Linguistics and Literature

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Linguistics in the Study and Teaching of Literature

Linguistics in the Study and Teaching of Literature

I think that this improvised and emergent approach characterizes not only stylistics teaching, but also stylistics as a practice: just as it is intermediate between literary studies and linguistics, so its useful termi- nology is intermediate between the rhetorical terminology of literary studies and the theoretical terminology of linguistics. Stylisticians often pick and choose which elements of a linguistic theory they think will work effectively, and they are happy to combine incompatible theoretical components with each other because they work well as ways of getting at texts. As teachers of linguistics and literature, we must always decide where we stand on any terminological issue. Here is an example. In the stylistics literature (e.g. Leech and Short 1981), a distinction is drawn between various different ways of representing in a fiction a character’s thoughts or speech. ‘Direct’ representations quote the speech or thought; ‘indirect’ representations re-state the speech or thought from the narrator’s (temporal, spatial) perspective. ‘Free indirect’ representations mix the two of these, giving the effect of a third-person narration that is intermixed with the character’s perspective (common in the nineteenth-century novel from Jane Austen onwards). We might treat these as distinct theoretical terms. Although I use them in teaching, I think of them as useful terms, and in addition, I use the theoretical term ‘metarepresentation’. From the perspective of a theory of metarepresentations, a sentence that represents another sentence (e.g. what someone says or thinks) is a metarepresentation, and there is no theoretical distinction between a metarepresentation that very closely resembles the original (as in direct speech) and a metarepre- sentation that less closely resembles the original (as in indirect or free indirect speech). I teach the students the useful terms, because it gives them a rich descriptive vocabulary, and when they run into trouble in a particular text (which blurs the boundaries), this too is interesting. But I also teach the notion of ‘metarepresentation’ that replaces these terms; while I would not always teach high theory, in this case the full theory is easy to understand, relatively independent of other notions, and very useful in general as a way of thinking about literature. It is a judgement call: we make them all the time when we choose a linguistic terminology for the literature classroom.
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Proceedings of the Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

Proceedings of the Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

LaTeCH-CLfL 2017 continues the tradition of two separate yet not dissimilar events. It is both the 11th Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences and Humanities, and the 6th Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature—held jointly for the first time, with beneficial effects. We have been able to cast the net more widely. We received more, and more varied, submissions. Nine long papers, five short papers and a position paper will appear at the workshop, a 58% acceptance rate. We also had the advantage of two program committees from past years helping us select the best papers. We are ever so grateful to all those attentive, thorough and helpful reviewers. Sure enough, we thank all authors for the hard work they invested in their submissions.
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Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2012 Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature

Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2012 Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature

We anticipate a lively and wide-ranging discussion between the authors of these diverse contributions. We hope that this workshop, and others like it, will galvanize the area of literary analysis within computational linguistics. Literature is a carrier of our culture and its history, so advances in the application of natural language processing to literature will help unlock and explore the insights found within.

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A Classification Study over Loan Words Used in the Fields of Turkish Literature, Grammar, Linguistics and Pedagogy

A Classification Study over Loan Words Used in the Fields of Turkish Literature, Grammar, Linguistics and Pedagogy

When reviewing the literature, it is seen that various studies regarding loan words entering into Turkish have been conducted [8,9,10,11,2,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19]. A portion of the studies are comparative and classification studies relate to loan words from a certain language (Arabic, Farsi, French, etc.), to terms in a certain field (science, art, literature, etc.), to the appearances in various dictionaries of loan words, and to sound events seen in loan words. However, it was specified that loan words used in the fields of literature, grammar, linguistics, and pedagogy were discussed and that there were limited studies in which the parts of speech used were specified. For this reason, the study aimed to sort through loan words that entered into Turkish from foreign languages and that are used in the fields of literature, grammar, linguistics, and pedagogy, based on the latest edition of the Turkish Dictionary.
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Proceedings of the Second Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

Proceedings of the Second Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

Welcome to the 2nd Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature. After a great joint event last year, we are happy to present another lineup of high-quality papers at this year’s workshop. Everything you want to know about it has been placed on-line (https://sighum.wordpress.com/events/latech-clfl-2018/). We accepted 64.3% of submitted papers. You can appreciate the thematic variety in what follows.

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Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature

Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature

Welcome to the fifth (yes!) edition of the Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature, aptly nicknamed CLfL. We started our workshops as a venue for computational linguists who had an interest in processing literary texts. That somewhat underspecified, and a slightly narrow, mandate has evolved over the next four years. A rather special research community has emerged, with NLP people alongside researchers in Digital Humanities, literary scholars, poets and more. You can trace a brief history of CLfL at its latest Web site. 1

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature

Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature

Welcome to the second edition of our young but vibrant workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature. We are thrilled to have been able to accept a pleasantly wide range of interesting papers on the computational treatment of literature. The ACL community is certainly embracing literature! We want the workshop to bring together NLP researchers interested in literature and literary scholars on the quantitative edge of their field. We feel that those who “count words” for a living have something to offer to people who “read books” for a living, and vice versa. As Rauscher et al. (this volume) put it:
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Journal of Linguistics and Literature

Journal of Linguistics and Literature

To answer “why in this particular way”, it is the seven building tasks of Gee [1] that will give us a precise detailed look into King’s identity in the speech, the identities and rela[r]

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Journal of Linguistics and Literature

Journal of Linguistics and Literature

In the literature, very few studies have focused on the evaluation of aid in different countries [5,6,7,8]. State aid to the press means "any economic or financial support organized by the public authorities and intended for companies, in order to facilitate the management of the media, to ensure their survival if necessary, in the name of the pluralism of and communication activities [8]. It have several aims: "reduction of the expenses related to the operation of the enterprises (tax reductions or exemptions, reduction of various tariffs), partly replacing the failing market by granting subsidies from public funds; participation in the capital of certain companies (as well as in the public service media); financing related media activities (cable, satellite); taking over certain operating expenses of media companies; organization of certain financial circuits that migrate funds from one medium to another; etc. [9].
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Journal of Linguistics and Literature

Journal of Linguistics and Literature

In line with ethnography, we conducted inductive analysis to discover emerging “patterns, themes and categories” [25] by adopting content analysis [26,27,28,29]. Content analysis has been adopted for the data analysis, as “it is a widely used research method in social work and in allied disciplines and professions.” [30]. Content analysis provides an opening, in a methodical way, in drawing meanings and identifying patterns from materials and creates potential for future exploring. Generally speaking, as Holsti put it, content analysis is “any technique for making inference by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of message.” [31]. Throughout qualitative semi-structured interviews and the additional data sources, the common themes emerge as “meanings of learning Arabic in local contexts”, “potentials in speaking Arabic in Sino-Middle East contexts” and “tensions and contradictions in speaking Arabic”. Informed by both the data and the relevant literature, relationships between these themes were established. Below in section 5 we will discuss three themes in relation to each other.
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Journal of Linguistics and Literature

Journal of Linguistics and Literature

Wilson [9] differentiates between two types of political discourse. The first one focuses on political discourse that has an authentic association to politics, and the second type -which he withdraws from Shapiro [10]- that claims all discourse as political regardless of its actual relation to political content or context. Wilson suggests that this confusion stems from the fact that the conditions upon which any discourse is considered political are very common in most of the discourses; these conditions involve power, control, conflict, or dominance. However, this broad definition of political discourse is not practical in the field of linguistics, which is why Wilson resorts to limiting the definition of political discourse into formal and informal political context and political actors, i.e. “politicians, political institutions, governments, political media, and political supporters operating in political environments to achieve political goals” (398).
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View of “We are ourselves fremdsprachig”: Foreign Literature Studies in the Twenty-First Century
							| Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies

View of “We are ourselves fremdsprachig”: Foreign Literature Studies in the Twenty-First Century | Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies

It may be argued that literary research in general has at least the po- tential to help us address such challenges, given that we think of litera- ture as composed of texts that are intentionally wrought and imagined; representations that combine the powers of Vorstellung with those of Darstellung, using the textual space as a testing ground for alternative ways of modelling past and future worlds and narratives. What I want to make a case for in this article, however, is the particular heuristic, cog- nitive and ethical potential implicit in reading literature in a language that is not one’s own. While foreign-language literary research spans a variety of methodologies and practices, the position of the foreigner, of being a stranger in another language, as well as in the place in which that language is grounded, brings with it a stance and a methodology that not only unites the field across languages, but also, I argue, translates into other disciplines and areas of enquiry as a comparative approach; a form of relational thinking that is especially important in a world that is becoming increasingly integrated and yet fractious.
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View of Nostalgia and Hybrid Identity in Italian Migrant Literature: The Case of Igiaba Scego
							| Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies

View of Nostalgia and Hybrid Identity in Italian Migrant Literature: The Case of Igiaba Scego | Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies

Greek nóstos (return home) and álgia (pain), was originally a seventeenth century medical diagnosis for those suffering from severe homesickness, and the concept is often used by scholars of migrant and post-colonial lit- erary theory. But what is home in contemporary migrant literature? How can one long for a home that one can no longer remember, or that one has perhaps never even lived in? How does nostalgia influence the migrant’s local, national, and cultural identity? One of the authors who examine questions like these is the Italian-Somali writer Igiaba Scego, a second- generation migrant living in Rome. Scego was born in Rome in 1974 to Somali parents who were forced to flee from Somalia after the Siad Barre
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Proceedings of the 3rd Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

Proceedings of the 3rd Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

filtered text files, and other statistical information about a collection. We also provide all of this data for download with a bundled Jupyter Notebook. This allows scholars to use a web-based interface to perform basic data science operations on the data: draw on popular computational linguistics or data science Python libraries to process data and find answers. Suddenly, working with web archives is not so terrifying, and the users have been connected to the mainstream of the Natural Language Processing world.

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature

Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature

This year’s workshop will witness a lot of work on parallel texts and on machine translation of literary data. Laurent Besacier & Lane Schwartz describe preliminary experiments with MT for the translation of literature. In a similar vein, Antonio Toral & Andy Way explore MT on literary data but between related languages. Fabienne Cap, Ina Rösiger & Jonas Kuhn explore how parallel editions of the same work can be used for literary analysis. Olga Scrivner & Sandra Kübler also look at parallel editions – in dealing with historical texts.

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Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature (CLFL)

Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature (CLFL)

Taking a complementary point of view, the position paper by Levison and Lessard builds upon their previous work and proposes a graph-based representation for the temporal structure of narratives. The paper by Zemánek and Miliˇcka describes a diachronic study of Arabic literature, tracing the influence of certain treatises across centuries.

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A Comparison of Moves in Conclusion Sections of Research Articles in Psychology, Persian Literature and Applied Linguistics

A Comparison of Moves in Conclusion Sections of Research Articles in Psychology, Persian Literature and Applied Linguistics

Literature abounds with genre analysis studies on different sections of Research Articles in various languages and fields; however, scant attention has been given to Persian articles. Hence, this genre-based study analyzed the rhetorical move structure of conclusion sections in three different disciplines: applied linguistics, psychology, and Persian literature. A corpus with 30 articles from leading international and Persian journals was devised. This corpus was analyzed for the move structure based on Yang and Allison's (2003) framework. After analyzing each article, the major moves were extracted and the frequencies were calculated and compared. Although the cross- disciplinary and cross ‐ linguistic analyses unfolded significant variation regarding Move 2, they revealed no marked differences in conclusion sections of the articles on psychology and applied linguistics. However, Persian literature articles displayed more variation, which, in turn, may suggest that in the Parisian articles, writers follow a standard of their own for writing conclusion sections.. The study has pedagogical implications for academic writing courses. Key Words: Genre Analysis, Move Analysis, Conclusion Section
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Pragmatic intrusion into what is said: in western linguistics and traditional arabic linguistics

Pragmatic intrusion into what is said: in western linguistics and traditional arabic linguistics

(Ima'a) explains the enrichments that have to do with causality such as the expansion examples in (10, 15) above. Cases like (15) have been the subject of dispute among Usülies. Some argued that the presence of (and) may give preference to an explicit linguistic meaning rather than inexplicit (ima'a). The various senses of the conjunction (and) have been elaborately discussed in the Usülie literature. Usülies almost agreed that the common core basic literal meaning of (and) is "absolute coordination or conjunction" (absolute= neutral, unspecified). Thus, they consider the additional meanings of (and) as non- literal. According to context, it may implicate temporal ordering or simultaneity of conjunctsas in the following examples from (Izmiri) (D. 1165/1752) (Hashiya on Mira'at, P.3) "… such as (Bakr and Khalid quarrelled) and (Zaid came and Amr before him or after him)… Fourthly: to say (Don't eat fish and drink yoghurt) means forbidding doing them together, sothat it is permitted to drink yoghurt after eating fish".Obviously, these additional meanings are what Atlas and Levinson (1981) term "conjunction buttressing".
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REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS (MA[Applied Linguistics])

REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS (MA[Applied Linguistics])

second/foreign language pursue professional development. Topics include: the expertise of language teachers, teacher language awareness, teachers’ beliefs and practices, teacher learning and teacher research, reflective practitioners, and teacher autonomy. On completing the course, participants will be able to (1) read critically research literature on language teacher development, (2) articulate their understanding of issues related to language teacher development, and (3) consider how to apply their knowledge to their own professional development.

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Linguistics (Ma) VU University Amsterdam - Faculteit der Letteren - M Linguistics

Linguistics (Ma) VU University Amsterdam - Faculteit der Letteren - M Linguistics

Knowlegde of central notions and methods of anthropological linguistics. Ability to observe and analyse linguistic phenomena from the perspective of anthropological linguistics. Critical reflection on views regarding the relationship between language and culture. The student is able to report in a clear manner on results of his or her own anthropological linguistic research. The student is able to interact critically with literature in the field of anthropological linguistics.

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