Boyce Davies ’ intervention to “extend the understanding of the Caribbean beyond ‘small space’” (2013: 1) is a timely conceptual move to accommodate global cultural flows, which also allows for mapping the development of Anglo- phone world literatures from and about the region. As a “deterritorialized dia- spora ” (cf. Cohen 2008), both the Caribbean and the literary traditions emanating from it are frequently elusive and difficult to place. In this light, calling to mind their multiple passages and linkages, historical as well as current, attends to the possible (dis-)integration of Caribbean spaces around the globe. Boyce Davies thus takes into view “a series of passages and locations between the Americas that facilitate movement as they identify a set of specific traumas” (2013: 6), including but also moving “beyond the macro ‘middle passage,’ between Africa and the New World, in order to speak about the way we understand cultural spaces ” (2013: 6). In this way, her approach may serve to highlight the circulation and world stature of Anglophone Caribbean literatures, including the extent of translation which writers engage in as they process experiences of movement and (different) space(s). From the proverbial challenge to relate to snow and daffodils as encountered in the European canon to the attempt to capture the hurricane and other tropical realities in literary form, translation is at the heart of Caribbean writing in English. In this way, it is a case in point for Susan Stanford Friedman ’s emphasis on “the role of transnational cultural traffic in the originary sites of creativity ” (2012: 503). Criticizing the focus on “circulation after the original aesthetic production ” in much of world literature studies, Friedman draws atten- tion to “the cultural translations shaping their creation” (2012: 503), well before any further (linguistic) translation is made, that is.
Perhaps nowhere is the absence of a shared map more noticeable than in the terrains of security and democracy. While never uncontested, the very meaning of the two concepts in the Americas has been thrown wide open in both politics and scholarship. Fragmentation of leadership has led to a fragmented agenda. These books seek to make sense of these contested fields. In a slim but insightful book, Heine and Weiffen illustrate the rise and partial decline of consensus on defining, promoting, and—especially— protecting democracy in the Americas. They briefly but systematically examine inter-American responses to threats to democracy since the 2001 Inter-American Democratic Charter took effect. While there has been progress since the Cold War—where a with-us-or-against-us ethos sometimes defined the map more than democratic practice—it is hard to feel optimism at the course of the last decade and a half. They conclude that “the defense of democracy regime, if not in tatters, has been seriously weakened by the broader tearing of the fabric of the pan-American idea” since 2000 (165), with blame falling both on inconsistent US support of democracy and the emergence of regional organizations more dedicated to preserving ideologically aligned incumbents than strengthening institutions of national and international accountability. The authors helpfully draw on IR and political science literatures on fragile democracies.
Trade liberalization and economic integration in the Americas has been progressing at a steady pace since the mid-1980s. There are several reasons for these developments. On the political side, the spread of democracy in the Continent opened new opportunities for dialogue and collaboration across countries, including, but going beyond, trade to include non-economic aspects. Democratic interaction replaced the segmentation and distrust that characterized much of the inter-country relationships under previous military regimes.
At this point it is only fair to ask how this reflection on Joan Scott’s intellectual biography relates to the goal of this new journal to write the history of women in the Americas. What is the link between a historian of France located in the United States and historians of American women’s history principally in Europe and the Americas? Latin American historian Heidi Tinsman, writing in the American Historical Review as part of a commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the publication of Joan Scott’s “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” goes a long way to answer that question. Initially Tinsman expresses a resentment commonly felt by Latin American historians that “feminist paradigms” originating in Europe and the United States “trickle down” to influence Latin American women’s history. An exception to this generalization is Scott’s “Gender” article, which Tinsman notes “helped to strengthen paradigms specific to Latina American history” and encouraged Latin American women’s historians to “critique empiricism and study gendered meanings.” The many histories Tinsman enumerates that reflect Scott’s influence from Chilean women’s history to Mexico, Brazil, and elsewhere demonstrate a theoretical underpinning that unites many histories of women in the Americas even in diverse national settings. 7
GREENING DEVELOPMENT FINANCE IN THE AMERICAS | bu.edu/gegi | 12/2015 31 record has been criticized due to its continued investments in fossil-fuel intensive projects such as coal-fired power stations and oil and gas drilling (Jowit 2010; Swann 2008; Berger 2010). In response to such criticism, Roger Morier of the World Bank responded that coal plants were only subsidized when there were “exceptional circumstances where countries have few or no prospects for other energy sources” (Jowit 2010). In 2013, the United States government issued an executive order limit- ing the ability of the United States to participate in the financing of coal projects unless under similar circumstances and in 2014 issued a further executive order mandating that US development finance be climate resilient (US Treasury, 2013; 2014). In 2014, the US Congress also passed legislation that included a provision whereby “The Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the United States executive director of each international financial institution that it is the policy of the United States to oppose any loan, grant, strategy or policy of such institution to support the construction of any large hydroelectric dam, (Brossard, 2014).
Weltliteratur was neither the sum of all national literatures nor the ever increasing canon of world masterpieces, rather he conceived of it as a dynamic process of rapprochement among European nations — above all Britain, France and Germany — with the goal of breaking down the walls of national prejudices that hampered peaceful coexistence in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars. To realize this social function of literature, Goethe called upon contemporary authors to serve — along with himself — as mediators and facilitators across the frontiers in periodicals, translations and memoirs. He hoped this common market of ideas would eventually manifest itself in a greater sense of understanding and tolerance, first among the intellectuals and thereafter also among the peoples. (232)
The programs and courses of the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures make accessible to students the languages, literatures, and cultures of France and the Francophone world, Germany and Europe, and Spain and Latin America. We recognize students’ need for linguistic competency and cultural sensitivity in the multilingual, multicultural world in which they will live and work. Thus, language is taught as an integral part of its cultural context. Programs and courses are designed to complement academic work in many other fields. For further information please consult the department’s website at http://www.sonoma.edu/modlang/.
Candice Goucher, Charles LeGuin, and Linda Walton, In the Balance: Themes in Global History (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998), selections from chapter 6, “Trade, Transport, Temples, and Tribute: The Economics of Power.” Abstract: This essay focuses on the role played by belief systems in making sense of the material world and in explaining or justifying the distribution of both power and material goods. It focuses specifically on the Aztec and Incan Empires in the Americas, and suggests that religion can provide the
Despite the obstacles in the way towards the formation of a Free Trade Area Arrangement (FTAA) for the Americas, there is a definite need for this type of arrangement, not only from the perspective of modernization of poorer countries in the Americas but also from the point of view of certain common policies adopted by some countries in the Americas. The policy on international competition is a relevant issue for a lot of Latin American countries. Some of the South American countries like Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela have adopted an Antitrust Legislation policy. By adopting these policies, these Latin American countries have taken some initial steps towards the long run goal of promoting healthy competition, which would prevail under the umbrella of the FTAA.
For the debate in the Americas, it is particularly important to examine the EU’s approach to enforcement of social standards. This is a controversial issue because of fears that richer countries will manipulate such standards for narrow protectionist purposes to maintain an economic advantage over the poor. The EU has attempted to ameliorate such concerns in at least three ways. One is by emphasizing compliance and offering poorer countries considerable financial and technical support to help them achieve the required standards. The second is that the authorities responsible for monitoring and adjudication, the European Commission and the European Court of Justice (ECJ), are supra-national, which helps to distance them from narrow national or political interests. And finally, there appears to be no rush to punishment in the EU system.
More than 100 arboviruses are known to cause human illness, many of which are not extant in the New World. Two previously imported flaviviruses, dengue and yellow fever viruses, remain important scourges in tropical America and at one time were consider- able public health problems in the continental United States. After mosquito control programs in the early twentieth century nearly eliminated these pathogens from most countries in the Americas, public health priorities shifted and arbovirus surveillance, prevention, and research programs withered. 5 Meanwhile, dengue returned to most
Lively Towns and Cities Spanish settlers generally lived in towns and cities. The population of Mexico City grew so quickly that by 1550 it was the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Colonial cities were centers of government, commerce, and European culture. Around the central plaza, or square, stood government buildings and a Spanish-style church. Broad avenues and public monuments symbolized European power and wealth. Cities were also centers of intellectual and cultural life. Architecture and painting, as well as poetry and the exchange of ideas, flourished in Spanish cities in the Americas.
demonstrating success Global Peatland Restoration This booklet should be cited as Cris, R Buckmaster, S Bain, C Reed, M (Eds) (2014) Global Peatland Restoration demonstrating SUCCESS IUCN UK National[.]
Dosman: The Americas are well-served by the
legal framework for international arbitration, which includes not only the New York Convention, but also the Panama Convention. National laws then govern the lex arbitri in each jurisdiction. Within this legal infrastructure, the arbitration rules of each administering institution can adapt to incorporate innovations and changes in best practices. For example, one major trend in the last decade has been the inclusion of default emergency arbitrator provisions in many leading institutional rules, including the ICDR in 2006 and the ICC in 2012. This means that parties can now request that an emergency arbitrator be appointed prior to the constitution of the regular tribunal and can seek