These included situations when the victim and offender mixed in the same social circles or lived in the same area, which was reported to be a common aspect of crime between young people.
Practitioners also commented on the suggestion that young people who would contact the police would ask a parent to do so on their behalf. This was thought to highlight an assumption among young people that they could only ask for help from the police with the support of another adult in authority. Such a view was thought to be a risk factor for young victims, who would depend on the cooperative attitude of an adult to get help from the police. It was felt that some young people did not have a role model who believed it was worth reporting a crime to the police and was willing to
5.2 Bivariate Probits
The results presented above provide a strong case in support of the theory that there is a direct linkbetweenoffending behaviour and the risk of victimisation, once lifestyle characteristics are controlled for. Unfortunately, there is a potential bias in the univariate probit estimates due to the likely overlap in unobserved characteristics that determine both offending behaviour and the likelihood of being a victim. This potential for unobserved heterogeneity will result in the error term, ε 1i in (1), being correlated with the explanatory variable(s) capturing offending behaviour. If this is the case, offending will not be exogenous, and the coefficients on the offender variables in the probit models will be biased, capturing not only the true effect of being an offender but also the effect on victimisation of having this unobservable characteristic. Previous studies have failed to address this potential bias.
erroneously. Povey et al (2003) confirm that latest BCS data suggest that despite a decrease in overall crime levels since the mid-1990s the public continues to believe otherwise. Ramsay (1989) explains the results from one of the first city-centre victim surveys, carried out in Coventry. The victimisation rates for interviewees appeared to decrease with age thus it was asserted that people s lifestyles contribute to their chances of victimisation; young people who go out a lot, especially at night and at weekends, are more at risk than older stay-at-homes (Gottfredson 1984, cited in Ramsay 1989: 3). Despite the fact that the victimisation rates during the previous year for being insulted/bothered by strangers (12%), assaulted (2%) and mugged (3%) were fairly low, the levels of fear that these incidents might occur were considerably higher. In fact, 37% declared that they were worried about being insulted by strangers, 50% worried about being assaulted and 59% were fearful of being mugged, whilst in addition, 60% of women interviewed were fearful of sexual assault. Ramsay (1989: 4) acknowledges that the rates of fear increase with the seriousness of the offence as; the commonest but the most trivial form of victimisation investigated in this survey (stranger insults) aroused the lowest level of fear , with the more serious offences, although less widely experienced, all engendered substantially higher levels of fear . It can therefore be argued that the general pattern for fear extent of an offence mirrors its perceived seriousness (ibid). The inability of questionnaire surveys to measure fear of crime has provoked criticism. Ditton et al (1999: 83) note that the questions asked of respondents seldom vary and that the settings applied seldom change . This implies that there is a familiar format too frequently employed.
1.1. Who is affected and what are the consequences?
As outlined in the introduction, there is a dearth of data pertaining to the relationship between financial exclusion and over-indebtedness. Nevertheless, in two countries, studies have been carried out about the characteristics of over-indebted and unbanked people (i.e. the financially excluded). In the UK, the risks of being financially excluded and of having arrears on households’ bills or credit commitments are higher among people who live on low incomes (Kempson 2002; Kempson & Whyley, 1999). In Belgium, Fraselle and Bayot (2004) and Bayot (2005) compared the profiles of financially excluded and over-indebted people in the Walloon region. They showed that they are quite similar although unbanked people were more likely to have a lower socio-economic status than those who were over-indebted: they had a lower level of income, a lower level of education, and they were more likely to be unemployed. 50 % of unbanked people received social benefits compared to only 6 % of over-indebted people. Although no comprehensive study has been undertaken in France, it appears as in Belgium that over-indebted people have a higher level of income than unbanked people and that they are less likely to be receiving social benefit 2 .
Social risk factors
Vulnerability and social exclusion
a b s t r a c t
The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between criminal trajectories and factors invol- ving vulnerability and social exclusion in adolescents in conﬂict with the law. To this end we analysed 281 case ﬁles of these adolescents in the city of Valencia and produced 3 types of criminal trajectory —initial, moderate and consolidated— associated with vulnerability and social exclusion indicators. Empi- rical evidence of the relationship is provided. Criminal trajectories and factors involving vulnerability and social exclusion are found to be closely connected, intertwined and overlapping. The accumulation of vul- nerability and social exclusion factors in adolescents in conﬂict with the law works in such a way that the greater the accumulation and intensity, the greater the probability of developing a consolidated criminal trajectory. Demonstrating the linkbetween them is essential in order to modify psychosocial interven- tion with these adolescents, whether this happens before the start of the criminal trajectory or later so as to prevent it from becoming consolidated.
“The findings of this research provide worrying reading for anyone concerned with the economic regeneration of some of the UK’s most deprived rural areas. Clearly there are many different factors that impact the social-economic status of a region but in urban areas around the UK, high- speed Internet access has quickly become a fundamental service in the same way as other utilities like electricity and water. It is relied upon to assist commercial enterprises to do business and residents to gain access to important information and services. So, in many ways, it makes sense that those in rural areas, unable to access the high-speed Internet in the same way as their urban counterparts, would be at some kind of disadvantage. This research, for the first time, highlights that link by demonstrating a strong correlation between internet access and economic output.
Chapter 4: Discussion
people who have experienced traumas, including differences in externalising vs internalising emotions and vulnerability.
Participants also identified a number of social mechanisms that might be involved in the trauma-offending pathway. They considered peers as important influences, especially in relation to a young person’s social skills and desire for a sense of belonging. They also perceived parents/carers to be important influences in this pathway, especially in relation to the impact of dysfunctional relationships, parenting ability, learned behaviour and a lack of stability and consistency. Certain wider societal and environmental issues were also identified, such as having nothing to invest in, limited education, unmet basic social needs, negative labels, difficult relationships with authority and the potential benefits of custody. Finally, participants perceived the psychological and social impact of substance misuse to be particularly important when considering the linkbetween trauma and offending behaviour.
a follow-up study of a large sample of both male and female victims, whose sexual abuse was confirmed, with a matched comparison group. This will allow the determination of rates and risks in the perpetration of offences or victimisation, including those of a low base rate such as sexual offences. This study linked cases of children who were medically confirmed to have been sexually abused to police databases between 13 and 44 years following their abuse to determine whether victims of CSA were at increased risk of offending and victimisation than a comparison group. It should be noted that medical evidence of abuse is not available in most cases of sexual abuse (eg see Adams et al. 2003); however, in Victoria it is common practice, where possible, for children to be examined by a forensic medical officer where allegations of child sexual offending are made.
21 No one is ultimately responsible for the rehabilitation process at any level – from national policy, to the level of the individual prisoner. Responsibility and accountability for outcomes can be very unclear. The problems in prisoners’ lives are often highly complicated and inter-related. They require a co-ordinated multi-agency response, within prison, across the crucial transitions between community and custody, and sustained long after release. Without this, they are likely to fall into the gaps between services. This task is made more complex by the need to assess the risk posed by released prisoners to public safety, and in some cases, to manage any potential threat across a number of areas, including housing and employment. However, joint-working mechanisms are not robust, and are not backed by shared targets, leverage, or up-to-date management information.
This project is one of the first empirical investigations into youth victimisation and offending in Ireland and is one of three research projects that were established under the Youth Crime Research Project: Young People’s Experiences of Crime. Victim surveys are of particular interest to this study, as they help to illuminate the 'dark figure' of crime through ascertaining individual's experiences of victimisation, while simultaneously collecting pertinent information regarding their own level of criminality. A common failure among the majority of victim surveys, however, is that they do not investigate the experiences of young people. This project seeks to address this deficiency. Through the use of a victim survey, structural equation models, and focus groups, this research will also analyse the extent and nature of youth victimisation and offending in inner-city Dublin, possible correlations betweenvictimisation and offending behaviour, the role parental supervision and routine activities/lifestyle choices play in determining the risk of victimisation and offending, and the role gender plays in young people’s experiences of crime. Previous research has shown that victimisation is a strong indicator of likely participation in delinquent behaviour. However, many young people have been victimised, yet do not pursue a delinquent lifestyle as a result, suggesting a strong similarity between victimogenic and criminogenic risk factors, such as age and environment. The control that guardians exert over youth is also paramount in determining what type of lifestyle youth can pursue in the first place. As youth cannot be supervised at all times, the lifestyle choices they make regardless of parental influence, will also be investigated.
There is partial congruence between the original hypotheses and the acquired results.
As hypothesised, males were perceived to be considerably more physically aggressive towards a maternal figure than a daughter, however the margins between violence across genders and perceptions of potential violence towards parents, regardless of victim gender was relatively small. The author would suggest that perception potential for male physical aggression is a reflection on societal views of violence with a basis in how violence is portrayed in the media. Further to this the author would posit that patriarchal ideologies still have a strong influence on how people view perpetrator likelihood, directions and severity of violence (Graham-Kevan, 2009; Walker, 2013) but also how support for victims of IFV are portrayed: predominant female victims of violence that is male in its origin. The findings of this study demonstrate that when regarding emotional levels of aggression there was significance in effect and interaction. The participating group were of the perception that parental gender was likely to play a role in victimisation, demonstrating that they believed that mothers would be most likely to be victims of this form of aggression. This is congruent with the hypothetical stance of the study in that mothers would be most likely to be victim to this form of aggression, and concurrent with published research (Nock & Kazdin, 2002;
On the first issue it should be considered that specialisations are dynamic and change according to human capital accumulation. In this respect, there is nothing different between fair trade and a project aiming to improve productivity of a non competitive group of French, Italian or Australian wine producers by developing new lines of product and improving their market access. In addition to it, and from a static point of view, the ancticyclical price premium may be consistent with market equilibrium in situations in which local intermediaries have monopsony power on marginalised producers. 7 Beyond this case, it has been observed that the FT product is a new variety with respect to the non FT equivalent due to its additional intangible characteristics appreciated by consumers. If this is true fair trade may be conceived as a sort of general purpose innovation which increases product variety. Finally, some authors emphasize that the premium works as an optimal incentive device which solves a moral hazard problem of the local producer’s investment (Reinstein and Song, 2008).
No one is ultimately responsible for the rehabilitation process at any level – from national policy, to the level of the individual prisoner. Responsibility and accountability for outcomes can be very unclear. The problems in prisoners’ lives are often highly complicated and inter-related. They require a co-ordinated multi-agency response, within prison, across the crucial transitions between community and custody, and sustained long after release. Without this, they are likely to fall into the gaps between services. This task is made more complex by the need to assess the risk posed by released prisoners to public safety, and in some cases, to manage any potential threat across a number of areas, including housing and employment. However, joint-working mechanisms are not robust, and are not backed by shared targets, leverage, or up-to-date management information.
a. Path Protection: Path protection is having the capability to protect one or more peer-to-peer paths via a predetermined or pre-established backup tunnel. This is for all time peer-to-peer protection and is similar to the shadow PVC model often used in the ATM networks. The backup tunnel is link and node diverged from the primary tunnel, such that if any element (link or node) along the primary path fails, the head end reroutes the traffic onto the backup path. Many schemes for backup can be used, such as 1 to N or 1 to 1. In the 1-to-N scheme, there is one backup tunnel for N primary tunnels between the same pair of routers.
face may be therapeutically fruitful given the linkbetween paranoia and powerlessness.
184.108.40.206. Schools, Universities, and Broader Societal Implications
Participants’ accounts of bullying victimisation support the expansion of anti- bullying campaigns in schools and universities. Such programmes might benefit from the provision of friendship mentors given the experiences of marginalisation reported in current study. Indeed, the beneficial effects of benign, reparative and/or reflective relationships suggests that increased provision of befriending schemes would be helpful for those affected by bullying. Findings regarding social withdrawal, isolation and reduced access to reparative experiences, promote peer support group programs that encourage sharing of experiences, and that enhance peoples’ sense of safety around others. The study also
Our study confirms a high prevalence of HI in remote Aboriginal children with and without offending records.
There was evidence, in univariate analysis, for an associ- ation between HI and youth offending, for boys only, how- ever this association was not evident after controlling for other risk factors. Our findings highlight the complex range of factors that underpin youth offending for remote Aboriginal children including the relatively greater im- pacts of child maltreatment and community factors on youth offending than HI, and the different risks for youth offendingbetween boys and girls. These findings point to opportunities for early intervention to disrupt the pathway into the youth justice system, and provide a clear message for governments, policy makers, and community service providers about the urgent need for interagency collabor- ation to meet the ‘multiple and complex needs’ of vulner- able children in the Northern Territory (Rosengard et al.
Given the beneficial effect attributed to training, continued investment in, and
prioritisation of, staff training, professional development and high quality induction is crucial. Such training should provide residential workers with a baseline
understanding of attachment, trauma, and child development to enable staff to understand behaviour and reframe these behaviours in the context of the young people’s needs. Moreover, training should provide staff with a range of strategies and techniques as a toolkit in responding to offending behaviour, thereby making police contact the option of last resort a practice reality. The linkbetween training and models of care should also be acknowledged. Arguably, induction could provide a useful opportunity to prepare staff for the behaviour and conflict that may be faced in their role, and the dual responsibilities of care and control. Such training is likely to become ever more crucial as the complex needs of young people becoming
in crime and criminal justice
Foreword | There is significant interest in the issue of child sexual abuse committed in institutional settings. This study uses information collected from a sample of 23 convicted Canadian sex offenders to examine key elements of the offending. Issues explored include the nature of the offender’s involvement with institutions, their own prior sexual victimisation experiences, factors influencing the selection of victims and the locations where the sexual assaults occurred. Particularly telling was the length of time offenders spent at an institution prior to initiating the assaults and the potential to avert offending by reducing opportunities to offend, as well as the associated danger evident in allowing staff—without supervision—
Simplifying what is a hotly debated topic in Near Eastern archaeology, during the 4th millennium BCE the plain of southern Mesopotamia witnessed the emergence of the ﬁrst cities and state societies, characterized by a hierarchically organized political sys- tem, monumental architecture, new technological achievements, highly standardized pottery, bureaucracy, and writing. In other, less euphemistic words, a highly unequal economic and political system established itself in southern Mesopotamia and Susiana and a signiﬁcant number of sites dispersed over northern Mesopotamia, southeastern Anatolia, and western Iran echoed the exceptional relevance of the southern Uruk cul- ture. Due to the political situation in Iraq over the last twenty years, archaeological re- search has become increasingly diﬃcult, if not impossible, to undertake in the core of Mesopotamia, leading to an increase in the number and intensity of projects conducted in other Near Eastern countries, especially in Syria and Turkey. This has meant that there is an increasing abundance of data concerning the regions commonly referred to as the periphery of the Late Uruk world. This situation has also inﬂuenced the theoretical discussions taking place, which converged mainly on the nature of the relationship be- tween northern and southern Mesopotamia from the Ubaid onwards, as well as on the originality and dependency of the so-called northern Uruk phenomenon. Stud- ies concerning the social and political interactions in northern Mesopotamia between local Late Chalcolithic communities and southern Mesopotamian newcomers have fo- cused on the relationship between material culture and social identities, 16 and also on
Kosson, 2010). Sevecke and Kosson (2010), exemplify this relation, recurring to the example of the common belief that depressive disorders are negatively correlated with psychopathic traits in adulthood. In first place, the relation between both of these pathologies needs to be clarified, as there is very little evidence of this negative correlation in youths. And second, if a youth exhibits both depressive and psychopathic features, probably the affective disorder will attenuate some behaviors, and consequently reduce the likelihood of disinhibited behavior in social interactions, and, similarly, as the affective disorder will also attenuate bragging, it will difficult the identification of the presence of grandiosity, beside this indicator remains latent.