Linguistic Minorities

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The Protection of Linguistic Minorities: An Appraisal on the Role of Multination Federalism

The Protection of Linguistic Minorities: An Appraisal on the Role of Multination Federalism

331 By and large, language has linear linkage with the quest of identity. Its recognition has been playing superintendent role in keeping status quo of integration tremendous- ly. Obviously, it could reproach what matters in undermining nation building too. This toning the milestone through such channeling, the sense of belongingness will be flying from voluptuous particularism to nationalism flag for the purpose of maintaining the permanent togetherness ultimately. At this juncture, the subject deserves the major practical significance in synthesizing an operative governance system without any fear and tear of backsliding i.e. protecting the linguistic minorities in multi-nation federal- ism is the. On top of this, it paves a way smooth to cultivate local or traditional skills, knowledge and technology. Accordingly, those local ingredients may have been up- graded to modern requirements of development level, from which their national and international utilities would be brought into line for a common usage beyond board. Such schemes have also been contributing for innovation and creation of a given nation from its traditional discounting to modern scientific and technological furtherance. So does for the national economic development penetratingly. On top of this, it may miti- gate the problem of unemployment due to language barrier. Logically speaking, taking cognizance of the language, it could, at least, serve to promote local job opportunity in black and white blatantly. Finally, it is of significance importance in blowing self rule/ administration and tolerance, in wide spreading some democratic virtue and value, in promoting norms, values, taboos etc of that particular group, more often than not. Therefore, it is the tool of social, economic and political lethargy in the multination fe- deralism through illuminating the brightening lesson of common hope and integrity to staying together and dismantling any enrooting threat of disintegration with its vices and evils potentially.
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Inclusion of Linguistic Minorities in Education: The Indian Dillema

Inclusion of Linguistic Minorities in Education: The Indian Dillema

APRIL-MAY, 2015. VOL. II/IX www.srjis.com Page 2234 many people in the south and other parts of India believed that it would impose on them a northern identity. The government responded by modifying the National Language Policy. Hindi was made an “Official” rather than the National Language; English was made an Associate Official Language; and other regional languages were given official language status in order for them to exist equally along with the other two official languages (Amrithavalli and Jayasheelan, 2007: 81). The Linguistic Re-organisation of states into linguistic entities was another step towards promoting and maintaining linguistic diversity, so that linguistic minorities should be offered opportunities for political and economic growth with no feeling of discrimination or neglect (Sengupta, 2009: 19). Another initiative (a result of many years of planning) was the Three Language Formula (TLF) in education, devised in order to encourage and preserve linguistic diversity by providing linguistic minorities means to acquire link languages and also to guarantee them the right to education in their own mother tongue. Therefore, it can be concluded that formulation of rights and provisions in the Constitution, formation of states on the linguistic principle and also the formulation of the education policy were all at least moderately sucessful attempts by the Indian government to ensure effective integration of linguistic minorities into the mainstream by guaranteeing them equal rights.
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PROMOTION OF SOCIAL INCLUSION OF RELIGIOUS AND LINGUISTIC MINORITIES FROM THE INDIAN PERSPECTIVE Dr. Kurhade Shubhangi Suryakant

PROMOTION OF SOCIAL INCLUSION OF RELIGIOUS AND LINGUISTIC MINORITIES FROM THE INDIAN PERSPECTIVE Dr. Kurhade Shubhangi Suryakant

Branding of a particular faith often sows seeds of distrust for all the rest and ushers the beginning of the end of tolerance,for this reason, religious beliefs often generate tensions over social inclusion. Presuppositions must be held out in a polite manner. Militant religious fundamentalism is exclusiveness at best and more then not menaces harmony and catalyses eruption of sectarian violence Inclusiveness has to be not only inter-religion but even intra- religion. Roman Catholicism, Shia Islam and Mahayana Buddhism,needless and the pyramidal caste based structure of the Hindus are all examples emphasizing the need of social inclusion of all religious and linguistic minorities to maintain social harmony. Tolerance may be seen as the other face of inclusiveness. Exclusiveness results in a cult that tends to foster fanatism among religions and sects of religions. Religion then becomes an excuse for violence and a grab for socio-economic alienation and fanatic extreme nationalism. Without social illusion of different religions, religious sects and linguistic minorities a society cannot exist, a nation cannot last and a community cannot live in harmony.
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Cultural Traits as Defining Elements of Minority Groups

Cultural Traits as Defining Elements of Minority Groups

Language is a complex reality that encompasses not only a set of communicative variables but also symbolic, political and identity variables. Language, as any other cultural trait, has aspects or manifestations that are difficult to define objectively and compare. Even a seemingly basic fact, such as that of setting out everyone’s language, can be very complex, considering the combination of personal, social and psychological factors that operate on it. Therefore, we tend to identify an individual’s language with that of their parents (together or separately), but this language (or languages) may in turn differ from the language spoken in their families; the language they know best; the language they use the most in their daily lives; the language they feel most identified with; or the language with which others identify them (Kontra, 1999: 285). The choice of one or another of these possibilities is indeed a question of identity, whereby an individual may become a member of a majority or a minority. It may also occur that a specific language does no longer play a communicative role and yet it maintains its cohesive nature as a key element of a group’s identity. That is, some sectors of the population may consider themselves strongly attached to a language that is only spoken by other group members. This is the case with many linguistic minorities, both traditional and immigrant groups, for whom the memory of their tongue remains a factor of cohesion and identity through other artistic, symbolic, festive functions, etc.
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Speaking of Secession: A Theory of Linguistic Secession

Speaking of Secession: A Theory of Linguistic Secession

Though there are many politically practical realities that might give a linguistic minority strong reasons not to secede, a claim of linguistic secession puts a powerful bargaining chip in the hands of linguistic minorities to negotiate for greater protection of their linguistic rights, especially in the area of official language. As seen with the Kurds in Turkey, although the Democratic Initiative appears to have foundered, the initiative was a reaction to the active secessionist claim partly built on the infringement of Kurdish language rights. Thus the theory of linguistic secession empowers linguistic minorities with the right to turn to doctrines of international law when their host states fail to adhere to ICCPR Article 27 protection in the name of preserving majority, official languages.
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The sensitivity of cultural identity: a focus on Cameroon

The sensitivity of cultural identity: a focus on Cameroon

International Conventions on Minority Rights: The adoption of resolution 47/135 by the United Nations General Assembly on the 18th of December, 1992 which was based on the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities and inspired by the provisions of article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, has been adopted by several regional organizations like the European Union imbedded in the Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Protection of National Minorities and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the African Union (AU) which Cameroon is a member also includes minorities rights in the African Charter on the Rights and Welfares of the Child (ACRWC). Constitutional Rightsthat protects the minorities embedded in both the 1972 and 1996 Cameroon constitution breached by the Government are stated below. Part 1, Article 1(3), states that “The official languages of the Republic of Cameroon shall be English and French, both languages having the same status. The State shall guarantee the promotion of bilingualism throughout the country. It shall endeavour to protect and promote national languages.
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LINGUISTIC MINORITY CONCEPT IN INDIA: MYTH AND REALITY

LINGUISTIC MINORITY CONCEPT IN INDIA: MYTH AND REALITY

As per letter of the Commission dated 28 th January, 1984 the Minority commission has mentioned the this letter, So far as a linguistic minority is concerned, the commission has been treating those groups of people as linguistic minorities whose language is different from the principle language of the State in which they reside and who constitute numerically smaller section of the people in that State. Means linguistic minority will be declared by the state govt. However, in practical base, if any person will leave their own or native state and migrated to another state, then he or she will be going under the group of linguistic minorities. And this person will be taken benefits of the minority community. On this ground in Maharashtra and other state’ persons those already have including majority community this type of persons have increased the linguistic minority and they established professional educational Institutions in Maharashtra and they are taking benefit of the minority community. Some of the professional educational institutions the majority member of the Management council they are not included minority community but they have established minority educational institutions.
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National minorities: levels of educational analysis

National minorities: levels of educational analysis

The main institutions active in the segment of national minority rights that promote good interethnic relations and fight anti-discrimination are: the Department for Interethnic Relations (DRI) which cooperates with the Council of National Minorities (the latter brings together three representatives of national minorities represented in Romanian Parliament), the National Agency for Roma (ANR), Institute for Research on National Minorities (SPMN), National Council for Combating Discrimination (CNCD), the People‘s Advocate, together with the ministries that have departments for minority issues. 21 The minorities institutions, totalling 1804 units 22 , with predominant activity within culture, protection / promotion of human rights, education / science and religion 23 actively contribute to the formation of an overview of civil and social engagement of minority communities; we will not try to fight the case examples given by the jurisprudence for the violation of minorities rights, especially on instances of property return in cases of religious cults in Romania, but to the extent that such activities are not only promoted, but also financed (limited, it is true, and often insufficiently). We can say that the Romanian state has committed, indeed, to provide a framework for the development of intercultural dialogue, stating that the enforcement of norms continues to be poor, either because the authorities do not fully respect them, or because of existing uncertainties in both the body of law and the powers established for the various institutional structures.
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Poverty Assessment of Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam

Poverty Assessment of Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam

Pham et al (2011) used baseline dataset of Program 135 Phase II (P135-II) to provide situational analysis of poverty and multiple socio-economic aspects of the ethnic minorities. P135-II provides the most comprehensive data set about demographic, socio- economic information of the ethnic minorities in Vietnam. The data set is representative of ethnic minorities in the country; therefore, the analysis using P135-II baseline data would provide a highly accurate and representative analysis and description for the ethnic minorities. The data set allows for decomposition into 14 ethnic groups comprising the Kinh, Tay, Thai, Muong, Nung, Dao, Mong, ‘others in the Northern Uplands’, Ba Na, H’re, Co Tu, ‘others in the Central Highlands’, Khmer, and ‘other ethnic groups’. The study identifies significant gaps between ethnic minority groups. Some ethnic minority groups with larger populations such as the Tay, Thai, Muong, Nung and Khmer have poverty rates lower than the average for ethnic minorities as a whole. In contrast, some smaller groups such as the H’re and Ba Na, groups in the Central Highlands and the Northern Uplands, and the Hmong have much higher poverty rates. The study also analyzes multiple reasons undermining the socio-economic progress of the ethnic minorities: inability to speak Vietnamese, cultural practices such as community leveling mechanism, low quality of assets and services.
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Minorities’ protection in Russia: is there a ‘Communist Legacy’?

Minorities’ protection in Russia: is there a ‘Communist Legacy’?

I start this chapter by problematising the use of the word ‘communism’. Next. I subject the word “legacy” to critical scrutiny, with the aid of some recent analyses. Third, I consider whether there is a “Leninist legacy”. I show how Lenin’s vigorous promotion of the ‘right of nations to self-determination’, which he inherited from Marx and Engels, and which during his lifetime he put into practice, at the last coming into conflict with Stalin, gave the USSR and the RSFSR a unique structure with a right, on paper, to secession. Lenin also promoted territorial autonomy. In effect, he radicalised Tsarist minorities policies.
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The European Dimension of the Political Representation of Minorities

The European Dimension of the Political Representation of Minorities

―There shall be no political parties on ethnic, racial, or religious lines, nor parties which seek the violent usurpation of state power.‖ (Bulgarian Constitution 1991) This restriction is in line with the general spirit of the Bulgarian constitution which avoids the mention of the word minority and does not provide for any collective rights (Vassilev 2001, 43). In general, Bulgarian political actors seem fearful of the association of the word national minority with secession and generally refuse to use word in public discourse, calling national minorities ―minority groups‖ (CEDIME 1999 and 2001). Despite allegations by minority rights advocates that the constitutional ban of ethnic parties is discriminatory and violates international laws, there has been no discussion of amending the constitution in any relevant way (BHC, various years). The electoral system in Bulgaria is Proportional
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Developing Linguistic Competence Of The Learners With Internet Resources

Developing Linguistic Competence Of The Learners With Internet Resources

One of the most important aspects which represent some difficulty while forming the linguistic competence, especially at school, is learning new vocabulary because many learners tend to forget or misuse new words. This happens due to different factors, such as: words are not properly stored in learners’ minds; they are not practiced enough; they are not related to the learners’ interests. Besides learning vocabulary demands frequentative reiteration that tires learners with its monotony and does not bring the desired results.

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Linguistic theory, linguistic diversity and Whorfian economics

Linguistic theory, linguistic diversity and Whorfian economics

hypothesizes abstract underlying word orders (and pronominal expression, etc.) which are not the same as those on the surface. It also introduces a theoretical claim which goes against one of the current cross-linguistic generalizations in generative linguistics, which is the ‘final- over-final constraint’ (Biberauer et al., 2007): this generalization predicts that a verb which precedes its object should not be moveable to a position which follows its sentence, as here. This means either that this explanation is incorrect or that the principle is incorrect, or that there is some other complicating factor: in this way, linguistic theory develops. Ma’di is classified by WALS as having no dominant word order (i.e. neither SVO or SOV), but a more abstract analysis which properly explains the patterns in the language might in fact find that it does have a dominant SVO word order with the other derived from it (Dryer, 2013 devotes a discussion in WALS-144 to Ma’di negation and word order, noting that only five described languages, all from the same area, show this pattern).
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Poverty of Ethnic Minorities in the Poorest Areas of Vietnam

Poverty of Ethnic Minorities in the Poorest Areas of Vietnam

Poverty, especially chronic poverty, in Vietnam will be a phenomenon of ethnic minorities. Although ethnic minorities is around 14 percent of the total population, they accounts approximately for 50 percent of the poor. The poor ethnic minorities tend to live in remote mountains and highlands. During the period 2006-2010, the government of Vietnam implemented the Program 135-phase II that provides supports for the poor and ethnic minorities in the communes with special difficulties and high concentration of ethnic minority people. This chapter examines the poverty and inequality pattern, income and characteristics of households in the Program 135-II communes – the poorest areas in Vietnam.
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Poverty and prosperity among Britain’s ethnic minorities

Poverty and prosperity among Britain’s ethnic minorities

Variations in educational qualifications provide a clear example of the range of diversity between ethnic groups. Of the six main minority ethnic groups, three are typically less well-qualified than white people in the same age group, while three are often better qualified. Pakistanis and Bangladeshis, the least well- qualified groups, are showing signs of catching up, but Caribbeans, especially young men, show persistently low rates of entry to higher education. Indian, Chi- nese and African people, on the other hand, are all more likely than white people to achieve degrees or equivalent qualifications, and some statistics show par- ticular minorities to be doing exceptionally well in the education system.
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Design Of Sugeno Fuzzy Logic Controller For Resistance Furnace

Design Of Sugeno Fuzzy Logic Controller For Resistance Furnace

When the rules of systems are expressed by linguistic rule set, linguistic words only contain qualitative information. However, human beings are still capable of reasoning based on that information effectively. It is these rules that are knowledge based on human experience in the process of working and understanding the system. Under the linguistic information gained from the system, people can make sound decisions about the system that is the approximate reasoning.

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CULTURAL MINORITIES AND THE PANOPTIC GAZE: A STUDY OF THE (MIS)REPRESENTATION OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN MALAYALAM FILMS

CULTURAL MINORITIES AND THE PANOPTIC GAZE: A STUDY OF THE (MIS)REPRESENTATION OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN MALAYALAM FILMS

lance would prevent those objects from doing anything wrong or harmful. The convict who feared being watched may abstain from behaviour he/she might otherwise engage in if no one was around to see. In mainstream Þ lm the mechanism of panoptic gaze creates an object of pleasure which behaves consonantly to the expectations of the spectator who identi Þ es himself/ herself as surveillant. The cinematic apparatus itself acts as a normalizing mechanism which constantly provides instances of deviations. Michel Fou- cault (1979, p. 217) believes that we have already internalized a gaze of the other and integrated it into our own subjectivity to such a degree that there is no longer a need for any surveilling person to uphold the social system. He argues that our society is not one of spectacle but of surveillance. Spectators are neither in an amphitheatre, nor on the stage, but in the panoptic machine, invested by its effects of power, which we bring to ourselves, since we are part of its mechanism. The depiction of tribes in Malayalam Þ lm clearly states this objectifying, fetishistic and normalizing gaze, which has already created a stereotypical image of the aboriginals as a whole. The process of stereotyping racial and ethnic minorities demands an imagological analysis as well. While conceptualizing Imagology, comparatist Joep Leerssen (2016, p. 22) explains how the auto and hetero imaging mechanism works in popular media. He points out the example of the Þ lm Casablanca (Curtiz, 1942) which brings refugee actors from various European nations together in a Holly- wood studio to play refugee characters from various European nations, re- emphasizing the ethnotypes like rakish Frenchman, bloody-minded German, tough American etc.
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Blind v. Colorblind: The Injustice of State Felon Disenfranchisement Schemes

Blind v. Colorblind: The Injustice of State Felon Disenfranchisement Schemes

State policies which disenfranchise ex-felons, those who have served their complete sentences, have a long history. While “civil death” was a common punishment for convicts in Europe prior to the colonization of North America, ex-felon disenfranchisement statutes were adopted by several states, primarily in the South after the Civil War. There is substantial evidence that these statutes were created to exclude racial minori- ties. These discriminatory effects can still be seen today. Racial minorities in the United States, primarily African Americans, are incarcerated at a much higher rate than their white peers. Once convicted, these persons are often subject to disenfranchisement. Because of the racial disparities in conviction and incar- ceration, minority communities are often left with a diminished voice in the electoral process. Under the Voting Rights Act, as amended in 1982, any voting qualifications established by a state that result in dis- proportionate disadvantages for minorities are illegal. As a result, African American voters, who consis- tently vote for Democratic candidates 90% of the time, suffer from vote dilution due to felon disenfran- chisement. Precedent suggests that courts analyzing such state statutes should consider a totality of circum- stances, including the historical reasons for enactment and other harms suffered by the community. Because of this, ex-felon disenfranchisement schemes are not only a bad policy, but also are incompatible with equal voting rights as embodied in the 15th Amendment, and therefore invalid under law.
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Migrants, Minorities, Mismatch? Skill Mismatch among Migrants and Ethnic Minorities in Europe

Migrants, Minorities, Mismatch? Skill Mismatch among Migrants and Ethnic Minorities in Europe

Some individuals and groups believe that they are subject to discrimination. The results from Table 16 reveal that perceptions of discrimination are positively related to being employed on a fixed-term contract, trade union membership, history of unemployment, recent skill acquisition, and negatively related to age. Educational attainment has little impact. While non-EU migrants (migrant3) are 5% more likely to feel discriminated against, the magnitude of the effect, at 23%, is much more substantial for respondents belonging to ethnic minorities. The models suggest that feelings of discrimination are restricted to migrants educated domestically, as the coefficient for migrants educated abroad is not statistically significant. The marginal discrimination effect for ethnic migrants is slightly lower than the overall average, suggesting that native ethnics have the highest incidence of perceived discrimination. There is no evidence to support the view that overeducated migrants and ethnic minorities are more likely to feel discriminated against (specification 4). Ceteris paribus, perceptions of discrimination are highest in the UK and lowest in Portugal. There is weak evidence to suggest that discrimination is higher in countries where a larger proportion of the workforce is religiously affiliated.
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Theories and Methodologies of Ethnic Residential Segregation

Theories and Methodologies of Ethnic Residential Segregation

promoted a “falsified” perception of the “ethnic history of long settled groups” (p 4). „Ghettos‟ are enforced and „enclaves‟ are chosen. That mis-distinction could be explained by the Chicago School‟s interest in the dynamics of change in ethnic segregation over time rather than the choice or constraint factors that lay behind such urban phenomena. Yet, the failure to distinguish between the concept of ghetto and that of enclave has had, to use Peach‟s phrase, a “pernicious effect” (2001: 18) on the depiction and understanding of ethnic groups and ethnicity in US sociology. Unlike the Chicago School‟s belief, ghettos were not a temporary phenomenon. The ghetto proved to be permanent. Moreover, the belief that socio-economic improvement was the mechanism for destroying the ghetto was not always the norm. Peach stated that just like poor blacks rich African Americans were segregated from rich whites. Also, such terminological confusion created a fiction of homogeneity of historical residential experiences of various ethnic minorities. In contrast to the general belief that early (say) Irish, Italian or other ethnic enclaves were homogenously made up of the same ethnic group, Peach stated this had never been true. Finally, that mis-distinction promoted the belief that all segregation was bad and superimposed. “In reality, for those groups who choose it and for whom it is not enforced, concentration has many benefits” (Peach: 19).
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