aluno a “aprender a aprender” (DEMO, 2008), o que significa que “é preciso ir
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Lenin's Theory of Imperialism Today: The Global Divide Between Monopoly and Non-Monopoly Capital

Lenin's Theory of Imperialism Today: The Global Divide Between Monopoly and Non-Monopoly Capital

the deepest economic foundation of imperialism is monopoly. This is capitalist monopoly, i.e., monopoly which has grown out of capitalism and exists in the general environment of capitalism, commodity production and competition, in permanent and insoluble contradiction to this general environment. Nevertheless, like all monopoly, it inevitably engenders a tendency to stagnation and decay. Since monopoly prices are established, even temporarily, the motive cause of technical and, consequently, of all progress, disappears to a certain extent and, further, the economic possibility arises of deliberately retarding technical progress. For instance, in America, a certain Owens invented a machine which revolutionised the manufacture of bottles. The German bottle-manufacturing cartel purchased Owens' patent, but pigeonholed it, refrained from utilising it. Certainly, monopoly under capitalism can never completely, and for a very long period of time, eliminate competition in the world market ... Certainly, the possibility of reducing cost of production and increasing profits by introducing technical improvements operates in the direction of change. But the tendency to stagnation and decay, which is characteristic of monopoly, continues to operate, and in certain branches of industry, in certain countries, for certain periods of time, it gains the upper hand. 309
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Airport planning and management systems

Airport planning and management systems

This research is limited to areas covered in this paper, but the opportunities to enhance airports in many aspects are still available. This paper is mainly to highlight the importance of airport management and the planning required for the functioning of the airport. Case studies in the paper have shown how airports can progress in many aspects to satisfy consumers and build relationships with partners. Future studies indicate various areas where airports need to improve on to compete with other transportation industries and to cope up with the rapid changes in air transportation. Addressing management techniques and having a dynamic model will be suitable for managing the rapid changes and growth of an airport. Anticipating changes and staying relevant to the course to the future of airport management is necessary.
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Preparing Europe for a new renaissance. A strategic view of the European research area. First report of the European Research Area Board – 2009

Preparing Europe for a new renaissance. A strategic view of the European research area. First report of the European Research Area Board – 2009

A united ERA is a place where there will be no barriers to either researchers or ideas moving freely from country to country, private to public sector (and vice versa), or between disciplines. The ‘fifth freedom’ – the freedom of knowl- edge across borders within the EU – will become integrated into the existing rights, guaranteed by Treaty, of people, capital, services and goods to move freely. An open, ERA-wide network, online, will provide a simple clearing house to promote ideas and find technologies across borders; networking and visu- alisation tools will make collaboration easier and cheaper. Open competition between researchers, institutions and systems will be the ERA rule. Whether for a grant, research contract, professorship or appointment, all may apply and the best will win – and those in less attractive institutions may ‘vote with their feet’ and move to wherever they judge the opportunities for success to be greater. A young researcher will be able to earn a degree in one country and easily move to another to work and teach; indeed, a growing population of researchers will earn PhDs with a truly European dimension, obtained by work- ing in more than one Member State ('Euro-PhDs'). 9 An industrial researcher
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The Construction of Platform Imperialism in the Globalization Era

The Construction of Platform Imperialism in the Globalization Era

The dominant positions of Facebook, Twitter and Google have been considered as clear examples of platform imperialism. While these sites can offer participants entertainment and a way to socialize, the social relations present on a site like Facebook can obscure economic relations that reflect larger patterns of capitalist development in the digital age. The connec- tion of SNSs to capitalism is especially significant. SNS users provide their daily activities as free labor to network owners, and thereafter, to advertisers, and their activities are primarily being watched and counted and eventually appropriated by large corporations and advertis- ing agencies (Jin forthcoming). As the number of SNS users has soared, advertisers, includ- ing corporations and advertising agencies, have focused more on SNSs as alternative adver- tising media. According to Facebook’s S-1 filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Facebook’s ad revenue in 2011 was $3.2 billion, up 69% from $1.9 bil- lion in 2010. Approximately 56% of Facebook's 2011 ad revenue of $3.1 billion came from the U.S. alone, according to the company's regulatory filings (Facebook 2012b). However, the proportion of the U.S. significantly decreased from 70.5% in 2010 to 56% in 2011 (eMar- keter 2010), meaning Facebook has rapidly increased its profits from foreign countries. As Grewal (2008, 4) emphasizes, “the prominent elements of globalization can be under- stood as the rise of network power”. The notion of network power consists of the joining of two ideas: first, that coordinating standards are more valuable when greater numbers of peo- ple use them, and second, that this dynamic as a form of power backed by Facebook, which is one of the largest TNCs, can lead to the progressive elimination of the alternatives, as Lenin (1917) and H. Schiller (1991) emphasized. Facebook as the market leader in the SNS
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Intersecting Gender and Race in Globalization: Beyond the Evolution from Cultural Imperialism to Cultural Hybridity

Intersecting Gender and Race in Globalization: Beyond the Evolution from Cultural Imperialism to Cultural Hybridity

Tomlinson (1991) warns of the danger of such a simple “assertion of the manipulative and ideological power of the media” (p. 38). In former colonies, childhood memory seems to romanticize the postcolonial power working at a personal level. Conducting an ethnography in postcolonial India, Parameswaran (1999) observes that “nostalgic conversations about childhood reading [of the Western literature] were some of the most animated, lively, and loud debates, punctuated with many interruptions, screams, and laughter” (p. 89). Consistent with her observation, Japanese comics evoke from Korean adult audience groups a passionate nostalgia for their childhoods (Ahn, 2001). This is an interesting, somewhat self-contradictory, situation. Koreans have an antipathy towards Japan for its holding colonial power over Korea in the past, yet the Japanese texts conjure up memories of the good old days. Cultural imperialism,
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Globalisation and language policy in Tunisia: Shifts in domains of use and linguistic attitudes

Globalisation and language policy in Tunisia: Shifts in domains of use and linguistic attitudes

Born in Tunisia in 1936 in a small city called Hammam Sousse on the Tunisian coast, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, mnemonically ZABA, as many Tunisians like to call him, completed his military studies in France then in the United States to serve later “as ambassador to Poland in the early 1980s” (BBC, 20 June 2011). Then, he became Minister of the Interior, then prime minister in 1987 and became a president a few months later, “ousting Tunisia's first post-independence ruler, Habib Bourguiba, in a bloodless palace coup” (BBC, June 20, 2011) following a medical report signed by a group of doctors confirming that president Bourguiba was “mentally unfit to rule” (BBC, June 20, 2011). He spoke the three main languages in Tunisia i.e. Arabic, French and English, but based on some YouTube videos and the speeches he delivered throughout his presidency, he was not very fluent in any of them and he rarely improvised a speech in any language, unlike the Algerian president who constantly used “French in his public speeches showing at the same time his rhetorical skills in literary Arabic” (Benrabah, 2007: 28). In doing this, he adopted “the Moroccan
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Can an Itinerant Curriculum Theory Travel?

Can an Itinerant Curriculum Theory Travel?

This politics of academic text production is central to Santos’s (2008) notion of global cognitive justice. Leaving out the vast majority of scholars who use languages other than English makes it impossible to achieve global cognitive justice. English linguistic imperialism discussed above has close connections with this politics of academic text production. For example, drawing on the data available on Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory in 2009, Lillis and Curry (2010) show that 67% of the academic periodicals were published using some or all English. Furthermore, there is an issue of prestige and academic rigor attached to the journals published in English. Even though ISI indexes claim to be international, they are extremely biased toward journals published in English in Anglophone geographic contexts. Most journals that are not published in English are excluded from various international indexes, and this exclusion means that the journals published in English enjoy higher impact factors (IFs). For this reason, many people arguably consider English as the language of knowledge and research. The Institute of Science Index (2013) states on its website that “English is the universal language of science at this time in history. It is for this reason that we focus on journals that publish full text in English” (para. 8).
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Empowering English Language Teaching-Learning Process in India

Empowering English Language Teaching-Learning Process in India

users, there is a consensus to state that the top 3 languages are respectively English, Chinese and Spanish; beyond the consensus is lost… In terms of contents, there is no consensus on the order of languages beyond the fact that English is still the first language in terms of contents, although the value of the corresponding percentage varies greatly depending on the source (from 32% to 52%).” Internet World Stats presents its latest estimates for Internet Users by Language which claims English language ‘an indisputable winner’. There are a lot of resources to practice English language with the help of technology and internet i.e. various software, applications, online games, online dictionaries, online e- books, audio books, videos, documentaries etc for the improvement of English language according to the current professional requirements which can be an efficient, effective and interesting way to command over the language.
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