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Tracing shift in Czech rural development paradigm (Reflections of Local Action Groups in the media)

Tracing shift in Czech rural development paradigm (Reflections of Local Action Groups in the media)

Local action groups were foreseen as the precur- sors of the paradigmatic shift in rural development (Ray 2000). Their design should enable to develop the rural territories from the bottom, to engage lo- cal people in the rural activities and to eliminate the social exclusion in this way. Achieving the bottom-up approach and engagement in local issues was sup- posed to be reflected in the development of the civil society. However, the analysis demonstrated that the Czech media often present the LAGs as organizations redistributing the finances (one third of the texts) with no further added value for the territory they operate. It means that the media suggest that the goals of the LEADER approach were not achieved in the Czech Republic yet, despite that there is grow- ing information about the new approaches in rural development. No wonder of such situation, because already in 2000 the papers reflecting the situation in the old EU members states which started with the LEADER in the 1990s documented that the intan- gible outcomes of the LEADER are not visible yet too much (Osti 2000; Ray 2000; Shucksmith 2000). These papers explained this fact through the short programming periods in the EU when 7 years is not enough. However, even without reference to the programming period, it takes a longer time till the new forms of governance (LAGs and the LEADER is one of them) anchor into the everyday practices (Lošťák et al. 2015). It takes up to 10 years to see the first intangible outcomes which would have im- pacts throughout all country. It means that it will be interesting to conduct a similar research in about 2018–2020, when about 10 years from the start of the LAGs will be achieved. Right now the local people have not so many chances to find out more informa- tion about the impacts of the LAGs activities, with the exception that the LAGs act as the provider of money for the implementation of project. This is the reason why the mentioned potential of these lo- cal partnerships cannot be fully used. On the other hand, some LAGs are already portrayed as the actors Table 4. A correlation between addressing a novelty in the

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The role of farmers in Local Action Groups: The case of the national network of the Local Action Groups in the Czech Republic

  The role of farmers in Local Action Groups: The case of the national network of the Local Action Groups in the Czech Republic

The main focus of this article was the position, role and form of participation of agricultural subjects in LAGs which were members of the National Network of Local Action Groups in the Czech Republic. These were analysed with regards to the Thuesen’s concept of an external and internal social exclusion. The analysis showed that, generally speaking, the situation in the LAGs is not bad in the terms of the external social exclusion of farmers. If we keep in mind that for establishing of a LAG, there is a condition of participation of more than half of the subjects from the private sector (business and non-business), then the share of farmers in the business sector, which is still more than one half, is still enough. However, this conclusion is not adequate if we keep in mind two following problems. The first one is that not all LAGs have the share of farmers so high. The gener- alization does not make sense, it is necessary to view each LAG individually. The second problem, which seems to be more crucial, is that the development in the numbers and significance of farmers’ subjects is decreasing. There is a continuous increase in the number of farmers participating in the LAGs, but their relative share, similarly to the business sector, is decreasing. It means that the position of farmers is weakening. For the future, there is a possibility that despite the significance of these subjects in the rural areas, their influence will be lower. These results are supported when we look at the position of farmers in the structure of LAGs. In the case of the analysed

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Local action groups and the LEADER co financing of rural development projects in Slovenia

Local action groups and the LEADER co financing of rural development projects in Slovenia

Lowe (2000) argues that the integration and encour- aging network-like cooperation between the local peo- ple and the local action groups in local development activities does not necessary mean that they possess the appropriate knowledge and experience to imple- ment such local development activities. Therefore, the core question for the LEADER approach is if different groups of local actors really possess the necessary skills, knowledge and capabilities to implement the entrusted local development activities? If this inno- vative local development approach is to work well, the local actors must have the necessary capabilities or they have to acquire them in order to develop the project ideas. They need to have know-how and the human resources to devote to the particular local development and local employment activities. They also need to have the financial skills to manage those activities (European Commission 2006: 15). Moreover, when implementing the LEADER programmes, some irregularities might appeared such as approving co- financing of the project which had already been im- plemented, a non-transparent selection of the local development projects, the dominant influence of the public sector in the LAG’s board and financing of the projects which were not development-oriented (European Court of Auditors 2010). All the above- mentioned deficiencies and shortcomings are likely to be due to the lack of the appropriate capabilities of the LAG members. More precisely, of those LAG members who through the LAGs participate in the local development activities.

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IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION OF STRATEGIES OF LOCAL ACTION GROUPS IN LATVIA

IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION OF STRATEGIES OF LOCAL ACTION GROUPS IN LATVIA

The present research on local action groups (LAGs) in Latvia was performed within the measure “Analysis of LAG Activity and the Restoration of the LEADER Manual” for the National Rural Network of the Latvian Rural Advisory and Training Centre Ltd. A local action group or partnership is an association of local organisations and rural residents that operates in a certain rural area with the number of population ranging from 5 to 65 thousand, represents interests of this territory, and takes care of rural development issues at the local level. The research aim is to evaluate the strategy introduced by LAGs for 2009-2013 and work out suggestions for its improvement. The local development strategy of LAGs is implemented in the form of projects, and it is possible to attract financial support from measures co-financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and the European Fisheries Fund (EFF) for its implementation in the period 2009-2013. The monographic and descriptive methods as well as analysis and synthesis, the graphical method, documentary analysis, data grouping, and sociological methods were extensively employed in the present research. It is based on analysis results of LAG strategies, data of the Rural Support Service (RSS), summarised results of a questionnaire survey and interviews of LAG representatives, survey results of residents living in LAG territories, as well as other publicly available documents.

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Do the Czech Local Action Groups Respect the LEADER Method?

Do the Czech Local Action Groups Respect the LEADER Method?

The article introduces activities of local action groups (LAGs) in the Czech Republic. Attention is focused on the history of LAGs, evaluation of LAGs’ activities in the 2007–2013 period and preparation for the 2014–2020 period. Although this period has already started, drawing on subsidies is still lagging behind. Evaluation of LAGs is based on a questionnaire survey among LAGs, information on grants from “Axis 4 – Leader” of Rural Development Programme for the period 2007– 2013, content analysis of several Strategies of Community Led Local Development prepared for the current programming period and experience from the creation of several Strategies. The paper also identifi es problems of the LAGs (not only in the Czech Republic) and suggestions how to avoid them in the recent programming period.

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The Technical Efficiency of Local Action Groups: a Czech Republic Case Study

The Technical Efficiency of Local Action Groups: a Czech Republic Case Study

Local Action Groups (LAGs) represent a dynamic platform for inter-municipal cooperation in Europe. Their principal advantages include EU funding and the capacity to generate economic returns and stimulate the development of local communities. The methodology used for the evaluation of the performance of LAGs is defined by the EU on the one hand and by national authorities on the other. Furthermore, there are an entire array of evaluation tools and academic experiments available. The present paper does not aim at a comprehensive evaluation of LAGs, but instead only examines the technical efficiency of LAGs. Using the Czech Republic as an example, the paper introduces an evaluation tool to measure the technical efficiency of LAGs and describes how it can be applied. The adoption of this tool is seen as a means of improving one of the parameters of the performance of LAGs.

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Operation of the Selected Local Action Group

Operation of the Selected Local Action Group

The main objective of this article is to compare the current operation of elected local action group with the concept of learning regions. This comparison is built on detailed knowledge and understanding of the operation of local action group Podbrnensko citizens’ association (Podbrnensko CA) and learning regions in general. The following is assumed: the understanding of community-based processes from the perspective of residents, the important stakeholders who infl uence the operation of communities or locations. The operation of local action groups is in line with the current concept led by local community development (community led local development, CLLD), which uses elements of the LEADER method. In this method the solution of development problems comes primarily from the inside, not from the outside of the studied territory. The methods used for the collection of empirical data were mostly observation and interviews with all partners involved in LAG (31 people), all mayors in LAG (29 people) and 176 people from region, i.e. methods, which result in so called deep data. Between the primary techniques applied in the research are: participant observation, unstructured or semi-structured interviews and public debates.

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How to Make a Mudsparkler

How to Make a Mudsparkler

The substantial improvement in welfare of groups with prosocial leaders in particular, relative to those with peer-to-peer sanctioning systems, may explain the tendency for real-world groups to limit sanctioning capacity to designated leaders or monitors (Baldassarri and Grossman 2011; Eriksson and Strimling 2012; Ostrom 2000). However, the results of Study 1 suggest that the benefits of leadership can only accrue to groups if prosocial individuals ascend to leadership positions, by whatever mechanism. Thus, one important question that is not addressed in Study 1 is whether prosocials actually do tend to end up as leaders of collective action groups. Do groups tend to select their more prosocial members to lead them? I also argue that the election of leaders, rather than leader appointment, will enhance public good production above and beyond the ability of elected-leader groups to choose more effective leaders. I discuss these issues and the motivation for Studies 2a and 2b in Chapter 5.

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Ranks, Subdegrees, Suborbital Graphs And Cycle Indice Sassociated With the Product Action Of An _ An _ An (4 _ N _ 8) On The Cartesian Product X _ Y _ Z

Ranks, Subdegrees, Suborbital Graphs And Cycle Indice Sassociated With the Product Action Of An _ An _ An (4 _ N _ 8) On The Cartesian Product X _ Y _ Z

{n +1, · · · , 2n} and Z = {2n+1, · · · , 3n}. This action is shown to be transitive using the Orbit-Stabilizer theorem. The subdegrees and rank have been determined using the definition of an orbit of product action. The rank is 8 and the subdegrees are; 1, (n− 1), (n−1), (n −1), (n − 1) 2 , (n − 1) 2 , (n − 1) 2 and (n − 1) 3 . Sim’s procedure has been used in the construction of the corresponding non-trivial suborbital graphs. The suborbital graphs of this action are undirected, regular and their girth is 3. All the suborbital graphs except the one corresponding to the suborbit of length (n −1) 3 , are

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The local nilpotence theorem for 4-Engel groups revisited

The local nilpotence theorem for 4-Engel groups revisited

The aim of this article is to present a complete proof of the local nilpotence theorem for 4-Engel groups in one paper. The proof is long and technical and is spread over a number of articles and we aim here to give a coherent linear version. In the process, we are able to make a few simplifications and in particular, two main steps have been merged into one. Unlike the existing version, the account here does not depend on machine calculations and the nilpotent quotient algorithm. All the needed hand calculations, most of these very short although they are quite numerous, are given in appendices. In this way the reader has a choice whether he wishes to follow the calculations by hand or do them by a machine.

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Care, values and support in local self-help groups

Care, values and support in local self-help groups

In spite of the fact that many of the group organisers we interviewed stressed that they shared a particular experience with members of their group, it was also noticeable that most talked of the group as ‘they’ rather than ‘we’ (as in the quotation above). They placed themselves alongside their group members but also at a quasi-professional distance. Importantly, however, this was qualitatively different from a ‘professional–user’ relationship. Many interviewees, whether they were service providers or organised self- help or advocacy groups, gave accounts of insensitive professional practice – a head teacher who consistently refused to recognise a child’s impairment and put it down to the child ‘not being able to sit still’, or prisons that failed to place drug-dependent prisoners in drug-free wings, or housing departments that thought that domestic violence did not happen in rural areas, or teachers who labelled children from lone parent families, or professionals who assumed Asian people had more family support. One claim to emerge from this was for provision that was ‘holistic’ and for services that were ‘integrated’.

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All (Food) Politics is Local: Increasing Food Access through Local Government Action

All (Food) Politics is Local: Increasing Food Access through Local Government Action

This article aims to encourage those localities not yet active in food policy to join the field. The discussion focuses on methods of fostering ac- cess to healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and other unprocessed, fresh products. Local governments are particularly well suited to increase food access because they have the unique ability to identify areas of need and then work with local constituents to craft targeted responses. Part II explains the concept of “food deserts,” or areas that lack healthy-food access, and provides historical context about their development. As described in Part II.A, the federal government has attempted to respond to the problem, but its efforts have suffered as a result of its narrow food-desert definition and lim- ited ability to work directly with affected communities. Instead, as ex- plained in Part II.B, local government is better suited to address food access because food is such a cultural and community-based issue, and local input is vital to successfully expand food access. This section identifies steps that local governments should take to engage the community and identify appro- priate solutions. Part III highlights policy responses taken by localities around the country and across the food system, illustrating that despite the similarities in the problem of limited food access, local governments have a variety of tools to address this issue and can and should tailor responses to their specific needs in order to achieve success.

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The Role of Cities in Shaping Transnational Law in Climate Governance

The Role of Cities in Shaping Transnational Law in Climate Governance

Their activities, however, have gone far beyond mere networking. In the context of the Local Government Climate Roadmap both ICLEI and C40 have created tools and instruments such as the Carbonn Climate Registry, the GHG Protocol for Cities or the Global Compact of Mayors to harmonise climate action, measure GHG reduction and decide on collective action on climate change. For the same reason, cities have formally committed themselves repeatedly to local action on climate change based on several declarations such as the Durban Adaptation Charter, the Nantes Declaration or the Clean Bus Declaration. By implementing local climate projects in a collaborative and facilitative fashion together with other non-state actors, cities have achieved to localise the global challenge of climate change, serving as an indispensable link between the states and other non-state actors from civil society and the private sector. With these activities, cities can promote a human right to an adequate environment by putting additional pressure on the states to codify such a human right in domestic and international law. Cities are objects of international legislation, such as the 2015 Paris Agreement, they assume duties and responsibilities in local climate action, they locally enforce norms and standards, and they carry out these activities through various governance mechanisms such as planetary networks or global platforms. In this respect, cities breathe new life into the transnational efforts of promoting and enforcing a human right to an adequate environment in the global governance system.

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Program adaptation is a hallmark of effective Extension practice. The field of Extension education has long acknowledged that local needs should take precedence over checking boxes that a program was followed to the letter. Reconciling the need to deliver evidence-based programs with that of specific groups and communities is directly associated with the process of program implementation. In Extension programming, it is important not only to measure what outcomes a program achieved, but also to what degree a program was delivered as designed. When we understand what went well (and for that matter what did not) while a program was being delivered, we can make real time decisions about program adaptation to ensure our participants are receiving the very best program possible (Gagnon, Franz, Garst, & Bumpus, 2015). Given the increasing attention focused on how specific program outcomes are achieved, greater attention to program implementation positions Extension to build stronger programs, as well as intentionally guide program outcomes. Noting and understanding these adaptations will help to further real time program modification, and thus enhance the experiences of Extension program participants and those delivering the programs.

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The canary in the city: indicator groups as predictors of local rent increases

The canary in the city: indicator groups as predictors of local rent increases

Method. Previous studies have shown that urban change is strongly related to socio- economic attributes of the neighborhood, such as income or age profiles [42]. These stud- ies give us a set of relevant domains for urban change predictions but they lack a specific recipe for selecting indicator groups. As a proof-of-concept, we define income as our first indicator attribute and select a specific income range as our indicator feature. We select the indicator group according to the income-profile distribution for all users in the dataset. To test the accuracy of the indicator group selection, we define a reference group of similar size but with a different income range. Exemplary, and to showcase the different perfor- mances of different data subsets, we define the 10 percent ‘richest’ users as our indicator group, denoted as high-income-profile users, and the 10 percent ‘poorest’ users as the ref- erence group, denoted as low-income-profile users. It is important to note that it is not our goal to provide an explanation for the underlying complex process of rising housing prices [43], but rather to have available a simple but powerful indicator that signals poten- tial future changes in rents before they are manifested in, for instance, census data.

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Deiodinases: implications of the local control of thyroid hormone action

Deiodinases: implications of the local control of thyroid hormone action

Pathways regulating D2 expression and thy- roid hormone signaling. In D2-expressing cells, such as brown adipocytes, stimulation of D2 expression increases local T3 produc- tion, resulting in increased saturation of T3 receptors. This increase can be mediated by norepinephrine (NE) stimulation of b -adren- ergic receptors (bARs), such as occurs dur- ing cold stimulation, or by bile acid–mediated (BA–mediated) stimulation of GPBAR1 (also known a TGR5). Both of these pathways activate cAMP production and stimulate Dio2 transcription. In brown fat, cAMP also promotes VDU1 expression, amplifying D2 induction via deubiquitination. Other signaling pathways can decrease D2 activity, resulting in relative local hypothyroidism. For example, the Hedgehog cascade decreases D2 activ- ity by promoting WSB-1 expression and thus D2 ubiquitination, presumably via the Gli cas- cade. rT3, reverse T3; SHH, sonic hedgehog.

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Spatial determinants of local government action on climate change: an analysis of local authorities in England

Spatial determinants of local government action on climate change: an analysis of local authorities in England

Compared with the findings of the US research on motivation for involvement in CCP, this study found fewer significant associations between engagement in climate policy and the spatially variable features of the local government areas examined. This may in part be due to the added complexity relating to quantifying the level of action taken. This complexity is increased by the overall higher levels of climate change action in England which leads to lower differentiation between local authorities. Furthermore, because England is a much smaller and more densely populated country there is less variation in the expected physical impact of climate change and greater social and economic diversity over small geographical areas. This is enhanced by the multi-party system meaning that support for the mainstream parties are less sharply differentiated, both spatially (Figure 13) and politically, than in the US. The lower spatial

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The collective action framing of conservative Christian groups in Britain

The collective action framing of conservative Christian groups in Britain

Another interviewee sets out the same line of argument. As they put it: ‘the kind of apologetics that I would offer around the position we take is not couched in a religious argument … in my view there is enough in science that would support the view that we take’. The use of an overtly secular language, then, is not thought to be inauthentic or paradoxical because ‘most religious groups realise that they have a particular take on reality which is not shared across the board’, and because the findings of science and religion on issues such as the dangers of homosexuality and abortion are such that ‘in terms of the scientific data … there’s no need to appeal to the religious argument’ (interview #8). Making the point too, another representative argues that a successful defence of heterosexual marriage can be made on secular grounds because ‘science shows and studies show that children do best when raised by a mother and a father’, and because secular arguments are fully compatible with the religious view. As they put it: ‘I think a lot of secular interfacing arguments were made because they can be made’, and that ‘I believe them from a faith perspective, from believing in the bible, but science and sociology and life backs it up, it always does … that’s the truth’ (interview #5).

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Simple fusion systems and the Solomon 2-local groups

Simple fusion systems and the Solomon 2-local groups

elements in G to zero. By [2], the set of b-Brauer pairs admits a partial order “ ⊆ ” which is compatible with the action of G by conjugation on this set, such that the maximal b-Brauer pairs form a single G-conjugacy class. Given a maximal b-Brauer pair (P, e), for every subgroup Q of P there is a unique block e Q of kC G (Q) such that

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Promoting Asset Based Approaches for Health and Wellbeing: Exploring a Theory of Change and Challenges in Evaluation

Promoting Asset Based Approaches for Health and Wellbeing: Exploring a Theory of Change and Challenges in Evaluation

Leaders as catalyst can emerge from a variety of settings - sector organisations, community and neighbourhood groups or externally to the local scene. The theme of ‘reframing’ toward an asset based approach is one that is cited in the interviews as a key stage of development of local initiatives and one that gives a platform for action and traction. When talking of reframing, people from sector organisations spoke of ‘reordering’ existing activity to have an “asset based lens” and that in so doing a range of changes needed to be achieved to signal the ‘reframe’ both in relational terms and types of action in ‘projects’. Sector actors often cited a shift from “a needs based, deficits, professional led” type of provision to “a more collaborative, can do, opportunities based focus.” This also indicates that traction can be gained when ‘professional’ agents reframe their insights, skill sets and focus to asset based dialogue, relationships and activity - often cited as doing with not to communities. The value of reframing is also explored by Mathie and Cunningham (see Ref.17).

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