Literature of the Great War

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Literature of a Crisis: The Great War in Anglo-American Modernism

Literature of a Crisis: The Great War in Anglo-American Modernism

Page | 123 This paper is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. of the reasons why the Great War is probably unique is that “it raised the spectre that through some combination of aerial bombardment and gas or bacteriological poisoning the next large war could lead to world annihilation – the destruction of winner and loser alike” (p. 17). Alfred Bonadeo (1989) explains that “[t]he waste changed man into an inferior being, and the price he paid for valor and survival was degradation” as war “left many men physically alive but spiritually dead” (p. 2). Paul Fussell (1975) dwells on the ironies associated with this war, i.e. how the consequences were always incongruous with the expectations or how the cost was incongruous with an achievement. “Every war is ironic,” writes Fussell, “because every war is worse than expected” (p. 7). “But the Great War,” he continues, “was more ironic than any before or since. It was a hideous embarrassment to the prevailing Meliorist myth which had dominated the public consciousness for a century. It reversed the idea of progress” (p. 8). The war, Fussell argues, changed out conception of historical continuity because it disrupted a “seamless, purposeful ‘history’ involving a coherent stream of time…” (p. 21). However, and despite such insightful comments, these critics have not detailed the social context of the war and the interplay between the private experience of individuals and the public event of the war as represented in modernist war literature. Samuel Hynes (1991) offers a more useful model in this regard. Discussing Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse, he asserts that she wrote about “time, change, the irrevocability of loss, the ecstatic sharpness of the felt moment. But her novel is located in history, and like The Waste Land it has a historical vision” (p. 345). War for writers like Woolf and Eliot
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And the Men Returned: Canadian Veterans and the Aftermath of the Great War

And the Men Returned: Canadian Veterans and the Aftermath of the Great War

The realist writing of the war generation did not sit well with “average Canadians.” Indeed, it was not meant to. They found its modernism coarse and vulgar. While this may have been the case with modernist literature like Generals Die in Bed, it was not necessarily true of more middlebrow fiction, such as Lantern Marsh or I Shall Arise. Although these novels were more traditional in style, they also criticized romantic depictions of warfare. In terms of postwar representations, therefore, elite and middlebrow authors who counted themselves part of the war generation did not have radically different understandings of the conflict and they agreed that the war could not be treated as it was by Ralph Connor, Canon Scott, or other older and established authors. This position was more critical in message and tone than the work of many of Canada’s most popular authors.
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Irish POWs in the Great War

Irish POWs in the Great War

While the Great War was popularly commemorated in most of the nations that engaged in it through monument, memorial and spectacle, the war similarly spawned a vast array of literary works. The war was mapped, and its physical, cultural and psychological space made meaningful to popular audiences through these works. Ironically, fiction could at times translate that which documentary accounts found difficult to communicate. In Nuala Johnson’s book on Irish literary representations of the war, she makes three observations. First, compared to other combatant states there is a relatively small output of work in the canon of Irish literature. That the Easter Rebellion may have overshadowed the First World War in the literary imagination is significant. Second, the historical geography of literary form reveals significantly different approaches to representation between combatant and non-combatant writers. The more experimental and innovative forms often come from those not directly fighting on the front. While pastoral themes sometimes pepper the work of soldier-writers, more modernist approaches are found in the writings of non-
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The Empire's Titanic Struggle: Victorian Methodism and the Great War

The Empire's Titanic Struggle: Victorian Methodism and the Great War

Christian nations at war with each other in Europe. It was seen as a thing of horror and shame, unjustifiable on the basis of the teachings of the New Testament. Methodist Church leaders generally upheld the Christian preference for peace over war, so that the onset of hostilities in Europe led to some ambivalence in the Church’s early pronouncements. Britain and its allies were seen as bearing some of the blame for the present crisis as a result of former unjust actions for which God was now seen to be calling them to account. Bigotry towards Germans on account of their nationality was a thing not to be countenanced and Germany was still seen as a great, educated, cultured and Christian nation. Men on both sides of a conflict, and not only the enemy soldiers, were seen as capable of behaving badly during the madness of war. Though there is evidence of some support for pacifism and conscientious objection, neither of these views ever exceeded the status of a minority viewpoint. The War was seen by Methodists as a just one, fought in a righteous cause. Britain had pledged itself to defend the neutrality of Belgium and it must now make good on its word. It was a matter of honour. Two types of civilization were in conflict and the German military aggression that represented the power of the State must be met with the strongest possible defensive response on the part of Britain and its allies, in the cause of freedom.
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The Great Depression in the eyes of Bulgaria's inter war economists

The Great Depression in the eyes of Bulgaria's inter war economists

In the previous chapter, the first layer of the economic policy debate was disclosed, that of determining the structural parameters of Bulgarian econo- my. The timing of those measures is mostly a long-term one, which under- scores the fact that the majority of Bulgarian economists were arguing that the crisis is co-driven by the structural deficiencies of the country’s economy. The Depression plaguing the country, however, could in their eyes also de- mand for some specifically anti-crisis measures which should alleviate the hardships of the slump. For this it is important to clarify here the positioning of the Bulgarian debate in the broader European context. Most importantly, Keynes had not yet published his General Theory. Politicians in charge of economic policy thus do not yet have the “scientific justification” for anti-cy- clical policies which the British economist gave them with his reputation after 1936. In this way the Bulgarian debate is at the verge of these changing theo- retical paradigms and reflects the great uncertainty which this quantitatively unique depression poses to both politicians and their economic advisors. 79
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Understanding how ESOL Pre Services Teachers' Prior Experiences and Background Shape their Processes of becoming L2 (Reading) Teachers

Understanding how ESOL Pre Services Teachers' Prior Experiences and Background Shape their Processes of becoming L2 (Reading) Teachers

Despite their different theses and subject matter, Winter, Fussell, Faust, Budreau, and Shantz share a significant commonality; all five accept the notion of modernity as a Eurocentric rather than global invention. Modernity as a construct that Western civilization discovered at the Somme or at Gettysburg did not account for larger patterns that also shaped societies around the world. In limiting their analysis to German, French, British, and American troops, Fussell, Winter, and Budreau do not escape the criticism of people like W.E.B. Du Bois, who wrote nearly a century earlier. The African American sociologist and thinker found ―The African Roots of War‖ in the Great War. Du Bois‘ article published in the Atlantic Monthly in the spring of 1915 understood the events in Europe not as a ―civil war‖ among Europeans but as a fight between colossal colonizers over who would control the periphery. 55 War and death, whether marking continuity or discontinuity in Western civilization, certainly helped shape the continuity of colonialism after the 1919 Peace of Paris. Faust and Shantz project modernity onto their subjects void of the underpinnings of colonialism. Although Faust examines the effects of the Civil War dead on African American communities, America had intervened in China, Africa, and Native American spaces well before the Civil War began in 1860. In placing the Civil War at the center of the American experience of death, Faust and Shantz suggest that American culture was developing mourning traditions in isolation from other parts of the world that also
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Counting Soviet deaths in the Great Patriotic War : comment

Counting Soviet deaths in the Great Patriotic War : comment

It is helpful to be reminded that such Ivans existed, were in fact killed by the war, will be properly remembered by their families and communities as victims of the war, and should be numbered if possible among real war deaths. Therefore, Haynes suggests, we should add up to 16 million possible adult and baby Ivans to the excess deaths conventionally estimated. However, there is no reason why the possible Ivans should have faced any greater war mortality risk than the population as a whole; if anything, their war risk was less than the average precisely because they were at greater risk from normal causes of death that competed with war risks to carry them off and whittled their numbers down continually throughout the war period.
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The War That Forged A Nation: Why The Civil War Still Matters

The War That Forged A Nation: Why The Civil War Still Matters

and substantive. It was fought to hold a Union together, to transform a nation, to free that nation’s slaves and, in a wider sense, to free that nation from slavery. It was a war that brought to the fore issues that the nation’s founders had effectively shelved for future generations to deal with: the political power and economic efficacy of free versus slave labour in the broader context of contested constructions of liberty, positive and negative (on which subject McPherson invokes Isiah Berlin’s famous essay on the ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’). Having been deftly delineated in the opening chapters, these themes are pursued throughout the volume, beginning with a revised review of Leonard L. Richards’ monograph, The California Gold Rush and the Coming of the Civil War and moving through adapted reviews of, among others, Harry Stout’s Upon the Altar of the Nation and Drew Gilpin Faust’s This Republic of Suffering, alongside chapters on the war’s main political and military leaders, but with the focus mainly, in the second half of the volume, on Lincoln.(1)
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Napoleon Lajoie, Breach of Contract and the Great Baseball War

Napoleon Lajoie, Breach of Contract and the Great Baseball War

Napoleon Lajoie, Breach of Contract and the Great Baseball War SMU Law Review SMU Law Review Volume 55 Issue 1 Article 17 2002 Napoleon Lajoie, Breach of Contract and the Great Baseball War Napoleon L[.]

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War precautions or persecution? : the treatment of enemy aliens and others in Tasmania during the Great War

War precautions or persecution? : the treatment of enemy aliens and others in Tasmania during the Great War

INTRODUCTION This paper presents an investigation of the Record of Aliens files of the Intelligence Section, General Staff, 6th Military District Tasmania for 1914 - 1919 held by the Aus[r]

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Love and limblessness: male heterosexuality, disability, and the Great War

Love and limblessness: male heterosexuality, disability, and the Great War

The film has an improbable plot. De La Motte plays a young woman called Rose Trenton who agrees to marry George Prothero (Matt Moore), who had been blinded during the Great War. Within a short time, Rose realises that she has mistaken pity for love and another man – Sandy Sanderson (Ralph Graves) – has captivated her heart. After breaking off the engagement, the blind-George leaves for Europe. Rose and her new, physically-robust fiancé continue their courtship and are relieved when George returns and seems to harbour no resentment. One day, however, Sandy and George go for a ride, which ends with Sandy being killed by an unknown assassin. Rose is distraught. To her astonishment, however, she receives a letter from a French eye specialist informing her that, during his time in France, George had been cured of his blindness. Miraculously, Sandy then appears, accusing George of attempted murder. The couple are reunited and George leaves in disgrace.
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THE NEW DIMENSION OF WAR – THE UKRAINE
CONFLICT

THE NEW DIMENSION OF WAR – THE UKRAINE CONFLICT

In order to develop the topic of modern war, we should take into consideration the sole notion of war and its attributes. The scientific community of the War Studies University determines war as the socio-political phenomenon present in the history of man since the very beginning of his social recognition, with a range increasing together with the rise of technology. War was a term coined in the XIX and XX centuries and it means: an organised (prepared) form of military conflict between countries, nations, blocks of countries and non-state organisations, as the continuation of politics (ideology, religion) through violence, whose main expression is armed fighting, the goal of which is to gain certain political, economic or ideological (religious) interests. War is defined as a form of a military conflict which, at the same time, is a term with a narrower objective scope, which finds its application in the field of international law” 3 . A military conflict, apart from
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Making their mark: Canadian snipers and the Great War, 1914-1918.

Making their mark: Canadian snipers and the Great War, 1914-1918.

10 NAC. R G 2 4 /1 8 8 3 A /2 6 . Sniping & M arksmanship. ‘C o rresp o n d en ce: Sniping an d S co u tin g S c h o o ls ’. S econ d Army Sniping School w a s formed shortly before First Army S O S. in D ecem b er of 1 9 1 5 at M ont-des-C ats. B a sed on A rm stong’s p apers (NAC. MG30 E 2). S e c o n d Army S .O .S . followed a similar curriculum though the co u rse lasted only five days. W e will s e e more of Armstrong’s p a p e rs in su b se q u en t ch a p ters sin ce h is recollections are about sniping in th e field a s o p p o s e d to Hesketh-Prichard's which focu s a great deal upon the First Army S O S
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Evidence, History and the Great War  Historians and the Impact of 1914–18

Evidence, History and the Great War Historians and the Impact of 1914–18

(by reason of the sources) is difficult to study. Both James McMillan and Susan Grayzel pursue this critique. Grayzel probes some of the contemporary stereotypes which, used uncritically, have fed the idea that the war freed up codes of female conduct. She suggests that contemporary campaigns against female drunkenness, illegitimate births and prostitution expressed wartime anxieties rather than fundamental changes in these patterns of behaviour. Even if the war did create a slightly greater latitude for women’s sexual behaviour, this was not accompanied by freer social attitudes, and thus was not experienced as ‘liberation’. McMillan concludes that measured against three yardsticks – power relations, sexuality, and the boundary between private and public life – a careful reading of wartime debates and campaigns confirms the conclusion of earlier social historians (including himself) that the war had a conservative effect on French women.(5) The chapters on women in Russia and Italy, though not explicitly addressing this conceptual agenda,
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Empire and Everyday: Britishness and Imperialism in Women's Lives in the Great War

Empire and Everyday: Britishness and Imperialism in Women's Lives in the Great War

Themes such as margarine and knitting sound remarkably flippant when discussing a war in which one million men of the British Empire were killed, as well as around one thousand women. There was a “pervasiveness of death” 9 that invaded everyday life. From New Zealand, 17,000 men died, from Canada 60,000, from Australia about 60,000 and from South Africa around 7,000. Three million people in Britain suffered the loss of a close family member, and such losses reinforced familial identities, as mothers, wives, sisters, aunts and cousins (as fathers, brothers, uncles too). Because the war effort was imperial, and because the British-born in the dominions were more likely to enlist than the non-British born, it meant that war casualties often brought home the imperial context of the war. For example, Florence Lockwood, a British Liberal and suffragists, listed her male relatives who were serving in the forces. As well as nephews and cousins in the local Yorkshire territorial force she had relatives in the Royal Irish Rifles, Gordon Highlanders, and an admiral in the Australian fleet. 10 Grief often invaded every waking moment of the bereaved. 11 This was not, however, the only experience of the war that imperial Britons had. Miss E. Airey of Norfolk, whose three brothers joined the armed forces in 1914, wrote in her memoir of the war that, “In the Spring of 1918 came the news that my brother had been killed in France. This was a great tragedy for us and the first real sorrow that I had known.” 12 In order to appreciate the full and varied impact of the Great War on identity we need to examine the
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The Australian churches in the Great War : attitudes and activities of the major churches

The Australian churches in the Great War : attitudes and activities of the major churches

from these services with heavy hearts. The church leaders had uniformly emphasised what a ghastly business war was and had shown themselves acquiescent in Australia's participation. Instead, they exhorted their congregations to pray for peace. While praying that war might not come, no church leader was prepared to condemn war if it did come, or argue the case against war at all. Churchmen rarely discussed the causes of the threat to peace and then only in simplistic terms like Long who said the war was caused by the 'wickedness' of Austria/ Hungary.'*' The preachers on this first Sunday in August treated war as a fact to which the Christian's response was simple; he must do his duty. They coupled war with the drought and spoke of both as a natural calamity.
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Sanitary services in the perm region during the Great Patriotic war

Sanitary services in the perm region during the Great Patriotic war

A lot of enthusiasm and creative initiative was demonstrated by the doctors from other medi- cal and sanitary departments of the regions and city. Great consulting assistance was provided by Perm Medical Institute, especially the department of general and military hygiene. In the years of war (1942-1944) it was established and headed by pro- fessor David Aleksandrovich Zilber evacuated from Leningrad due to dystrophy but after disease he was able to raise the medical and preventive science to the level maximal for that time.

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The Use of Sensory Language in War Literature

The Use of Sensory Language in War Literature

Wright also uses sight words to put emphasis on the important parts of his description of the of the Iraq war in his work Generation Kill. But because of the nature of the Iraq war, his use of seeing words also stresses different psychological aspects of warfare. Guerilla warfare and the long-range capabilities of modern weapons often prevent soldiers from seeing the people they have killed, creating amongst the soldiers a complex attitude toward killing. Wright depicts one of the marines shooting an enemy fighter by saying, “Sutherby opens his eyes and kills the man. It’s a perfect head shot. In fact, Sutherby has the rare satisfaction of seeing the kill. The man’s hands jerk up to his face while he tumbles forward” (p 104). Wright says that seeing the man’s death is a “rare satisfaction,” and then goes on to describe the image of the victim’s flailing body. Though this horrible scene would under normal circumstances be abhorred by those watching, somehow it is satisfying for the marines to see the deaths that they have caused. Without seeing the deaths, the marines really do not know the number of deaths that they have caused, though often the main objective of their profession is to kill enemy soldiers. Being able to see a concrete image of death is perhaps not comforting, but satisfying because the soldiers are able to see tangible results of their wartime efforts in a time when victory and even progress in the war is often difficult to gauge. Wright uses seeing words to point out this aspect of warfare which is in such stark contrast to civilian life.
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Harold Pinter’s Anti-War Poetry:  A Critique of War

Harold Pinter’s Anti-War Poetry: A Critique of War

credit Pinter has more than 30 plays. Moreover, he was also an accomplished actor, poet, writer, director, and political activist for radio, television and film. Personality wise Pinter had been extrovertly outspoken and often in favour of human rights. He was awarded Wilfred Owen Prize for Poetry in 2004 for his War Poetry and the Noble Prize for literature in 2005. Pinter in his last phase of life established himself as an outspoken political activist who is observed in his political plays and War Poetry. Looking into the history of first world war a few English poets , including Owen, Sassoon, Brooke, Rosenberg, Sorley, Gurney, Thomas, Blunden, Binyon, McCrae, Grenfell, Seeger, Kipling and other have contributed good collections of war poetry reflecting realistic picture of the war. The present paper attempts to interpret and analyze Harold Pinter’s philosophy about war and his political activism against war, violence or torture to protect human rights. His war poetry can be observed under the light of war exploited by US which gives an idea about the disgrace executed about the dead ones and the victims of political oppression.
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3.4 French and Indian war.pdf

3.4 French and Indian war.pdf

In September 1759, the war took a dramatic and decisive turn on the Plains of Abraham just outside Quebec. Under the cover of night, British troops under General James Wolfe scaled the high cliffs that protected Quebec. Catching the French and their commander, the Marquis de Montcalm, by surprise, they won a short but deadly battle. The British triumph at Quebec led them to victory in the war. The French and Indian War officially ended in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris. Great Britain claimed all of North America east of the Mississippi River. This included Florida, which Britain acquired from Spain, an ally of France. Spain gained the French lands west of the Mississippi, including the city of New Orleans. France kept control of only a few small islands near Newfoundland and in the West Indies. The other losers in the war were Native Americans, who found the victorious British harder to bargain with than the French had been. B B. Answer Great
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