The mean goal of this work was to study the heterogeneities due to loss of complete mixing conditions with increasing scale, using CFD simulations. Special emphasis was given to the elucidation of liquid-liquidvolume fraction dispersion and drop size distributions. Operational conditions were defined based on the best condition found in the 3L lab scale bioreactor  and using the P/V (constant power input per liquidvolume) empirical scale up criterion. Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show the oil volume fractions for the liquid-liquid system in 3 and 300 L bioreactor simulated by CFD.
In this study, an easy, fast, sensitive and accurate technique is described for extraction and quantitative analysis of fluoxetine and propafenone using off-line coupling of ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction with high performance liquid chromatography. The effective extraction variables including: the ionic liquidvolume, the type and volume of dispersive solvent, the pH, the extraction and centrifugation time, and the volume of diluent solvent have been investigated and optimized. The optimum chromatographic conditions were also obtained for the drugs determination. Under optimum conditions, the analytical curves were linear (r > 0.999) within a wide concentration range (0.01-2.00 μg ml -1 ). Relative standard deviations (precision) and detection limits for both drugs have been smaller than 5% and 0.005 μg ml -1 , respectively. The proposed method has been used successfully to detect and determine fluoxetine and propafenone in the capsule formulation and the spiked plasma samples; respectively, with the quantitative recovery results (94-97%).
Abstract— Metamaterial assisted terahertz (THz) label-free bio-sensing has promising applications. However, the sensitive THz detection of highly absorptive liquid samples remains challenging. Here, we present a novel multi-microfluidic-channel metamaterial biosensor (MMCMMB) for highly sensitive THz sensing of small volumeliquid samples. The multi-channels are set mostly in the strong electric field enhancement area of the metamaterial, which significantly decreases the liquid amount and enhances interaction between the sensing targets and the THz wave (thus increasing the sensitivity). The sensing results of isopropyl alcohol (IPA)-water mixtures and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions based on the bow-tie array metamaterial with multi-channels demonstrate the effectiveness of this proposed design and the great potential in THz bio-sensing. This design has the advantages of being highly sensitive, label-free, cost-effective, easy to operate and only needing a tiny liquidvolume. Thus our device provides a robust route for metamaterial assisted THz label-free bio-sensing of liquid-based substances.
To determine the total liquidvolume below the gas collectors, an effectiveness factor is used, which is the fraction occupied by the sludge blanket. Taking into account the effectiveness factor, which may vary from 0.8 to 0.9, the required total liquidvolume of the reactor exclusive of the gas storage area is given by
validation with reliable experimental data, have been conducted in the past ten years. Mehta et al.  simulated the liquid velocity distribution in an industrial-scale sieve tray by solving the liquid time-averaged equations of continuity of mass and momentum in a single phase steady-state three dimensional system. The presence of gas phase was, however, taken into account by introducing a liquid phase volume fraction term in the transport equation. The assumption of constant liquidvolume fraction and the absence of vapor phase transport equation were identified as the main factors in the discrepancies from the experimental data. Yu et al.  developed a two-fluid two-dimensional flow model which introduces another set of transport equations to the dispersed vapor phase. This model rectified the deficiency found in the model proposed by . Two-equation k turbulence model was utilized as the equations closure model. The resultant observation showed a good agreement with those published by  for outlet weir height of 50 mm. Severe discrepancies were, however, observed in the case when outlet weir height is 20 mm. This is due to the fact that at the near-wall, viscous force contributes to the formation of three-dimensional flow where the variation of velocity along the vertical direction is significant. Hence the prediction of two-dimensional theoretical model is invalid. Computational study on the effect of liquid loading, superficial gas velocity and weir height to clear liquid height was first attempted by . The clear liquid height is defined by the height to which the aerated mass would collapse in the absence of vapor flow . Volume-averaged mass and momentum conservation equations were solved in an Eulerian framework applying
Densiﬁcation and distortion of W-Ni-Fe tungsten heavy alloys during liquid phase sintering are modeled using constitutive laws of grain growth, densiﬁcation, and deformation. The models are ‘‘calibrated’’ via carefully designed experiments to obtain the necessary parameters to enable modeling. Metallographic analysis of quenched samples is used to obtain grain size data as functions of time and temperature, while dilatometry and dimensional analyses are used to determine the bulk viscosity and shear viscosity. The inﬂuences of gravity, substrate friction, surface tension, and solid content on distorted shapes are shown by comparing predictions from the ﬁnite element method with experimentally measured shapes. The ﬁnite element simulations accurately predict several phenomena, including increased distortion with longer sintering times and higher liquid contents, slumping due to gravity, spheroidization due to surface tension, and friction-related distortion due to sticking of the part to the substrate. [doi:10.2320/matertrans.47.2745]
In the case of gases Vf1/3 , is not too different from V1/3 and in the case of solids Vf1/3 is far too small compared to V1/3. There are essential differences in the manner in which transverse stresses is propagated through gasses and solids. In a liquid, momentum is transferred partly by the diffusion as in gases, which is a relatively slow process, and partly by transverse elastic waves as in crystals, which is an extremely rapid process and the effective viscosity depends on their relative contributions. Thus the free volume plays an important role in ultrasonic propagation in liquids, and Vf1/3 is very small in the case of solids. The relation between free volume and viscosity has been derived by Bingham  and McLeod .
concentration of 0, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 wt.%, 5 vol.% propionic acid solution, 5 vol.% propionic acid with around 45 and 75 wt.% MEA solution in the ratio part (100:1 and 100:5) by volume. The test conditions were at boiling temperature of solution for 24 hours. The solution pHs before and after test were measured by a pH meter.
Sakharov et al. proposed a liquid level sensor by using ultrasonic lamb wave where the characteristics of the acoustic lamb wave propagating in a steel plate was observed experimentally, but the non-linearity of the system renders it impracticable. Guillet et al.  proposed an innovative way of detecting water level, by using Chipless RFID principles. Several high quality factor resonators are used for this purpose where no additional sensitive material is needed. The water level detection is done using classical RFID tag with Chipless RFID sensor design based on multiple resonators etched on flexible lamination. The maximum water level that can be detected is strongly dependent on the distance between the tag and the reader antenna. N. K. Kaphungkui  utilizes the switching effect of a transistor which will be either in cut off mode or saturation mode depending upon the signal level applied to its base and a 555 timer control the state of output. He also proposed checking the level of impurity in the water (dirt) where low Signal is receive from the output. A relay is used to switch the pump ON only when the High output is produce from both dirt detection and when water level is low otherwise pump is off. On the other hand an invasive optical fiber technique is used for the detection of liquids below freezing point; the system was made up of a multiplexed array of point probes though limited to the elimination of large temperature gradient from liquid vapor. In another related literature, a water level controller was developed using a metal contact and the concept of water conductivity to detect its maximum and the minimum levels. The sensing unit must be fully
Although, the eﬀect of nozzle wettability by liquid, i.e. contact angle, between solid surface, on which bubble is formed and surrounding ﬂuid medium, to the bubble volume and formation mechanism was well studied for aqueous systems 8–11) a direct extrapolation of the results to liquid metals is often misleading. A few studies in liquid metal showed that wettability of nozzles plays an important role in bubble growth. 3,4,12) Authors 3,12) observed that the outer diameter of non-wetted nozzles controls the bubble size in liquid mercury and silver. Irons and Guthrie 4) conﬁrmed this result for liquid iron. Ogino and Nishiwaki 13) experimentally proved bubble decrease with wettability enhancement for the CO bubble - liquid slag - solid SiC system. Studies on inter- facial phenomena in slag-metal-gas systems 14) and in metal foaming 15) also revealed the same tendency. However, bubble growth mechanism at varying wettabilty in high temperature melts is still unclear.
The capillary filling using cut and cleaving methodology is widely used to avoid the complexity of the fusion splicing method. The  has shown the methodology to fill the hollow core with vacuum on one end of the fiber while the other end put into the liquid material. The similar methodology was accepted in  and the core was filled with silica aerogel. There have been selective filling techniques invented by the researchers. The selective filling includes filling the core and selective capillaries around the core. In [45-46] the core and six outer capillaries were only filled to create tunable birefringence optical fiber. The  has shown the applications of filling the core with water and ethanol as well as it has also a detailed number of samples taken with different material filled inside the hollow core of the fiber. The filling of different material on the loss of fiber as well as the impact on the operational bandwidth was also discussed. Some of these papers have explained the methodology they have used to fill the fiber, the mostly used methodology was by applying the external pressure to the capillaries using a vacuum pump or by using capillary action.
The main aim of the metallurgical investigation was to understand the role Cu and Si have on the development of shrinkage porosity in the cast structure, which in turns controls high cycle fatigue (HCF) properties. In order to achieve this objective a novel approach using thermal analysis techniques was developed to assess mushy zone kinetics, the state between the liquidus and solidus where a solid skeletal a-A l phase and an Al-Si eutectic phase grow at the expense of an interdendritic liquid. Specifically, the cooling curve and calculated fraction solid curve were partitioned into segments, which reflect different stages of feeding through the entire solidification event of the alloy. Each partitioned segment corresponds to a stage of feeding, which in turn signifies a relative degree of pore growth susceptibility.
For Bauman, the problem is that we have transitioned into a new order, but a new order which has not yet been given. Whereas previous social structures were ordered according to solidity, the contemporary condition is that social structuring is ordered around liquidity. However, this liquidity fails to provide any fixed or substantial scaffold with which to encourage the firming of any form or set order. Thus, Bauman puts forward his present view; his temporary settlement intended to be a temporary statement - for it was the ‘temporary’ of this situation which perplexed him so. His conclusion was that we are living in a period of interregnum. We live in a period of discontinuity and of gaps; a period of time without source for direction or order. And so, without the ability for these liquid times to ‘set’ as it were, Bauman purports he cannot foresee the forces, the people or the event which would change the social structuring and ordering in as great a way as the Lisbon earthquake did in 1755. Consequentially, he considers our current interregnum to be endless. Collectively, Bauman’s writings on Liquid Modernity explore the human consequences of living in times devoid of ‘ideal’ order. (Whilst it is beyond the scope of this literature review to explore and explain the events leading to this period of interregnum, please see Appendix E for a detailed overview of the path of modernity leading to Bauman’s conception of Liquid Modernity). Bauman credits his observations of interregnum to the Italian intellectual Antonio Gramsci
Abstract— The major component of turpentine is α-pinene and the main hydration product of α-pinene is α-terpineol. To obtain the optimal process design of α-terpineol production, some initial information regarding the principle of the thermodynamics and phase equilibrium are required. The aim of this paper is to present liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) of system containing α-pinene, α-terpineol and water. Ternary LLE for α-pinene, α-terpineol and water system was determined by experiment at the temperatures of 301, 327 and 353 K and atmospheric pressure. The three component mixture was stirred for about 30 min, then the mixture was left for about 2 h for complete phase separation. The composition of both phases was analyzed by using a Gas Chromatograph. The thermodynamic equilibrium models were proposed. LLE model in this study includes activity coefficient model based on NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The NRTL model ( α = 0.2) correlates the LLE data for the system of α-pinene + α-terpineol + water at the temperatures 301, 327 and 353 K with RMSD of 0.5464%, 0.000169% and 0.0054%, respectively. The UNIQUAC model correlates the LLE data for the system of α-pinene + α-terpineol + water at the temperatures 301, 327 and 353 K with RMSD of 0.756%, 1.314% and 1.6615%, respectively. The LLE data for the system of α-pinene + α-terpineol + water were successfully correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models at that temperatures.
The basic element of a single-stage absorption circulation consists of two exchangers operating in a low- pressure environment – the absorber and the desorber. The heat carrying agent's steam is cooled in the absorber, absorbed into an absorbent; excess heat must be conducted away properly. In a simplified way, it is a sprinkled exchanger on the surface of which the water steam condensates. The primary heat is supplied to the cycle in desorber, so the heat is provided to the sprinkled liquid and water boils on the tubes' surface. The article focuses on these processes.
At the bottom of the pipe, a nozzle for spraying only a homogeneous liquid phase is coaxially located. This method has a limit on the specific consumption of liquid phase. Therefore, in order to provide a given liquid phase performance, the number of such systems increases. In real conditions, this complicates the control of the work of individual dispersion units, and for the introduction of heterogeneous systems, this method is generally unacceptable. In addition, in this method of introducing a liquid phase, the local risk of solid particles is significantly increased because the concentration of solid particles in the ascending vertical flow in pneumatic transport mode is minimal (porosity ε ≥ 0.8), which, in the absence of mixing intensity, leads to full use of the existing surface of the granular material in the processes of heat-mass transfer. For granulation of heterogeneous systems, this method is unacceptable.
Again, the emphasis during protocol optimisation was on scale reduction and an increased efficiency. Tests showed that it is possible to perform the extraction and the reaction on different days, as long as the extracts are immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. When stored on ice there is a slow but consistent loss of activity. Another aspect that was added to the protocol is the importance of a blank reading. The measurement of blank samples is necessary to incorporate the amount of non-enzymatic ethylene production from the reaction buffer.
a riverbank is analyzed for pure water and two different types of saline water using a recent analytical model called the Truncated Pyramid Model. The particle is subjected to a number of forces, e.g., capillary cohesion and gravitational pull. It is influenced by the arrangement of other particles surrounding it. The cohesive force has always been considered as a significant factor in determination of the threshold condition where the particle is about to escape from the riverbank. This limiting velocity of the particle is termed as the escape velocity. The escape velocity is strongly related to other parameters like the volumetric rate of erosion, entrainment rate etc. Here it is shown that the escape velocity changes significantly as the inter-particle distance and the volume of the liquid bridge between the particles change. There are remarkable differences between the results obtained for pure and saline water. Keyword — Cohesive Force, Escape Velocity, Riverbank, Truncated Pyramid Model.
In order to test the reconstruction performance of the local principal curve algorithm for neutrino interaction events, the Geant4 simulation toolkit  was used to implement a model of a LAr-TPC detector, defined to be a stainless steel cylin- der with height and radius both equal to 10 m centred at the origin (0, 0, 0) and filled with liquid natural argon. Particles are tracked through the detector volume with all electromag- netic and hadronic processes enabled. The “QGSP_BIC_HP” physics list is used to model the hadronic interactions, com- bining a quark-gluon string and binary cascade model with high precision low-energy (below 20 MeV) neutron cross- section data. The detector is divided into “voxels” with vol- umes equal to (1×1×1) mm 3 , and all primary and secondary particles are tracked through these down to an energy of 10 keV or until they leave the TPC volume. Energy deposits by charged particles passing through the voxels are tallied into a map between the co-ordinates of the centres of each voxel ( x , y , z ) and the total deposited energy (charge) Q. To take into account the effect of electron–ion recombination on the particle stopping power in liquid argon, a quenching factor is applied to all deposited energies using a modified form of Birks’ law according to results obtained from the ICARUS project . No attempt is made to model the detec- tor readout system since this is highly experiment-specific. The GENIE  package is used to simulate the primary parti- cles from muon–neutrino and electron–neutrino interactions with a monoenergetic spectrum at 0.77 GeV, which corre- sponds to the JPARC neutrino beam mean energy. The neu- trinos are directed in a beam along the x-axis through the centre (0, 0, 0) of the detector. In order to remove random hits from secondary low-energy interactions, an initial filter- ing is applied to all of the hits using a density-based spa- tial clustering algorithm [10,11]. Hits are required to be part of density-connected regions which contain at least 10 hits,