Liver functions

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Role of Vitamin E as therapeutic agent to cope up with liver functions in chromium treated laboratory chicks

Role of Vitamin E as therapeutic agent to cope up with liver functions in chromium treated laboratory chicks

Importance of exogenous application of vitamin E in the acceleration of Cr elemination in the liver function have been discussed in the present investigation. Developing chicks (100±20 gm body 3 weeks old) were used as experimental animals. Present investigation revealed that ion of liver. Liver specific function defence offered by protective influence of vitamin E may be channelized through different mechanism. Vitamin E not only restricted the detoxification but also improved the liver functions. High determined in Cr treated chicks. Selective prefrences for chromium was shown by vitamin E for maintaining optimal serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase – SGOT SGPT (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Vitamin E appreciably improve the detoxication ability of liver. SGOT, SGPT and ALP were significantly increased in chicks treated with chromium compared to normal control group. Chicks treated with vitamin E along with Cr, shows significant decrease in SGOT, SGPT and ALP activity compared to Cr treated chicks where it was high. Hence, elevation in SGOT, SGPT and ALP could be due to biotransformation of heavy metals in liver leading to hepatic injury. This injury may be
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Effect of Cigarette Smoking on some Liver Functions Test

Effect of Cigarette Smoking on some Liver Functions Test

9. Kalaed Salem Alsalhen, Rahab Dawood Abdalsalam. Effect of cigarette smoking on liver functions: a comparative study conducted among smokers and non smokers male in EL-beida City, Libya, alsalhen and Abdalsalam, international current pharmaceutical Journal, (2014), 3(7):291-295.

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Article: Effect of lead acetate alone and in combination with whole milk (Star ship®) on body growth and liver functions in an experimentally induced lead toxicity in rat

Article: Effect of lead acetate alone and in combination with whole milk (Star ship®) on body growth and liver functions in an experimentally induced lead toxicity in rat

Abstract: The Effect of lead acetate alone and in combination with whole milk on body weight gain and some biochemical parameters were carried out on a total of 15 (15 days old) male weaning Long- Evans strain rats. The rats were randomly divided into three equal groups, each consisting of five rats. Rats of group A were kept as control (without giving any treatment), group B received lead acetate alone @ 6mg/ml drinking water and group C received lead acetate @ 6mg/ml plus whole milk (Star ship®) 150 mg/ml drinking water. The result showed that body weight gain of control group per week per rat was found to increase but in treated group B, the body weight gain was found to decrease most significantly (P< 0.01) on day 56 while in group C, body weight was reduced significantly (P< 0.05) on day 56. The reducing body weight gain was less in group C than group B. A most significantly (P< 0.01) increased SGOT and SGPT values were observed in Group B but in group C, those count increased significantly (P< 0.05) on day 56 of experiment. From the study it was concluded that treatment with lead acetate at low doses has adverse effects on body growth and liver functions in experimental animals.
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Influence of Charcoal Broiled Meat Consumption on the Liver Functions and Non Enzymatic Antioxidants in Human Blood

Influence of Charcoal Broiled Meat Consumption on the Liver Functions and Non Enzymatic Antioxidants in Human Blood

The effect of ingesting charcoal-broiled beefburgers (CBB) on the liver functions and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels in human blood was examined in twenty-nine healthy individually males (mean age 21.65  1.32 years, range 20.32 - 22.42 years), non-smokers and had no occupational exposure to PAHs, who consumed two charcoal grilled beefburger per day (mean weight 70 gm per each) at lunch time over 28 consecutive days. The mean daily intake of PAH during the consumption period was 3431 ng and the mean daily intake of PAH per kg body wt/day was 46 ng. Blood samples were collected from each subject 7, 14, 21 and 28 days before, during, and after the beefburgers consumption period. glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly higher in serum of subjects during CBB consumption period compared with those of before CBB con- sumption ones. All of the enzyme activities still increased upper the baseline levels, before CBB consumption period, by four week after charcoal broiled meat consumption ended. In contrary, the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in- clude albumin (ALB), glutathione in serum (GSH-S) and erythrocytes (GSH-E) were significantly lower in subjects during CBB consumption period compared with those of before CBB consumption ones. All of the non-enzymatic an- tioxidant levels decreased to near baseline levels, before CBB consumption period, by four week after charcoal broiled meat consumption ended. Results suggested that non-enzymatic antioxidants defense system of serum and erythrocytes was depressed and the erythrocytes as well as liver cells were exposed to oxidant stress due to oral exposure of PAH.
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Influence of compound glycyrrhizin on liver functions, liver fibrosis indexes and inflammatory factors of patients with chronic hepatitis B

Influence of compound glycyrrhizin on liver functions, liver fibrosis indexes and inflammatory factors of patients with chronic hepatitis B

Chronic hepatitis B is a common intractable infectious disease on clinic, which is quite popular all over the world. Our country is a high-prevalence area of hepatitis B. So far, there are more than 20000 thousand of patients in our country, and amount of hepatitis B virus carriers is more than 120 million. The disease has become an important public health issue which threatens the human’s life and health [13,14] . Prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B have attracted much attention [15,16] . Current research found that suppress or eliminate hepatitis virus, release liver fibrosis, lighten inflammatory reactions to enhance liver functions and prevent liver malignant transformation is a major principle for chronic hepatitis B therapy [17] . Therefore, to observe variations of liver function, liver fibrosis indexes and inflammatory factors is of vital clinical significance to judge medicine effects.
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Effect of Pioglitazone on Liver Functions in Normal and Streptozotocin Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

Effect of Pioglitazone on Liver Functions in Normal and Streptozotocin Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

In STZ induced animals a change in the serum enzymes is directly related to changes in the metabolic functions of AST, ALT, and ALP, γ- GTP and CPK (16-18). It has been reported that the increased levels of transaminases under insulin deficiency (19) were responsible for the increased gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis during diabetes. The increased levels of serum AST, ALT ALP have already been reported to be associated to liver dysfunction and leakage of these enzymes to the liver cytosol in to the blood stream in diabetes (20).

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A Study on Assessment of Liver Functions among Patients with Rat Killer Paste Poisoning

A Study on Assessment of Liver Functions among Patients with Rat Killer Paste Poisoning

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Yellow phosphorous, a toxic rodenticide which is readily and widely used as rodenticide. Many times, ingestion of yellow phosphorous either intentionally or accidentally results in mortality due to its hepatotoxic property. Thus this study was done to assess the acute liver injury that occurs secondary to rat killer paste poisoning. METHODS: This observational study was conducted at Thiruvarur medical college, Thiruvarur. Total of 60 patients, who presented with history of ingesting rat killer paste during the study period of January 2016 to July 2016 were included in the study. After taking informed consent, complete history was taken and Liver Function Test (LFT) were done on day 1, day 3 and day 5 for who got admitted with history of ingesting rat killer paste. RESULTS: Among the 60 patients, 22(36.7%) patients were died and the rest 38(63.3%) patients were discharged. On day 1 of liver function test, the bilirubin and liver enzymes were elevated nut on subsequent assessment of liver function on day 3 and day 5, all parameters like bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, PT and INR were improved comparatively on day 3 and day 5 than day 1, which was also found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Acute yellow phosphorus poisoning can result in impairment of liver function test which is comparably highly altered during first stage of intoxication and subsequently better during second and third stage and that could be due to supportive treatment.
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Rodent Species Effect Of Piogliazone On Liver Functions In Nondiabetic And Diabetic Animals

Rodent Species Effect Of Piogliazone On Liver Functions In Nondiabetic And Diabetic Animals

In the Present study Pioglitazone was investigated on liver function in rodent species diabetic adult male Sprague-Dawley rats or Swiss mice. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day, p.o) was administered for 28 days in rats injected with single dose of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p, STZ) and Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p, NIC). STZ–NIC induced animals showed a significant (p<0.001) increased in the level of serum glucose, glycosylated heamoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γGTP) and lipid peroxidation or malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissue but there was no significant changes in total bilirubin (TB) levels in rats and mice. Whereas, the endogenous antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly decreased as compared to control rats and mice. Treatment with Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day, p.o) showed a significant alteration in all the serum markers and biomarkers of oxidative stress. PIO 10mg/kg was found to elevate the condition i.e it further increases the liver toxicity produced by STZ–NIC treatment in rats but less significant changes in mice. Histopathological changes are also in correlation with biochemical changes. This study indicates that remarkable species differences have been observed in rodent models. Diabetic rats exhibit marked sensitivity versus diabetic mice exhibiting equally marked protection from Pioglitazone induced hepatotoxicity.
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Conceptual Study of Yakruta as a Mulasthana of Raktavaha Strotasa with Special Reference to Liver Functions

Conceptual Study of Yakruta as a Mulasthana of Raktavaha Strotasa with Special Reference to Liver Functions

In this process, there is also formation of excretory products like purish, mutra termed as ‘mala’. The homeostasis is been maintained by each and every dhatu by performing special type of functions such as ‘jeevan karma’ by rasa, ‘preenan karma’ by rakta. Dhatus and malas are synthesized and circulated in a specific manner in assistance with certain group of organs termed as srotasa.

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Effects of silver Nanoparticles on liver functions of male albino rat

Effects of silver Nanoparticles on liver functions of male albino rat

In coming year’s nantechnology will spread its roots in each and every sector. Consumer products containing nanoparticles is increasing day by day. Thus the risk associated with their also increases. Nanoparticles has been reported to induce oxidative stress (Hudecova et al., 2012; Adeyemi and Faniyan, 2014). Toxic effects of silver nanoparticles are observed different tissues (Xia et al., 2006). Body weight is indicator of good health. In present study administration of silver nanoparticles of different size i.e. 20 and 40 nm has shown to reduce the weight in treatment animals. Decline in weight may be preliminary sign of nanoparticles toxicity. Earlier studies have shown toxicity of drugs or chemicals associated with changes in body weight (Orisakwe et al., 2004; Adeyemi and Sulaiman, 2014). Liver is vital organ of biological system which play important role in defending body from xenobiotic compunds. Enzymes of liver are marker, as their concentration increase in blood and thus to predict any damage or cellular toxicity. The administration of Ag nanoparticles increased the activities of AST and ALT in rat serum relative to the control. Free radicals released by stressing hepatocytes into the blood serum could leads to elevation in ALT in the present study (Cheraghi et al., 2013; Woodrow Wilson International Center, 2010, Farkas et al., 2011; Griffitt et al., 2009). Elevated level of serum ALT has been linked with hepatic injury (Adeyemi and Akanji, 2012; Sulaiman et al., 2014). AST level was also found to be increased in present investigation which is
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Adverse Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on Liver and Kidney Functions in Adult Rats and Potential Protective Effect of Vitamins C and E

Adverse Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on Liver and Kidney Functions in Adult Rats and Potential Protective Effect of Vitamins C and E

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) was administrated to rats at doses of 0.6 and 1.6 mg/g body weight for 14 days. Body weight and relative liver and kidney weight of rats were significantly increased. On regard to liver functions, the activi- ties of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ glutamyle transferase (GGT) significantly increased in the serum, on MSG administration, meanwhile, serum total protein, albumin and serum total bilirubin significantly decreased. MSG had adverse effects on kidney functions as serum urea and serum creatinine were significantly increased. Vitamin C (0.3 mg/g body weight) and vitamin E (0.2 mg/g body weight) co-adminstrated with MSG, significantly restored the body weight and relative liver and kidney weights to control levels. In the presence of vitamin C and vitamin E the activities of ALT and GGT in the serum were also significantly reduced to become comparable with control trail. Consequently, serum total protein, albumin and serum total bilirubin were significantly increased in the serum, while serum urea and serum creatinine were significantly decreased after administration of each vitamin. The results showed that MSG at doses of 0.6 and 1.6 mg/g of body weight may cause an adverse effect on the hepatic and renal functions which might be due to oxidative stress induced by MSG on the liver and renal tissue. Supplementation of vitamin C and vitamin E was capable of ameliorating MSG-induced oxidative stress on hepatic and renal functions.
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AMELIORATING EFFECT OF VITAMIN E AND VITAMIN C ON CADMIUM INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN LABORATORY CHICKS

AMELIORATING EFFECT OF VITAMIN E AND VITAMIN C ON CADMIUM INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN LABORATORY CHICKS

Vitamin E due to its solubility in lipids, plays an important role in protecting lipid-rich structure like liver from free radicals by chain breaking mechanism and an effective inhibitor of autocatalytic process of lipid peroxidation (Sodhi et al., 2008). The protective action of ascorbic acid on heavy metal toxicity is well documented via its free radical scavenging mechanism and detoxification effect (Suzuki, 1990). In the current study, co-administration of both vitamin C and vitamin E to Cd treated chicks exhibited more protection than the groups supplemented with either of the vitamins separately. Both vitamins restore liver functions from Cd induced toxic damage via chain breaking mechanism or their synergetic antioxidant activities.
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Non-Alcoholic Fatty LiverDisease (NAFLD) in Obesity

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The insidious progression of the disease translates into a majority of patients relatively asymptomatic for NAFLD [6]. Thus although it is rapidly becoming one of the commonest causes of alterations in Liver Functions and a cause for at least a substantial proportion of patients who receive the diagnosis of ‘cryptogenic’ cirrhosis, the majority of patients with hepatic steatosis may never be symptomatic. In our study only three patients had systemic complaints attributable to an underlying liver dysfunction. Two patients presented with decompensated cirrhosis and one with acute hepatitis. Two of these three patients ultimately received a biopsy proven diagnosis of cirrhosis due to NASH. One could not be biopsied due to prolongation of prothrombin time.
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The Result of Taking Mare’s Milk for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

The Result of Taking Mare’s Milk for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

From our point of view, aside from the normalization of the patient’s biochemical liver functions, a significant result of treating the patient with mare’s milk was the lowered stage of liver steatosis from 381 to 345 dB/m, which was revealed with the «FibriScan 502 TOUCH» machine with a CAP option (table.4).Besides, as a result of the two- month treatment with mare’s milk «Saumal» the clinical symptoms of the disease were significantly alleviated: bloating and epigastric discomfort, a bitter taste in the patient’s mouth, overall weakness, sickness, fatigability, nasal stuffiness, urticaria and night snore disappeared. He lost some weight (4 kg) and his waist became 3 cm thinner (table.1).
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Jin Han Chin, Abas Haji Hussin

Jin Han Chin, Abas Haji Hussin

A variety of blood biochemical parameters can be used to examine the toxicity response of test substance. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are commonly used as marker to diagnose hepatocellular injury while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is widely used for measuring hepatobiliary disease (12-13). Kidney functions could be diagnosed using serum urea and creatinine (14). An induction of these parameters in blood is commonly associated to the damages to the liver or kidney. From the serum biochemical analyses, 14 days repeated administration of 500 mg/kg of O. stamineus to diabetic rats was not causing any toxic effect to kidney and liver functions. The LD 50 and no-observed-adverse-
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PRECLINICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF HIBISCUS TILIACEUS

PRECLINICAL EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF HIBISCUS TILIACEUS

Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate preclinical antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus tiliaceus methanolic leaves extract (HTEF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat by administering oral doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Methods: HTEF was orally for 21 days and its effect on blood glucose, lipid profile, liver profile and renal profile were examined in in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Histopathological study of normal and diabetic rat organs (pancreas, liver and kidney) were also carried out after extract treatment. Results: Oral administration HTEF (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) daily for 21 days reduced blood glucose significantly. The extract also Improved kidney, liver functions and hyperlipidaemia due to diabetes and showed favorable effect on the histopathological changes of the pancreas, liver and kidney in alloxan induced diabetes. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of H. tiliaceus reduces blood glucose level and improves lipid metabolism. The extract also shows improvement in parameters like liver profile and renal profile as well as regeneration of β- cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies also show favorable effect to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas and kidney in alloxan induced diabetes.
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Effect of ageing on diabetes mellitus and hypertension

Effect of ageing on diabetes mellitus and hypertension

of aging on blood glucose showed that high significant increase on blood glucose with increasing aging. Also, there were significant increases in blood elements (Na, K, Cl and Ca) in the population that increase in aging than young one. On the other hand there were a significant increase on blood urea, creatinine and uric acid in the population that increase in aging than young one. The liver enzymes AST, ALT and ALP were a significant increase in blood of human in the population that increases in aging than young one. Concerning lipid profile, we noted that variety induced high significant variation of different lipid parameters in the population that increase in aging than young one. The effect of aging on blood glucose showed that only variety Tamesrit had a significative increase on blood glucose. Results generally showed that increase in aging were always high significant increase in their blood elements Na, K, Cl and Ca. Also, there is high significant increase in liver functions and kidney functions in the population that increase in aging than young one and high significant variation of different lipid parameters in the population that increase in aging than young one. We suggest that ionic disturbance might be the missing link r
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ASSESSMENT OF THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF T-REGULATORY CELLS FOR THE RESPONSE OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C TO SOFOSBUVIR BASED THERAPY

ASSESSMENT OF THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF T-REGULATORY CELLS FOR THE RESPONSE OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C TO SOFOSBUVIR BASED THERAPY

There is statistical significant difference between Non-Cirrhotic and both Cirrhotic child(A) , child (B) groups in liver functions like higher ALT, AST, α-Fetoprotein, and INR also higher (CTP , APRI and FIB-4 scores) but lower platelets count and albumin level while no significant difference regarding Age, gender, BMI, baseline HCV RNA viral load, by flow cytometry analysis we found that all Tregs subsets are significantly lower in Non-Cirrhotic compared to Cirrhotic CHC patients (Table 3).

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“Impact of Serratiopeptidase Treatment on Performance and Health Parameters in Broiler Chickens” by Abd El-Hamid, H.S., Ahmed, H.A., Sadek, K. M., El-Bestawy, A.R., Ellakany, H.F., Egypt.

“Impact of Serratiopeptidase Treatment on Performance and Health Parameters in Broiler Chickens” by Abd El-Hamid, H.S., Ahmed, H.A., Sadek, K. M., El-Bestawy, A.R., Ellakany, H.F., Egypt.

Lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) is an intra cellular enzyme that is widely distributed in the tissues of the body, particularly in the kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, brain, liver and lung. Its increase usually indicates cellular death and subsequently leakage of the enzyme from the cell. Extra protein is often released from the site of inflammation; these proteins can be readily detected in the bloodstream and are therefore referred to as inflammatory markers. Perhaps the most commonly used marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is synthesized in the liver and despite being a minor plasma protein; levels are dramatically increased within 6 hours after the onset of inflammation. The final increase can sometimes be as much as 60-fold. Furthermore CRP is much more specific than some of the other commonly used markers of inflammation such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Falling CRP levels are a useful indication of response to antibacterial or anti- inflammatory therapy. Serratiopeptidase administration succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters related to liver functions, lipid profiles and inflammatory markers reflected in significant increased total protein and albumin and reduced globulin, significant decreased lipid profiles and significant decreased inflammatory markers in infected chickens, Tables (2-5).
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Original Article Down-regulation of tTG expression by RNAi inhibits HSC proliferation and attenuates liver fibrosis

Original Article Down-regulation of tTG expression by RNAi inhibits HSC proliferation and attenuates liver fibrosis

Abstract: Purpose: Expressed in hepatic stellate cell (HSC), tTG is involved in fibrotic diseases including human hepatic fibrosis by promoting the cross-linking of ECM and participating in the initiation and/or progression of liver fibrosis. The purpose of this study is to identify whether depletion of tTG could attenuate liver fibrosis. Methods: In this study, primary hepatic stellate cells were isolated, purified, and cultured from rat. Expression of tTG gene was downregulated by lentivirus-mediated RNAi, and the effects on the activation, proliferation and apoptosis of HSC were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results: Lentivirus-mediated RNAi successfully reduced the endogenous expression of tTG in cultured cells. The down-regulation of tTG markedly inhibited the proliferation of HSC and attenuated the synthesis of Collagen-1. The downregulation of tTG also markedly reduced the level of tTG and hydroxyproline induced by CCl 4 in rat livers at week 8 and week 12 after injection of CCl 4 . Conclusions: In summary,
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