proven in many scientific studies (e.g. ). The reasoning is of course especially strong for new TfL cycle hire interventions, but also relates to bicycle parking infrastructure. A problem here however, is the question of whether cycling infrastructure and local business emergence share a direct causal link. We argue, that the true effect is indirect and manifests itself through cycling activity. Intuitively, infrastructure can only affect local business environments if it is actually used—as shown by activity. Moreover, the Mayor’s vision for cycling in London  outlines an infrastructure expansion strategy: Included areas are (1) along the tube and TfL rail network, (2) in residential areas to promote commuting by bike and (3) in areas with pre- existing bicycle infrastructure, mostly along the cycle superhighways and quiteways. This explicitly tells us that TfL does not look at ongoing or anticipated local business growth when planning new cycling infrastructure. In fact, TfL’s primary interest is not short-term profit maximisation, but rather aligns with the Mayors long-term vision for London’s urban develop- ment. Beyond that, the provision of cycle hire stations is often driven by the local political agenda and partially depends on a Borough’s willingness to pay . Lastly, cycle hire stations are currently required to be located within 300-meter intervals, which has recently been shown to be inefficient if the goal were to maximise utilisation , showing again that cycle hire sta- tion supply does not necessarily lead to cycling demand. This also implies consistent supply over the operational area of the TfL cycle hire scheme in central London, further weakening the case for an implicit supply-demand consequence. From this, we conclude that there is no theoretical argument for a direct causal relationship between cycling infrastructure emergence and local business emergence, but rather that this effect—if there is any—is channelled via cycling activity. More generally, using infrastructure measure IVs is common practice in eco- nomics as they pose exogenous shocks to the system of interest (see e.g. [76,77]).
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Smart phones are able to give system developers increasingly detailed information about their users. This information can and should be exploited to give improved robustness and performance in customer services. In this paper, we explored the use of lo- cation information (from GPS or cell tower triangu- lation) to improve ASR accuracy in LBVS. We pre- sented an algorithm for geo-centric language model generation that: adapts to the local business density; enables good local listing coverage; and requires only a limited number of language models. We com- pared the performance of our geo-centric language modeling to an alternative “local” language model- ing approach and to a nationwide language model- ing approach, and showed that we achieve signifi- cant improvements in recognition accuracy (a 4.4% absolute increase in sentence accuracy compared to local area language modeling, and a 16.8% absolute increase compared to the use of a national language model) with significant speedup.
ROP aims financially support of local authorities, associations representing businesses and private enterprises in towns with development potential, particularly in areas affected by industrial restructuring, to create and / or developing operational structures to support affairs, in order to attract businesses, especially SMEs, because they create jobs and use the available workforce in the area.
AM enables products to be manufactured on demand from holding CAD digit design. It can help eliminate or at least minimize inventory waste, reduce inventory risk with no unsold finished goods, while also improving revenue flow as goods are paid for prior to being manufactured. It permits direct interaction between local producers and consumers, collaborative learning, and user revolution. The manufacturing of spare parts on demand is prohibitively very expensive using conventional manufacturing technologies. However, most less cost spare parts can be manufactured from the sharing component 3D CAD files (by customer) by using economics of AM. Kazzata is an online spare parts marketplace & CAD file repository that provides 3D CAD files of replacement parts or the replacement component directly from Kazzata to its customers . Just as Kazzata has been producing components on demand, so too has Siemens been manufacturing a variety of components like gas steam and wind turbines, generators and compressors.
In a challenging economic environment, graduate unemployment stands at 7.3% in the North West as compared to 6.4% in England as a whole (Office for National Statistics Labour Market Statistics, 2014). Many students at Oldham come from a widening participation background by way of their ethnic group and/ or social class. The mentoring project was developed to address the employability needs of a cohort of final year Business Management students. The final year group was identified as a specific group with the potential to benefit most from the mentoring scheme; staff had observed that many students lacked confidence and communication skills. It was anticipated that through a formal mentoring relationship with senior managers from the Exel Partnership, students would be able to gain insights into what it takes to succeed in the world of work, develop in confidence and improve their employability skills – ultimately making them more employable graduates. Models of graduate employability suggest that self-confidence and self-esteem are key facilitators of later employment (Dacre, Pool and Sewell, 2007). Mentors were working professionals who had many calls on their time and received no reward for their work other than the satisfaction of helping the Business Management students to work towards their career aim. The company gained from the scheme by providing employees with activities that contributed to the company corporate social responsibility commitment (CSR) and ethos.
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Similarly, local governments have an interest to stabilize their revenue basis and may be willing to trade-in volatile sources of revenue for more reliable and steady elements. Take, for instance, the case where local budgets depend largely on a local business profits tax. This tax can be expected to be highly volatile in response to the business cycle and produce little or no tax revenue during recession. In cases where the municipality depends on a large local employer, the situation could even become critical if the company is forced to go out of business or incurs bankruptcy. This will put strain on the local budget just at a time when revenues are most needed to cope with a local unemployment problem.
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Tables 2 and 3 repeat the analysis for the other levels of the private sector. For both trust in small business and trust in local traders we mostly find the same results as we did in the case of trust in big corporations. Experiencing corruption is detrimental in terms of one’s trust in these aspects of the private sector. The chief difference across the tables is the role of perceptions of how involved foreign and local businesses are in corruption. We already noted that these variables are not significant predictors of trust in large corporations. However, as Column 6 of Table 2 shows, in the case of small businesses they do seem to matter. A sense that foreign business people are involved in corruption tends to lead to more trust in small business whereas the opposite is true for the perception that local business people are involved in corruption. The significance level of corruption experiences drops to 10% in this case. Column 6 of Table 3 tells us that a perception of local businesses being involved in corruption matters for trust in local traders. Here, the perception of foreign involvement is insignificant. Corruption experiences are significant at 5% in this specification.
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Decentralized or distributed small renewable power facilities are usually installed in local communities for households and small business companies. These facilities include solar PV, concentrated solar power, and wind power, etc. In or- der to promote installations of such facilities, governments in many countries have developed a number of policies and business models. For example, in Germany and Canada, electricity feed-in tariff policy and business model were de- veloped; in the USA, tax rebate policies and relevant business models were promoted. These policies and models have in some but not in large scale promoted decentralized small renewable power in local communities. The key issue is that these policies and business models do not provide sufficient incentives to local distribution companies (LDC), nor to renewable power installers and users. This paper’s research covers the creation of a business and communication model, named as LDC model, to incentivize both renewable power installers/users and LDCs. This LDC model can play a key role in promoting decentralized small-scale generation (DSG) with renewable energy in local communities. The core element of the LDC model is a revenue model which serves as an instrument to finance renewable installations for households and small commercial businesses. A case study is undertaken with real data of a power distribution com- pany in Toronto, Canada. This paper concludes that with appropriate government policy and with the development of customized information systems for accessing households and small business via internet, an LDC will be able to take leadership in investing and installing small renewable power, and consequently enlarge the share of renewable energy supply in its local power distribution network.
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E-commerce systems became a standard business tool for every type of organizations. In connection with the current state of world economy, online shopping growth can be expected in coming months and years. It results from basic characters of e-commerce. E-commerce provides the sellers and customers a great number of possibilities and advantages. The most important advantages are reduced costs and easy enter on the home and foreign markets. Especially enter on the foreign markets can expressively extend customer base as well as financial gain. Research results show that 60 % of attempts to buy products in foreign internet shops are failure. Reason is that businessmen for various reasons do not offer the goods into the some countries, do not know foreign market (customer needs and requirements, business environment, conventions, etc.) and there are some problems related to payments systems. In many cases, problems with the cross-border online shopping are caused by the using of unfit or wrong adapted e-commerce system. In support of the cross-border online selling are required systems which can make possible the processing of a higher volume of data and to define requirements to output data. In terms of e-commerce systems, efficient decision- making processes are supported by the usage of multidimensional data.
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2.33 All my experience confirms that competitive funding is key to unleashing the entrepreneurial spirit in local areas. It injects a surge of excitement and incentivises communities to seek a wider and much more ambitious vision to anything they had thought of before. A healthy rivalry between areas comes into play. It drives collaboration, creativity, commitment and ambition. I therefore believe that the single pot of central government funds for economic development should be made available to local areas on a competitive basis. My experience with the RGF showed that the quality of projects improved round-on-round precisely because of competitive bidding. No one wants to lose, so bidders learn from the successes of the best and the mistakes of the worst. This continually drives up quality and delivers value for every pound. This is in contrast to the usual functional allocation of public money along the lines of formula grants, where recipients know there is always money for them, regardless of what they did with their previous allocation.
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An additional question to address is whether and how the relationship between MJH and local labor market unemployment changed during the Great Recession, a period in which the rate of nationwide MJH changed little, but in which there was substantial vari- ation across labor markets in unemployment. While we found a value of γ = − 0.207 in our base equation over the entire 1998–2013 period, restricting the sample to 2008–2010 (the Recession began officially in December 2007), we obtain a similar but slightly more nega- tive γ estimate of − 0.231 during the Great Recession. Splitting our entire 1998 – 2013 in half, we find that γ , if anything, became slightly less cyclical over time, but differences are small and insignificant. Although the level of primary and secondary job holding declined in the Great Recession, the aggregate MJH rate declined only modestly, not markedly dif- ferent from declines seen prior to 2008 and after 2010. Although the Great Recession pro- duced large household income effects and no doubt increased the search for second jobs, few such jobs were available. In short, MJH, on net, appears to have done little to either mitigate or exacerbate income losses during the Great Recession.
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The author hopes that the results will be used as directions for future research (theoretical usage) and as recommendations for local authorities in Poland (pragmatic usage). As far as directions of future research are concerned it is necessary to emphasize that in the long run it will be possible to determine the impact power of regional factors on small and medium-sized enterprise development in Poland. The comparatively short experience of territorial self-government in Poland (since January 1 st , 1999) makes it impossible to stimulate enterprise efficiently and effectively on local and regional level. The detailed results were turned over to two local city councils in southern Poland, that is Kraków and Tarnów, which will use the results while programming future local policy in favour of small and medium- sized enterprises and entrepreneurship.
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Hypothesis 2 was verified once again from the confirmation of the sticky costs in the sample except in the water supply business (Table 8). As a result of the analysis in Anderson et al. (2003) and Hirai and Shiiba (2006), β2 shows that the sticky costs had the value of -0.14 in commercial companies in Japan and -0.19 in commercial companies in the United States. On the other hand, in our study, β2 acquired the value of -0.06. Upon retrieving the results, we observed that the value which was acquired in our study was smaller in comparison to both the analyses in prior studies. Therefore, Hypothesis 2 which assumed for the sticky costs to be stronger in local public enterprises than in commercial companies was not supported. We point out the two following points from the viewpoint of publicity. 1. In local public enterprises, especially in high public interest businesses
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2010a, Eadie et al., 2010b, Perera et al., 2011). Similar work done by Isikdag et al. (2011) from developing country perspective, highlight barriers such as technological infrastructure, security, lack of basic ICT skills and difficulty in reengineering of business process to support e-business activities. Najimu (2011) identified among other things, a lack of skills, training and security as barriers within the construction industry in Nigeria. This is as a result of the fragmented nature of the construction industry and the one-off nature of its products (Ruikar and Anumba, 2008). For example, Oyediran and Odusami (2005) note that one important benefit of e-business to the construction industry is the removal of geographical boundaries within the global construction environment. Ruikar et al. (2003) are of the view that the simplified business processes provided by e-business through ICT has significantly impacted the construction industry in many ways. The emergence of e-business in construction in most cases developed economies shows there is sufficient evidence of e- business activities such product promotion, service promotion, e-procurement, project management, project collaboration and online tendering within construction (Issa et al., 2003, Alshawi and Ingirige, 2003, Ruikar and Anumba, 2008).
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The trouble is that 60% of small bio-technology firms are in the USA, with the UK only having a poor 5%. If this is the future of the pharmaceutical industry then the UK is going to have difficulty maintaining its dominant position. Indeed the UK government is desperate to create such firms. There are four main reasons for this bio-technology void in the UK. Firstly, unlike the Americans, our scientists are shy of the business world, preferring to stay in the security of the university environment. The USA openly encourages scientists to commercialise their research. Secondly, and a discrepancy between the UK and Germany, the existence and availability of venture capital for such small firm creation is absent. Baden-Württemburg greatly benefits from the support of the state credit institutions who play an integral part in the success of the wide SME base of the region, and the inter-firm collaboration. 96% of bio-technology work over here is commissioned in the USA. It does not harm our companies but it should worry us in terms of the lack of facilities in this country.
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What steps, then, did Vickers' directors take to overcome these constraints on their business strategy? In particular, were significant changes made in the firm's human and physical resources? Some armaments plant was replaced by plant geared to commercial products, part of the River Don Gun Works, for example, were refitted for the production of hacksaws and magnets. However, in a difficult business environment, the directors were reluctant to scrap expensive plant, which, given sufficient orders, could still make profits. In addition, the question of re-training the workforce was never seriously considered: for one thing, the directors associated education and training with the apprenticeship system; for another, the problem was that many of the workers were simply too skilled, and so committed to product quality that the production of anything but the best goods became extremely difficult . The directors considered that their only option, therefore, was the recruitment of new workers. However, Vickers, like many Sheffield firms, possessed numerous employees who had given the company a long and loyal service. Indeed, reciprocal loyalty was a central feature of the company culture and the directors were extremely reluctant to shed old and valued workers.17 In consequence, there was little scope for the recruitment of new workers, nor any sustained attempt to train apprentices, in either the production of armaments or new peace products. Indeed, the number of apprentices taken on by Vickers declined throughout the 1920s, following the general trend identified in chapter five.18 It therefore appears that Vickers' attempts to move down market were further constrained by the cultural commitment to reciprocal loyalty. The only training initiative introduced during the 1920s came at the supervisory level, where "special feed and speed men were trained to monitor machine operations."19 Details of this training are sketchy, but it appears to have been based upon in-house lectures in work-study and the principles of scientific management.20 According to Vickers' chairman, this training enabled foremen to "glide through the shops exhorting the men to manufacture forgings faster than ever before."21 Nevertheless, this was not sufficient to compete with American manufacturers, and Vickers' attempts to mass produce peace products, such as sewing machines, with existing resources, usually
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develop the next leader. The challenging part is, whether the young generation willing to sacrifice their time to be trained. As the impact, the family business which has good leadership will result the good sustainability plan implementation. Yet, while leaders set the direction, they must also use management skills to guide their people to the right destination, in a smooth and efficient way.
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depicted in Figure 7.2. Despite the advent of the Asian financial crisis, the largest retail banks group had a solid performance. With regards to their performance on individual driving forces/ success factors, they had performed quite well in Leadership, Customer Focus, and Management by Fact with indices of 84.32, 75.22 and 78.2 respectively. These indices are the highest among the three groups, which indicates that this group has maintained good balanced works in some dimensions of the Business Excellence Model except in areas of People Based Management and Continuous Improvement. The two indices of the group that are 61.29 and 66.99 are much in the same order as their respective indices of all retail banks. While the lowest index (i.e., People based Management) is still satisfactory, the group should pay more attention to the improvement of this dimension as human resources will still be the most influential resources for the servicing industries like banking. For the largest retail banks group, results of the present analysis highlights the tendency of over reliance on mechanic system, routine type of audits and technology for good short term performances. The relatively lower index for the Continuous Improvement dimension also reveals similar difficulties in cultivating a culture of continuous improvement if quality is not make through people.
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India. It is growing in every place and customers are showing interest in using these portals effectively. There are so many portals which are unique in their features and the design of website. After analyzing the whole model of E-commerce I found basically three business Models have evolved over a period of time in this space and each has its own Pros & cons. Rest all business models are mix and match of any of following 3 models.
More recently, scholars in Critical Management Studies have sought to assert workers and community interests against the depredations of capitalism, in the interests of some kind of broader human solidarity. (See, for example, The Critical Management Studies Interest Group Domain Mission Statement [CMSIG, 2001].) They have described how the consciousness of shared concerns that sustains teams and corporate loyalty may also generate a broader social consciousness, stimulating labor activism, environmental campaigning, or global human rights work. On the other hand, Reedy (2003), relying on Rorty (1989), warns that solidarity and exclusivity often are correlated, and that local identity is likely to be more conducive to activism than universal ideals.