Literature of the Sea

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"The test of salt water" : literature of the sea and social class in antebellum America

"The test of salt water" : literature of the sea and social class in antebellum America

While Herbert notes the narrative tension underlying Typee as evidence of Melville’s confused class position in the 1840s, Laura Hapke takes Melville to task for his “complete repudiation of lumpen proletariats” in Redburn, arguing that Melville is “really providing a bitter catalog of what indignities a talented, educated, well-born, but poor man—a gent in laboring disguise—must suffer among the poor.” 167 I, like Herbert, am more sympathetic to Melville’s attempts to balance the demands of the marketplace with his obligations to the seamen with whom he served; after all, Melville himself was no rich man when he wrote Redburn, and he was likely trying to ingratiate himself with middle-class readers following the economic failure of Mardi. Though Hapke correctly notes that Melville’s narrators consistently distance themselves from their fellow sailors in the early maritime novels, I am not interested in criticizing Melville or exploring the psychological motivations for making such an authorial decision beyond noting his own class anxieties as the son of Allan Melvill, whom Hershel Parker has dubbed a “patrician wastrel.” 168 Herman Melville was aware of both his illustrious ancestors and his own dire economic circumstances; this combination of great expectations and diminished hopes must have been psychologically jarring at the least. In this section, however, I want to explore the consequences of his narrative positioning within the novels themselves with the hope that it will shed new light on social class in Melville’s sea fiction.
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Cultural Heritage and Identity in the Literature of Australian South Sea Islanders and Other Media

Cultural Heritage and Identity in the Literature of Australian South Sea Islanders and Other Media

That duality caused deep divisions in the community itself but the emergence of three South Sea Islander writers and the publication of their works clearly contributed to the revival of their culture in the 1970’s, when families tried to renew the link with their home islands. In the introduction of her first novel Wacvie, Faith Bandler explains that she wrote the book after her return from Ambrym Island in Vanuatu, where her father had been abducted. Her purpose was to tell his story and thus give a voice to all those who had been “enslaved”. She also intended to reveal a part of Australia’s history that had been erased from people’s memory. Writing therefore became a symbol of political empowerment in which the “I” emerged as a subject in a postcolonial context, despite the occasional contributions/disruptions of white editors. 11
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Photography, Literature, and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Representation of the Truth and the Reality

Photography, Literature, and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Representation of the Truth and the Reality

sense, he does the revolutionary work to transform the documentary technique, conventionally that used to add ‘only a little to the critical understanding of the social world (Sekula, 1978, p 236)’ as he writes elsewhere, to something else and more towards a better unders tanding of the world. The para mount importance of his work could be perceived through the context where he wo rks out for the sake of a revolutionary use value as Roberts (2012) argues that, “Fish Story expresses a shift fro m a culture of postmodernis m to one of globalis m and reflects the artist’s effort to renew realist art in the wake of the postmodern culture of the 1980s.” The photographic images of the containers and the sea bereft of hu man presence stand as the traces of the removal of the real condition of production in the photographic representation partially retrieved in Sekula’s practise of critica l realis m. He writes, this truth is legible only through Marx’s notion of dead labour embedded in commodit ies (Se kula , 1995, p137). Th is imp licit ly suggests, if granted, that although in the age of simulacra there is no guarantee of mean ing of the rea lity, looking back to history may still provide deeper understandings and insights.
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NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE PERTURBATIONS ON A DESERT DEPRESSION

NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE PERTURBATIONS ON A DESERT DEPRESSION

meteorologists in terms of its general characteristics, origin and development. The phenomenon in question most frequently appears as a strong southerly (or southeasterly), hot, dry and dust laden wind causing occasional severe sandstorms over North African countries [1][2][3]. In the meteorological literature, this wind is usually referred to as chili in western Arab countries, Gibli in Libya and Khamsin in Egypt [1]. North Africa is the world’s most important dust source area [4]; providing an estimated dust production of 50% of the global annual total [5][6]. For Saharan dust emission, numerous atmospheric processes on synoptic, regional and local scales provide the meteorological conditions suitable for dust mobilization over areas rich in deflectable sediments [7].
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Fish Metaphors and Chinese Cultures in Selected Malaysian Novels in English

Fish Metaphors and Chinese Cultures in Selected Malaysian Novels in English

Another key item to note is that the brain symbolism is apparent in this fish metaphor. The EMOTION IS LEAPING FISH conceptual metaphor indicates that the vastness of the sea is comparable to the human brain. This is not unusual in Western literature. In American literature, the brain and fish metaphor is present in Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and The Sea (1952). In this narrative, the fisherman (Santiago) in the book is trying to catch a fish. When the fish leaps out and takes the bait, it is the end of the fish’s life. It narrates a desperate struggle between Santiago and the fish. After that Santiago realises that on the way home he has to fight a more desperate struggle with some dangerous giant sharks, which eat up a marlin, leaving only a
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Realism and Naturalism in Iris Murdoch’s ‘The Sea, The Sea’

Realism and Naturalism in Iris Murdoch’s ‘The Sea, The Sea’

admit the real self by accepting personalities, things, circumstances, situations, emotions as the way they are not as one wants to see, hope or wish On this count, she further adds that reality is “the object of truthful vision, and virtuous action...[is] the product of such vision”[7] In her words, “Education doesn’t make you happy. Nor does freedom. We don’t become happy just because we’re free – if we are. Or because we’ve been educated – if we have. But because education may be the means by which we realize we are happy. It opens our eyes, our ears, tells us where delights are lurking, convinces us that there is only one freedom of any importance whatsoever, that of the mind and gives us the assurance – the confidence – to walk the path our mind, our educated mind, offers.”[8] She further adds that “The most essential and fundamental aspect of culture is the study of literature, since this is an education in how to picture and understand human situations.”[9]
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Gonad stimulating substance like molecule from the radial nerve of the sea cucumber

Gonad stimulating substance like molecule from the radial nerve of the sea cucumber

It has been suggested that the sea cucumber GSS is a small peptide of around a few kilo Daltons (Maruyama, 1985), which is similar molecular size to that of sea urchin (Cochran and Engel- mann, 1976), and of starfish (Yoshikuni, 2006; Mita et al., 2007). However, in sea cucumbers the radial nerve extract (RNE) that contains GSS active factor from different species are not always work equally beyond species difference (Maruyama, 1985). This suggests that molecular structure of GSS will differ among echi- noderms. In this study we aimed (1) to isolate a peptide factor involved in the induction of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in immature oocytes in fecund ovarian tubes of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, (2) to specify the molecular structure through the sequencing of DNA and peptide, (3) to elucidate the presence of any “functional domain” that may represent its func- tion with much smaller structure, and (4) to locate its immunohis- tological sites in the radial nerve that potentially consequences the discovery of the GSS-ergic nervous system by raising specific antibodies that has never been reported in echinoderm.
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THE BALOCHISTAN EARTHQUAKE 2013: EMERGENCE OF A NEW ISLAND IN THE ARABIAN SEA

THE BALOCHISTAN EARTHQUAKE 2013: EMERGENCE OF A NEW ISLAND IN THE ARABIAN SEA

the latitude of the September 24 earthquake that is primarily accommodated on the Chaman Fault, with the earthquake potentially occurring on one of the southern-most strands of this fault system [5]. The dramatic formation of an island in the Arabia Sea raises questions about the original trigger and mechanism of the event for which deep investigation is required - Figure 6(a-d). It is also noted that out of 23 strong earthquakes (over 6.0 Mw) in Pakistan, 14 occurred in Balochistan which makes it one of the most prone province to earthquakes. The earthquake of 27 November 1945 - off the Makran coast (Balochistan) Mw 7.9, [11] also formed an island which disappeared later.
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Empowerment of Fishing Communities in the Management of the Results of the Sea in Indonesia

Empowerment of Fishing Communities in the Management of the Results of the Sea in Indonesia

historically exploited population. The sea of Indonesia has a huge potential for sustainable, i.e. 6.4 million tonnes year. What is meant by sustainable potential is the potential of catching fish that still allows the fish to do regenerate until the number of fish caught is not reducing fish populations. Based on international rules, the amount of the catch is allowed is 80% of the potential of the sustainable or about 5.12 million tons per year. In fact, the number of catches in Indonesia have yet to reach that number. This means there are still opportunities to increase the number of catches are permitted. If compared the distribution of potential fish, visible distinction in General between the Western and Eastern parts of Indonesia. In the western part of Indonesia with an average depth of 75 meters of the sea, a type of fish that many small pelagic fish are found. Somewhat different conditions found in Eastern Indonesia region with average depths of the sea reaches 4,000 m In the eastern Indonesia region, many large pelagic fish are found such as skipjack and tuna. In addition to the available fish in the ocean, the population of Indonesia are also many that do aquaculture, especially in coastal areas. On the North coast of Java Island, many societies that developing aquaculture businesses by using the Causeway. The types of fish that breed there is fish milkfish and shrimps. In addition to fish the sea wealth, Indonesia is also in the coastal areas in the form of mangrove forests, seagrass, seagrass meadow, and coral reefs. Indonesia has more than 13 thousand islands so very long coastline. The shoreline length is Indonesia reached 81,000 km, this size is the length of the second longest Beach in the world after Canada. Therefore, the potential of natural resources in the coastal areas is very important for Indonesia. Not wrong if the Government under the administration of the President of the maritime development focusing the Jokowi Indonesia. Our natural wealth in the form of fish and even many taken by unscrupulous persons from other countries in the form of the practice of stealing fish or illegal fishing. There are some areas of Indonesia's waters are prone to illegal fishing activities. The most prone areas with Sea fish is theft practices Arafuru (Papua) in eastern Indonesia waters.
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THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE LESSEPSIAN RAGGED SEA HARE,Bursatella leachii Blainville, 1817 (APLYSIIDAE) IN THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF TURKEY

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE LESSEPSIAN RAGGED SEA HARE,Bursatella leachii Blainville, 1817 (APLYSIIDAE) IN THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF TURKEY

Although there are many studies studies on the molluscan fauna distributed along the Turkish Levantine coast (Swennen (1961), Falchi (1974), Blöcher (1983), Lindner (1987), Buzzurro and Greppi (1994, 1996), Buzzurro et al. (1995), Tringali and Villa (1990), Yokeş and Rudman (2004), Öztürk and Aartsen (2006), Öztürk and Can (2006) and Özvarol et al. (2010)), there are only few records related to molluscan fauna in Izmir Bay and Aegean Sea (Yokes and Rudman, 2004; Öztürk & Poutiers, 2005; Çınar et al., 2006).

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A study on the Untranslatability of Dialect in Black Literature

A study on the Untranslatability of Dialect in Black Literature

In the black literature, the authors choose to use a large number of dialects in their creation for the purpose of reflecting their special writing style, shaping characters and achieving ideal expression effect. In the process of literary translation, the translators have to find an appropriate way to translate these dialects, assuring the message can be conveyed completely and the effects can be achieved maximally. However, the different cultural backgrounds decide the untranslatability of dialects. This paper, comparing and analyzing three different types of dialect translations, tries to demonstrate the reason why dialects cannot be translated accurately.
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Conceptualizations of clinical leadership: a review of the literature

Conceptualizations of clinical leadership: a review of the literature

Research papers were considered for inclusion in the review if they met the following criteria: 1) original research paper published in a peer-reviewed journal; 2) gray literature; 3) exploring definitions/conceptualizations/perceptions of clinical leadership; 4) from the perspectives of frontline health care providers; and 5) published in the English language. Stud- ies that did not explore clinical leadership among frontline health care providers, studies that explored health care leader- ship, literature reviews and systematic reviews were excluded.

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The teaching reform of literature retrieval course based on MOOCs

The teaching reform of literature retrieval course based on MOOCs

4.1 Discussion on the teaching idea of transforming the literature retrieval course teacher based on MOOCs Under theenvironment of MOOCs, the teacher should set up a unique teaching method which regards students as the center.In the teaching design of literature retrieval course, we should carry out the team cooperation; absorb all the professional and relevant teaching background of teachers; coordinate with the curriculum planning; carry on reasonable team division; and strengthen the literature retrieval course teaching level together.According to the knowledge of the authorsregarding the current situation, it is known that the background of the literature retrieval course is more diversified, mainly involves computer, materials, civil engineering, chemical engineering and library science.However, it involves all the students in the whole school, and thus teachers must coordinate the work strictly according to the specific planning of the relevant courses teaching, usually need to arrange a teacher and
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Characterization of proteolytic activities during intestinal regeneration of the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima

Characterization of proteolytic activities during intestinal regeneration of the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima

Although SLLVY-AMC is the most widely used substrate to measure proteasomal ac- tivity, it is also commonly used to measure calpain activity (Meng et al., 1999). Therefore, the next step was to study the effect of E64d (inhibitor of calpains and some cathepsins). In addition, we also tested TPCK, an inhibitor of serine proteases. Surprisingly, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by E64d in extracts from all regeneration stages and normal animals (Fig. 2C). In contrast, TPCK did not inhibit the enzymatic activity (Fig. 2D). These results suggested that calpains and not proteasomes were responsible for the main proteolytic activity found in the extracts. However, two possibilities needed to be ruled out. First, it was possible that epoxomicin was not being effective in inhibiting holothu- rian proteosomal activities. To rule this out, we performed enzymatic assays using H. glaberrima gonad (sperm). We used sperm as a positive control because the sea urchin sperm contain large amounts of proteasomes and provide a rapid and sensitive method to test the effectiveness of the inhibitors (Yokota and Sawada, 2007). In our experiments, epoxomicin inhibited 90% of the proteolytic activity (Supplementary Fig. S1).
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Spatial expression of alpha and beta tubulin genes in the late embryogenesis of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

Spatial expression of alpha and beta tubulin genes in the late embryogenesis of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

Int I Dc\" lliol 40 1033 1041 (1996) 1033 Original Article Spatial expression of exand B tubulin genes in the late embryogenesis of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus CATERINA CASANO MARIA RAGUSA MA[.]

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The changed ecosystem of the black sea and its impact on anchovy fisheries

The changed ecosystem of the black sea and its impact on anchovy fisheries

As a result of eutrophication caused by increased nutrient input via major northwestern rivers during the last few decades, the Black Sea ecosystem has been subject to extreme changes in recent years. Abnormal changes due to altered nutrient balance were reflected in the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton. The increase observed in the quantity of plankton was probably responsible for the rise of Turkish anchovy catches ob- served over the last few decades. However since 1988, the Black Sea has been invaded by a voracious zooplankton predator, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi which was accidentally in- troduced into this sea from the northwest Atlantic. This mass occurrence of Mnemiopsis ap- pears to be one of the most important reasons for the sharp decrease of anchovy and other pe- lagic fish stocks in the Black Sea. By October 1997, new ctenophore Beroe ovata has appeared in shallow waters of the Black. Species of genus Beroe almost exclusively feed on other ctenophores and feeding interaction within ctenophores form an ecological feed-back system which also affects other compartments of the planktonic community.
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Full Article

Full Article

The first step after choosing the research topic is to set up a corpus. In linguistics, the corpus could be gathered from dictionaries, articles, interviews or it could be found on specific sites. In literature and cultural studies, the corpus includes the writings and works of a particular author(s), on a particular subject, which means at least three kinds of texts: (a) the partial or complete works of an author (or authors); (b) the critical studies on the respective author (or authors); (3) a set of theoretical studies on the chosen research topic. In what follows, I will discuss the positive aspects of making a good corpus choice as well as the traps the doctoral student should be aware of when setting up the corpus in (1) literary studies and (2) cultural studies.
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The Significance of Sea Monsters on Sixteenth Century Maps

The Significance of Sea Monsters on Sixteenth Century Maps

The popularity that sea monsters gained from their presence in books and maps marked the beginning of their end; the same scientific speculation that led to their inclusion in natural history also led to their eventual dismissal. Yet, the sea monster, although considered demystified in academia by the beginning of the Enlightenment, still received support from many other communities, including certain religions and those engaging in medieval practices. Also, their common placement on maps perhaps captivated the superstitious of the sea, as sailors, travelers, and fishermen continued to sight and report sea monsters long after their disappearance from natural history books and maps. Maps, due to their widespread use throughout early modern Europe, certainly helped propagate the awareness of sea monsters and could prepare a sailor for a chance encounter. They also played an essential role in establishing the sea monster as a possible creature of the sixteenth century, reflecting the period’s unique perspective of a vast, expanding, and unknown world.
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Minimizing the Impact of Yellowfin Tuna Thunnus albacares fishing in Banda Sea

Minimizing the Impact of Yellowfin Tuna Thunnus albacares fishing in Banda Sea

The estimation value of fishing mortality depends on the fishing gear, the method of catching and the distribution of the sampled fish size. The estimation of fishing mortality in Banda Sea by Damora and Baihaqi is only to the fishing gear and the samples which are limited to large fish, while in WCPO and Indian Ocean on purse seine and fishing gear. High catch mortality indicates high fishing pressure on fish stock in a waters. After purse seine of two vessel system is prohibited from the operation to catch tuna fish in all Indonesia Fishery
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Antidepressants in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a review of literature data

Antidepressants in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a review of literature data

Nell’algoritmo che riguarda i sintomi da disregola- zione affettiva, che comprendono labilità affettiva, ipersensibilità al rifiuto, disforia, rabbia immoti- vata e depressione, [r]

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