Load combination

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Analysis and Design of Multi   Storey Building Under Load Combination

Analysis and Design of Multi Storey Building Under Load Combination

ii) IS 875-Part 1 ( Dead Load ) iii) IS 875-Part 2 ( Live Load ) iv) IS 875- Part 3 (Wind Load) v) IS 875- Part 4 (Snow Load) vi) IS 875- Part 5 (Load Combination) vii) IS 1893-part 1 (Seismic Forces) viii) IS 13920 (ductile details)

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Stochastic   Analysis of Wind and Snow Loads in Load Combination

Stochastic Analysis of Wind and Snow Loads in Load Combination

Fi+j+k are the extreme value cumulative probability distribution function of sums of the pulse amplitude distributions for processes i, j and i,j,k, respectively. Indices[r]

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Hydrologic and Structural Safety Evaluation of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam Using Finite Element Method

Hydrologic and Structural Safety Evaluation of Aged Concrete Gravity Dam Using Finite Element Method

Abstract: History shows that several dams were failed and discharged the stored water which causes incalculable damage on life and property. Several researches disclosed that the methods used to design and re-evaluate concrete gravity dams after the 1970s have shown significant advancement. This starts when contemporary structural analysis methods such as a finite element method were incorporated into computer programs. Structural safety evaluation criterion, design standards and guidelines were also updated. Hence, periodical structural safety evaluation of older dams using state of art techniques is an important activity of the dam experts to ensure a safe operation of dams. This study was focused on hydrological and structural safety evaluation of Koka dam by using HEC-HMS and Abaqus models, based on USACE load combination. The Hydrologic Modeling System, HEC-HMS model was calibrated and used to determine the reservoir elevation reached when the peak outflow resulted from the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) passes over the spillway. Result of the HEC-HMS model shows that the elevation reached by peak outflow was 1.4m lower than the dam crest which indicates no overtopping of the dam due to PMF. The peak reservoir elevation reached when the peak outflow from PMF passes over spillway was used to apply hydrostatic load on the dam. The dam was analyzed by static general method in Abaqus model. The results of Abaqus model indicate that the maximum principal stress in the dam body was under tensile sense near the heel during PMF with the peak magnitude of 0.602MPa. The corresponding minimum principal stress was under compressive sense throughout the base with the peak magnitude of -0.431MPa. All the results were below the compressive and tensile strength, hence, the dam concrete does not fail under PMF due to material overstressing. The aging of concrete, do not change the stress, but displacement. The results of displacement clearly show a significant increment. This result tells that the aging of concrete reduces the stiffness of the dam and increases its flexibility.
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Analysis of Skewed 3-Lane Slab Bridge Deck

Analysis of Skewed 3-Lane Slab Bridge Deck

ABSTRACT: The FEA is carried out to analyze the skewed RC and PC single-span slab bridge decks and also explored how the skew angle influences with respect to aspect ratio and live load i.e. IRC class A wheel load. The FEA results of 15 RC and 15 PC skew bridge deck models are compared with right bridge for dead load and live load combination and variations in structure response parameters such as longitudinal B.M, transverse B.M, torsional B.M, and longitudinal stresses are observed with various skew angles and aspect ratios. The results show that with increase in skew angle, maximum longitudinal B.M decreases, maximum transverse B.M increase, maximum torsional moment increases, and the maximum longitudinal stresses decrease with skew angle up to 30 o , but increase thereafter. The advantage of pre-stressing shows significant decrease in longitudinal and transverse B.M and longitudinal stresses.
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Effect of stressed skin action on the behaviour of cold-formed steel portal frames

Effect of stressed skin action on the behaviour of cold-formed steel portal frames

As can be seen, there is little difference between the ULS unity factors for the portal frames with Joint A and B. For the internal frame, the design of the bare frame is shown to be controlled by a combination of wind and snow load (ULC3), but the 3D model shows, that dependent on building length, the load combinations ULC1 and ULC2 are actually critical for frames with Joint A and B. As expected, when stressed skin effects are taken into account, the frame design is controlled by the shear resistance of the roof panel next to the gable (see Fig.21). The critical load combination for shear forces acting on the roof cladding changes from a combination with leading action of snow (ULC2) to a combination with leading action of wind (ULC3) when the length-to-span ratio reaches three. As expected, the longer the building, the higher the shear forces in the roof panels. The shear force in the roof panel is reduced by between 12% and 5% when Joint B rather than Joint A is used. In order to meet the SCI deflection limits, the horizontal stiffness of the portal frame must be increased by approximately a factor of ten. By doing so, the shear force in the roof panel is reduced significantly (see Fig.21).
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SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF BUILDING WITHOUT INFILLED WALLS

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF BUILDING WITHOUT INFILLED WALLS

The basic work is done, After the basic work, it was made with 35 (G+34) storey building with the different load combination. In 35-storey building was made with the combination of seismic load, live load and dead load and wind load. As firstly we provide the seismic load otherwise it will give us error. After providing seismic load we can apply the dead load, live load and wind load.

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Wrinkling failure of steel pipelines under monotonic load and deformation.

Wrinkling failure of steel pipelines under monotonic load and deformation.

A parametric analysis was also carried out to study the effect o f the relevant parameters i.e. load combination (pure binding, bending and internal differential pressure equal to 35% and 72% of the yield pressure), pipe geometric characteristics (D/t) ranging from 35 to 60, pipe material (X65, X70, X80), geometric imperfection (offset misalignment and ovality misalignment). By comparison their FE analysis results in terms o f limit bending moment and corresponding curvatures and compressive longitudinal strains with the DNV OS-F101 (2000) design equation and with full scale experimental data available in the literature, Yoosef-Ghodsi et al. (1994), it was found that the FE model results are shown to compare reasonably well with full scale experiments performed for on-shore pipelines. It was also found: (i) the DNY OS-F101 (2000) design formats for local buckling failure are applicable up to D/t ratio equal/ lower than 55, (ii) pipes with D/t ratio between 45 and 55 probably more sensitive to girth weld misalignment than pipes with D/t ratio less than 45, (iii) FE calculations show a reduction o f the limit bending moment from the one calculated using DNV OS-F101 (2000) design equation when the pipe is modeled in combining bending and internal pressure condition and weld misalignment is considered. Such reduction ranges from 5% to 10%. However, this is no explicitly covered by DNV OS-F101 (2000) moment based equation (iv) the effect o f weld misalignment on the compressive strain at limit bending moment appears conservatively included in the design equations.
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A determination method of compressive design value of dimensional lumber

A determination method of compressive design value of dimensional lumber

The objective of this study was to develop a determination method of compressive design value of dimensional lumber for its safety design and rational application as a green building material. A total of 1049 full-size 2 × 4 samples of Chinese larch (Larix gmelinii) dimensional lumber, including visual grades Ic, IIc, IIIc, and IVc, were tested by static compressive tests. Compression strength parallel to grain (UCS) of different grades were summarized. By the least square method, the fitted parameters and results for UCS were obtained under different probability distribution models (normal, lognormal and 2-P-Weibull) and test data points (100, 75, 50, 25, and 15%). Based on reliability analysis method, relationships between the reliability index and partial factor were investigated under different probability distribution models, fitting data points, load combinations and load ratios. Finally, this study suggested that the lognormal distribution, 25% data points, load combination of dead load plus residential live load, and load ratio of 1.0 be selected for the determination of compressive design value of Chinese larch dimensional lumber. For Chinese larch dimensional lumber, the compressive design values of grade Ic, IIc, IIIc and IVc were 22.9, 18.3, 14.6 and 13.8 MPa, respectively.
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Utility Current Compensation Of Nonlinear Load By Pv-Active Power Filter Combination Using Fuzzy

Utility Current Compensation Of Nonlinear Load By Pv-Active Power Filter Combination Using Fuzzy

home appliances, that needs distorted currents. Development of a method to compensate the distribution system harmonics is equally urgent. during this case, PV generators should provide the utility with distorted compensation capability, that makes currents injected/absorbed by the utility to be sinusoidal. Therefore, the harmonic compensation function is realized through flexible control of dc/ac VSC. instantaneous power theory has successfully completed active power filter (APF) designing with good performance. However, the PV-APF combination has simply been gradually developed for several years. this combination is capable of simultaneously compensating power factor, current imbalance, and current harmonics, and also of injecting the energy generated by PV with low total harmonic distortion (THD).
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Experimental Results of Thermal Scheduling of...

Experimental Results of Thermal Scheduling of...

At this point, it will be good to emphasize the essential difference between the unit commitment and economic dispatch problem. The economic dispatch problem assumes that there are N units are already connected to the system. The purpose of economic dispatch problem is to find the optimum operating policy for these N units. On the other hand, the unit commitment problem is more complex. It can be assumed that only N units are available and forecasting of the “to be served” demand has to be done. The question that is asked in the unit commitment problem area is approximated as follows, “Given that there are a number of subsets of the complete set of N generating units that would satisfy the expected demand, which of these subsets should be used in order to provide the minimum operating cost”. This unit commitment problem can be extended over some period of time, such as 24 hours a day or 168 hours a week. Hence the unit commitment problem is much more difficult to solve. The solution method involves the economic dispatch problem as a sub problem. That is, for each of the subsets of the total units that are to be tested, for any given set of them connected to the load, the particular subset should be operated in optimally and economically. This will help in finding the minimum operating costs for that subset, but it will not specify which of these subsets is in fact the one that will give minimum cost over a period of time.
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PV-Active Power Filter Combination Supplies Power to Nonlinear Load and Compensates Utility Current

PV-Active Power Filter Combination Supplies Power to Nonlinear Load and Compensates Utility Current

technique is usually associated with a DC–DC converter. The shunt APF, which has a DC–AC Voltage Source Converter (VSC) can provide the harmonic elimination, load balancing and power factor correction [10]. Moreover, VSC is employed to interface PV array with utility grid under both on-grid and off-grid operation modes [11]. The DC–AC converter injects sinusoidal current into the grid, and can control the power factor [12]. Therefore, DC– AC converter in grid-connected PV system can have the function of shunt APF. This paper proposes the combined operation of shunt APF and PV grid-connected generation system. The suggested system has been used as shunt APF, when solar irradiation is not available.
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Load Balancing Technique in Public Cloud Environments using Combination of Heuristic Function and KNN Classification

Load Balancing Technique in Public Cloud Environments using Combination of Heuristic Function and KNN Classification

focusing on the ideal load balancing approach for the present sending issue and, in this way, to make the effectiveness diminished and clients holding up time delayed pointlessly. As is outstanding burden balancing is perceived as a method for giving agreeable administration execution to clients while boosting the accessibility and use of the entire cloud framework instead of the last reason[10]. The categorization of virtual machine based on load gives the better distribution of load according to the selection policy. In this paper used KNN classification technique for the selection and grouping of virtual machines. the grouped virtual machine procced the load for the allocation of resource atask[8]. The rest of paper discuss as section II describe the process of KNN and ACO, in section III discuss the proposed algorithm. in section IV discuss the simulation of proposed algorithms and finally discuss conclusion and future work in section V.
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Load-Case and -Combination Database

Load-Case and -Combination Database

The system design load database contains the following information in applicable format: definition of piping sections, load cases, design base loads, coincidental lo[r]

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EFFECT OF BIOPOLYMER ON THE SHEAR STRENGTH OF GRANULAR SOIL USED IN HIGHWAYS Review

EFFECT OF BIOPOLYMER ON THE SHEAR STRENGTH OF GRANULAR SOIL USED IN HIGHWAYS Review

reinforcing tendon as a load carrying steel member together with a grout body of furnace (Portland) cement which allows transfer of tension and compression forces mainly from the friction of the threaded tendon via the grout body into the surrounding soil. Due to high pressure grouting there is insignificant shrinkage between the pile and the soil. The penetration of the fluid part of the cement mix into the surrounding soil creates a transitory zone between the body of the micropile and the soil leading to a strong grout/ground bond. Due to this reason ultimate load carrying capacity of micropile is higher than anticipated capacity based on conventional bearing capacity theory.
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“STUDY OF MICRO-PILES SUBJECTED TO LATERAL LOADING AND OBLIQUE PULL” REVIEW

“STUDY OF MICRO-PILES SUBJECTED TO LATERAL LOADING AND OBLIQUE PULL” REVIEW

Vertical piles are used in foundations to take normally vertical loads and small lateral loads. When the horizontal load exceeds the permissible bearing capacity of vertical piles in that situation batter piles are used in combination with vertical piles. Batter piles are also called inclined piles. The degree of batter is the angle made by the pile with the vertical. If the lateral load acts on the pile in the direction of batter, it is called an in-batter or negative batter pile. If the lateral load acts in the direction opposite to that of the batter, it is called an out-batter or positive batter pile. Mainly micro piles are used for two purpose namely structural support and in situ reinforcement. As structural support it can be used for underpinning of distressed historical monuments, seismic retrofit mainly in congested and low headroom areas resisting uplift dynamic loads. As in situ reinforcement it can be used for slope stabilization, for arresting structural settlement, excavation support in congested areas and as retaining structures. Micropiles are used for retrofitting and rehabilitating existing foundations due to their ease of installation. Micropiles are also used to increase the overall capacity and to reduce deflections of existing foundations subjected to compression and uplift forces. Micropiles can be advantageous for construction in seismic areas, mainly due to their flexibility, ductility and capacity to withstand extension forces. Micropiles are also used to support the foundations of both new structures and existing structures which have suffered seismic damages.
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Buckling of nonuniform carbon nanotubes under concentrated and distributed axial loads

Buckling of nonuniform carbon nanotubes under concentrated and distributed axial loads

Superior properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) led to their use in a number of technologically advanced fields such as biotechnology, nanocomposites and nanoelectronics. Even though CNTs have high stiffness and large failure strain, they are prone to buckling under compressive loads due to their slenderness which results in limiting their use in ap- plications involving compressive axial loads. Thus, in many applications of CNTs, buckling becomes of primary inter- est as this could be the dominant failure mode. Such appli- cations include nano-mechanical devices, drug delivery and nanocomposites. This resulted in buckling of CNTs being an active area of research for a number of years and the subject has been investigated extensively due to its importance (El- ishakoff et al., 2012; Shima, 2012; Wang et al., 2010). Recent works on the buckling of CNTs with uniform cross-sections and subject to a concentrated axial load include Pradhan et al. (2011), Ansari et al. (2011), Hosseini-Ara et al. (2012), Zidour et al. (2014), and Ebrahimi et al. (2016). Studies on the stability of uniform CNTs under distributed axial loads include buckling of CTNs under their own weight (Wang et al., 2004, 2016; Mustapha and Zhong, 2012) and under uniformly and triangularly distributed axial loads (Robinson and Adali, 2016). Nonuniform CNTs are employed in the
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Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

Monitoring training is crucial in identifying an athlete’s adaptation to a training program and readiness to train/compete, as well as minimizing the risk of non-functional overreaching, injury and illness (Halson, 2014). Training load measures have commonly been used to describe injury risk in team sports (Anderson et al., 2003; Rogalski et al., 2013), however, a paucity of research exists examining the training-performance relationship. Monitoring of training in sport typically involves multiple measures derived from both internal (Banister et al., 1986; Foster et al., 2001) and external load (Farrow et al., 2008; Boyd et al., 2013), and this can cause a complicated decision making matrix. The more complicated the matrix, the harder it is for practitioners to make informed decisions. In Australian football, in-season training programs include; “on legs” field, resistance, recovery, and cross training sessions plus a match every 6–8 days (Rogalski et al., 2013). In a team sport environment, individual clubs tailor their monitoring systems to suit the emphasis of their training program. For instance, session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (Scott et al., 2013) or PlayerLoad TM (Boyd et al.,
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Combination of an Antiviral Drug and Immunomodulation against Hepadnaviral Infection in the Woodchuck Model

Combination of an Antiviral Drug and Immunomodulation against Hepadnaviral Infection in the Woodchuck Model

Taken together, the findings demonstrated that a combina- tion of lamivudine treatment and immunizations with a vaccine containing IC and plasmid DNA was able to reduce the viral load up to 2.9 log and the serum WHsAg load up to 92% and induced specific anti-WHs antibodies in chronic carrier wood- chucks. The lamivudine contributed to the suppression of viral loads despite its low effectiveness in woodchucks (28), as a viral rebound uniformly occurred immediately after the discontin- uation of lamivudine treatment.

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Function Integrative Textile Reinforced Concrete Shells

Function Integrative Textile Reinforced Concrete Shells

In conclusion, the developed thin-walled TRC-shells are distinguished by their high resistance to weathering influences (durability), high surface quality and high load-bearing capacity. With regard to its free formability, this type of con- struction is particularly suitable for filigree, lightweight buildings. Due to the use of lightweight materials in combination with load-bearing textile reinforcement structures, this results in a shell construction which allows saving of material re- sources and a reduction in the dead weight. The additional integration of an in- teractive lighting function allows to further exploit the potential of the new tex- tile construction in terms of functionalization.
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Design and analysis of unbraced steel frames

Design and analysis of unbraced steel frames

A2 BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM OF SEVEN STOREY POUR BAY FRAME AT DESIGN LOAD LEVEL, COMBINATION 1.2D+I+W... Al BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM OP SEVEN STOREY POUR BAY PRAME AT DESIGN LOAD LEVEL, COMB[r]

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