It may appear that no regulation at all would be the best alternative. However, it is clear that the long monopoly status of ILECs and their current near-monopoly on facilities-based services in MTEs does give them an advantage, especially when combined with MTE owner resistance to CLECs. The proposed rule requiring nondiscriminatory access is likely to help CLECs overcome MTE owners’ self-interest, if they operate their own system, or merely inertia. It is the attempt to avoid a compensation requirement that is problematic. Without compensation, MTE owners are likely to feel resentment—which could translate into political pressure that could endanger the program altogether. CLECs are likely to wire buildings at an inefficient level, and are less likely to develop truly competitive services, and the government, which unlike businesses, is able to internalize purely social externalities, is likely either to ditch the effort or to promulgate new rules to address the problems created by the old. 208 However, although compensation usually is beneficial whenever rights are taken from property owners, asking the government to pay would not achieve the desired results. The government’s behavior is not likely to be influenced, at least in any predictable way, from being required to pay. 209 Furthermore, because government is already responsive to political pressures, other methods of deterring or encouraging different levels of regulation are available besides a costly individualized approach to the development of CLEC facility-based services in MTEs.
Z-Tel Communications/Z-Tel Technologies Inc. is an unbundled network element platform (UNE-P)-based competitive localexchangecarrier (CLEC). The company leases network assets from incumbent carriers to provide voice and data services. The firm maintains subscriber lines in 38 states in the US. The Company is a provider of advanced, integrated communications services, primarily to residence customers. The Company offers local and long distance services in combination with enhanced communications features accessible through the telephone, the internet and certain personal digital assistants. Among Z-Tel’s offerings are the Z-LineHome service, Z-Line BUSINESS and Touch1 Long Distance. Z-Tel is also focusing on its wholesale services and it is providing access services for MCI Group, a unit of WorldCom, which has entered the local phone business.
Subject to the limitations of liability set forth in Section 2.1.3 hereof, the Company and the Customer shall defend, indemnify, and hold each other harmless from and against any and all actions, claims, judgments, damages, demands, liabilities, and expenses, including without limitation reasonable attorney’s fees, resulting from injury to or death of any person (including injury to or death of their employees) or from the loss of or damage to tangible real or tangible personal property or to the environment, to the extent that such injury, death, loss or damage was proximately caused by any negligent act or omission on the part of the party from whom indemnity is sought, its agents, employees, subcontractors or assignees, in connection with use of the Services. The indemnifying party under this Section shall defend the other at the other’s request against any such action, liability, claim or demand. The party seeking indemnification under this Section must notify the other promptly of written claims or demands for which the indemnifying party is responsible hereunder. The Company and the Customer, as the case may be, shall cooperate fully with the other in the course of such indemnification, and the indemnifying party shall control such defense and the right to litigate, settle, appeal (provided it pays the cost of any required appeal bond), compromise or otherwise deal with any such claim or resulting judgment, provided that such settlement, compromise or other resolution of said claim does not result in any liability to the indemnified party.
CCT is also leading to a recomposition of public sector workforces. The intensification of work practices and the introduction of performance driven bonus schemes has resulted in the replacement of older staff with younger people more able to cope with the new demands, and this has resulted in the loss of workers with considerable experience of public sector work and trade union involvement. It has also served to reduce costs since younger workers tend to be receive lower wages than the older workers they replace. Moreover, workforce recomposition has not been gender neutral. Doogan (1996) has shown that male full-time manual workers have borne the largest proportion of job losses, contributing toward a wider feminisation of local authority workforces. However, women workers have retained jobs at the expense of a greater deterioration in their pay, terms and conditions and consequently the development of CCT has halted or even reversed moves towards equal opportunities and equal pay policies in the public sector (see Bruegel and Kean, 1995; Escott and Whitfield, 1995). In fact the CCT legislation specifically excludes consideration of the terms and conditions of workers in the preparation of contracts. This has the effect of removing from the conceptualisation of public sector work a concern for the interests of employees.
completing the case is required to make a determination whether or not the intending immigrant poses a significant health risk to the United States. Affliction with specific communicable diseases may disqualify her from obtaining permanent residency. Prior to filing the application paperwork for the permanent residence process, the applicant is required to appear before a “Civil Surgeon” in her state of residence for a medical exam which includes laboratory work. At the completion of the exam, the civil surgeon enters the results of the exam into a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) database. The USCIS officer handling the case queries the DHHS system for the corresponding information.
Nightly Disaster Recovery Backups (included) Excalibur Technology conducts nightly disaster recovery backups where we backup each mail store every night. This is the industry standard method of backing up hosted Microsoft Exchange Server data. A mail store is the email database that contains numerous mailbox accounts. This disaster recovery backup is used if a mail store becomes corrupted or fails for another reason. This protects the customer in the event Excalibur Technology suffers a system failure or other event that requires the recovery of an entire mail store. Due to the nature of this backup technology, our engineers are not able to restore data from an individual mailbox. If a customer deletes items inadvertently, they may be able to recover those items via the Deleted Item/Mailbox Retention feature below. Customers who need the ability to restore individual user data from a backup should consider the Excalibur Technology Advanced Archiving Service at www.excaltech.com/hostedexchange.aspx.
Many studies have examined the determinants of air traffic volume in metropolitan areas. Liu et al. (2006) contend that the likelihood of a major air passenger market emerging is primarily determined by the size of the metropolitan population and the levels of employment in professional, scientific, technical, and management services. Discazeaux and Polese (2007) examine the determinants of air traffic volume in the 89 largest urban areas in the U.S. and Canada, and confirm that urban size and the local industry structure remain the primary determinants. Dobruszkes et al. (2011) report that gross domestic product (GDP), the level of economic decision-power, tourism functions, and the distance from a major air market are the most important factors influencing air traffic flows in Europe. However, efficient and competitive aviation services can also increase traffic volumes by offering positive feedback to demand generation. Because increased flight frequency generally reduces passengers’ schedule delay (Douglas and Miller 1974), consumers’ willingness-to- pay and travel demand usually increase with flight frequency (Richard 2003, Fu et al. 2014). Strong airline competition often leads to lower prices and improved service quality, which substantially increase the traffic volume (Windle and Dresner 1996, 1999, Dresner et al. 1996, Fu et al. 2011, Adler et al. 2014).
There are several obstacles in the effective delivery of peptides and proteins because of their hydrophilic nature. These obstacles are circumvented by using newer molecules that penetrate the cell in an efficacious way. They are also known as helper substances. Helper molecule like polyethyleneimine (PEI) is one of these agents. Other include encapsulating carrier systems such as liposomes or viral vectors, mechanical/physical membrane destabilizing techniques like electroporation or microinjection etc. [92–100]. They also have certain drawbacks, for example, heterogeneous dispersion, limited in vivo application, immunogenicity issues in the case of viral carriers [101,102]. Therefore a superior system is under research in 1988 a cell penetrating peptide called trans-activating transcription factor, Tat, from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered that had the ability to freely internalize the cells [103,104]. After this discovery, many efforts have been put develop these advance molecules as effective carriers. This vast research led to the growing field of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), also called protein transduction domains (PTD) or Trojan peptides because of their property to overcome plasma membrane and carry the attached drug into the cell.
Occasionally, services are impacted by “soft” failures. A soft failure usually consists of configuration or operator errors. For instance, a set of VIDs on a particular device or port may be disabled by an administrator. Upon initial inspection, some troubleshooting techniques may conclude the port is active and other traffic is passing normally. This result may lead the operator to look elsewhere for the problem. A proposed project within IEEE 802.1 deals with these configuration errors. It is known as Data Dependent-CFM. These advancements will further enhance the ability of Carrier Ethernet transport technologies, such as PBB-TE, to provide lower-cost of operations and enhanced resiliency.
We have proposed previously a common substrate binding site for the mitochondrial carriers, which consists of three contact points that define selectivity between amino acid-, keto acid-, and adenine-containing substrates (27). The sub- strate binding site of the VMC1 protein has the character- istics of the keto acid carriers and nucleotide-binding uncoupling proteins. Uncoupling proteins have an aspartate or glutamate residue implicated in proton transport in the first trans- membrane helix (12), and a glutamate residue is present in the corresponding position in the VMC1 protein (Fig. 1). This sug- gests that substrate binding to the VMC1 protein may be more similar to the nucleotide binding of uncoupling proteins than to that of the adenine nucleotide carriers (27). This suggestion is consistent with the lack of inhibition by cATR on dATP transport by VMC1 and with the residues of AAC1 that inter- act with CATR (22) not being conserved in the VMC1 protein. Our results show that VMC1 can transport dATP, ADP, TTP, dTTP, and UTP in exchange for dATP. Thus, we spec- ulate that mimivirus may exploit the mitochondrion of its host by harvesting its dATP and dTTP for the replication of its large A ⫹ T-rich genome, possibly in exchange for cytosolic ADP. Potential sources for the mitochondrial deoxynucleotides are its deoxynucleotide pool and the breakdown of mitochondrial DNA. Our speculation is in agreement with the proposal that the preferential affinity of the mimivirus nucleoside diphos- phate kinase for deoxypyrimidine nucleotides is an evolution- ary adaptation to accommodate the virus’s dTTP requirement (17). Many viruses target the mitochondria of the host cell to control the cell death pathways, both through antiapoptotic pathways to ensure the host cell remains alive during their replication and proapoptotic proteins to induce cell lysis and allow the escape of viral particles once viral replication is completed (6). As well as VMC1, there are five other putative mitochondrial proteins encoded in the mimivirus genome: L359 (mitochondrial mismatch repair ATPase MutS), L572 and R776 (N-terminal half of the mitochondrial chaperone BCS1L), R596 (Evr1/Alr proteins of Fe/S cluster maturation), R740 (mitochondrial 18-kDa protein), and R824 [mitochon- drial 5 ⬘ (3 ⬘ )-deoxyribonucleotidase]. In addition, there are four proteins, L81, R151, R900, and L908, with a potential mito- chondrial targeting sequence but of unknown function. This suggests that mimivirus has evolved further means to exploit the mitochondrial physiology of its host for its biogenesis.
A pricing zone and service area information are mentioned in an availability enquiry, offer request and order. Orders and offers are placed through the Elisa Carrier Service Online order and delivery system. The target delivery time is 5 working days in Elisa’s own network area and approximately 2 weeks in other operator’s network area.
Increasing Internet penetration and time spent online offer advertisers a growing audience for marketing messages. As a result, online advertising spend has grown rapidly across the world. This has attracted the interest of a variety of players, including telcos. Although still fringe players in the online advertising space, we believe telcos can enhance their presence by exploring a number of opportunities. Capgemini recommends that telcos decide their strategy based on their current breadth of services and online ad revenues. Telcos with limited presence in online advertising, i.e. the “slow starters,” should consider leveraging their capabilities in procuring local content to offer portal services and utilize their existing directory assets to launch online directory services. Other areas of online advertising can be explored subsequently. Certain telcos generate significant online ad revenues from a limited range of services such as online directory services and content portals. For such “specialist” players, it is important to diversify into other areas. For instance, they can offer social networking services to their existing residential and business clients. They can also utilize the intelligence available to them about consumer behavior, demographics and location, to offer targeted ad network and ad agency services. Telcos with a wide range of online ad offerings but low corresponding revenues, i.e. the “strivers,” should focus on improving monetization of their existing operations. This can be achieved through better differentiation of their online ad offerings by effectively leveraging their brands, existing subscriber bases and consumer intelligence. Finally, telcos who have emerged as online advertising leaders should strive to remove dependencies on partners to command a higher share of advertiser spend.
Without the help and support of a number of fine people, Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 would never have happened. Words really cannot express both my indebtedness to, and respect for, the Exchange Server development teams I've worked with over the past eight years. I'll never forget the patience they showed with my seemingly endless and not always well−articulated questions, especially as product delivery deadlines approached. My Exchange Book e−mail folders for earlier editions overflow with helpful, timely, and just−in−time responses from them all: Behrooz Chitsaz, Ken Ewert, Karim Battish, August Hahn, David Johnson, Bill Kilcullen, Eric Lockard, Mark Ledsome, David Lemson, Steve Masters, Tom McCann, Ramez Naam, Jim Reitz, Todd Roberts, Rob Sanfilippo, Elaine Sharp, Rob Shurtleff, Aaron Snow, Bill Sorinsin, Paul Waszkiewicz, Jeff Wilkes, and Rusty Williams.
The Triennial Review Order also had eliminated unbundling requirements for fiber deployment to the premises (FTTP) in new developments ("greenfield" projects) to stimulate investment in these next generation platforms. Responding to a request for reconsideration by Bell South and other ILECs, in October 2004 the Commission clarified that this exemption would also apply to fiber-to-the-curb (FTTC) projects, in which fiber extends to within 500 feet of all the customers served by that loop ( FCC, 2004b ). If an ILEC overbuilds copper loops, it will either have to keep the copper loop in service or make a narrowband channel available on an unbundled basis if the copper loop is retired. More specifically, ILECs must provide access to a voice grade channel via TDM technology or, if no TDM is available, make a 64kbps channel available. In the Triennial Order, the FCC had also eliminated the broadband sharing requirement for hybrid loops. In hybrid networks fiber is deployed to points that do not qualify as FTTP or FTTC. In such cases, CLECs may deploy their own networks to the fiber termination point of the ILEC ("remote terminal") and then lease the remaining copper loop (called "subloop"). Overall, interpreting the instruction in the Telecommunications Act to facilitate the deployment of advanced communications infrastructure and services, unbundling obligations in the broadband markets have been essentially eliminated.
Supply, in relation to services, includes to ‘provide, grant or confer.’ 61 Section 4 of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) contains a broad and inclusive definition of ‘services’, which includes ‘rights, benefits, privileges or facilities that are … provided, granted or conferred in trade or commerce’. Whether or not computer software, or a licence to use such software, constitutes ‘goods’ or ‘services’ within the meaning of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) has not been finally determined in Australia. 62 We think the better view is that a licence to use computer software falls within the definition of ‘services’, although the distinction is of no relevance for present purposes so long as it is one or the other. 63
• Because the bulk of cancellations are by carriers who are remaining in the marketplace and are required to offer consumers the option of purchasing any other plan offered by the carrier, as well as the opportunity to use a special enrollment period to seek coverage from another carrier, we expect any disruption in the market to be manageable by the carriers as they compete for market share.