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An analysis of institutional factors influencing production in six vegetable projects of the nkonkobe local municipality

An analysis of institutional factors influencing production in six vegetable projects of the nkonkobe local municipality

Alice, a small town where UFH is situated, lies within the geographical position of latitude 32º 56´ south and longitude 26º 50´ east in southern South Africa in Eastern Cape Province. Alice town, where the six projects investigated are situated, is about 120 kilometers northwest of East London. Approximately 74% of the people living within Nkonkobe Local Municipality area are highly affected by poverty (Nkonkobe Municipality, 2009). The majority of the population which is about 61% resides in rural areas, 20% of the population resides in farms and scattered settlements (Nkonkobe Municipality, 2009. Alice has a population 65 472 individuals. The climate varies from hot in summer to extreme cold in winter with heavy frost and snowfall along the hilly areas. Average annual rainfall is 640mm, and most rain falls during the summer months from October to March, with frost and sometimes snow in winter. Mean maximum monthly temperatures range from 4 0 C in July to 38 0 C in February. Most of the roads linking the rural settlements are generally in poor conditions. The vegetation type is mostly Thorn Bushveld dominated by acacia Karroo species.
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YOUTH POLICY MONITORING AS A TOOL FOR DEVELOPING SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY IN LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

YOUTH POLICY MONITORING AS A TOOL FOR DEVELOPING SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY IN LOCAL MUNICIPALITY

The social capital of youth as a social segment is a major resource to contribute to any country’s social sustainability. Social sustainability requires active youth participation in solving the issues that are important for local communities and education as a main source for youth knowledge, skills and opinions. Youth policy is a tool, which enables the state and municipalities to work with youth and stimulate their interest to participate. Ongoing research activities concerning youth policy significance for developing social sustainability usually are prepared at a more global scale, although, there is also a need at local municipality level. Scientific experience indicates that youth policy monitoring contributes to wider understanding of youth needs, as well as possible participation forms in solving the topical issues for local society. Additionally, youth policy monitoring that is based on youth knowledge and opinions brightly demonstrates the results of the previous and areas for the future educational work with youth. In Latvia, to date, youth research has been fragmentary and still has not gained the position of an independent discipline. Additionally, there is no sufficient experience in youth policy monitoring at municipal level. The aim of the article is to analyse youth policy at municipal level and provide feedback for municipality and non-formal education that is more flexible and allows to realize youth policy and may support needs of each municipality. A case study in one Latvian municipality is presented as an example, which includes a youth policy monitoring, a survey conducted among 401 respondents using eight major youth policy fields as stipulated in the European Union’s Strategy for Youth. Results from the obtained data, recommendations are proposed for a more effective implementation of youth policy, understanding fields for more active educational work for promoting social sustainability in a local community. The results and discussed approach for youth policy monitoring can be applied practically at the level of local municipality for planning educational work with youth.
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Integrated Mobile Veld Fire Detection and Notification System for Rural Communities: A Case of South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia

Integrated Mobile Veld Fire Detection and Notification System for Rural Communities: A Case of South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia

The research adopted a mixed approach methodology; experimental, quantitative and qualitative. Most activities followed the participatory research approach, as this project required a bottom-up approach knowledge sharing and co-designing. The study therefore considered experimental designs, surveys and focus group discussions. Within that holistic stakeholder interaction the study co-identified challenges faced by rural communities from Namibia (Khomas Region - Windhoek), Zimbabwe (Mashonaland West Province) and South Africa (Matatiele Local Municipality) concerning veld fires. A shared desired future (reduced veld fire occurrence in rural areas) and a shared sustainable transformational process (pathway) that can reduce incidences of veld fires was agreed upon. A purposive convenient sampling procedure (based on availability and willingness to participate) was considered focusing on rural households and veld fire management institutions from areas with high incidences of veld fires as reported in the past 15 – 20 years. We conducted a community – based assessment to
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Business Partnerships in Local Government

Business Partnerships in Local Government

Among the advantages of partnerships, we find that the diversity of organizations supplying services and the competition between them improves the service delivery as long as the competition is not aggressive (Katan, 2004). Operating in the market under competitive conditions motivates the organizations to offer high quality goods and services to the consumers at an appropriate price (Katan, 2001) and consumers can choose or replace suppliers that do not satisfy them. The efficiency and flexibility of the business sector allows it to deliver ser- vices at lower cost by lowering the number of local municipality employees (Kop, 2004). At the same time, it has become possible to enlist additional local resources from non-governmental sources. The importance of these partnerships increases in a period when there are reduced sources of funds available to local municipalities. However, there are quite a few disadvantages as well. These include the possible conflict between concern for the welfare of the population and the aspiration to produce profits, which is the main motivation of business bo- dies, and is especially pertinent with regard to weak and vulnerable population groups. Another (not less impor- tant) point is that the multiplicity of non-governmental groups delivering services makes it difficult for many citizens to choose a service supplier. In many cases, citizens do not have a real right of choice, since they do not possess sufficient information regarding the service suppliers. Thus, without government involvement in the form of supervision and guidance, damage can be caused in particular to weaker populations, who, owing to lack of education and experience, have difficulty in collecting sufficient information or analyzing it properly, in order to make an informed choice about who will best answer their needs and meet their expectations.
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The challenges of primary health care nurse leaders in the wake of New Health Care Reform in Norway

The challenges of primary health care nurse leaders in the wake of New Health Care Reform in Norway

Background: The local municipality, whose management style is largely inspired by the New Public Management (NPM) model, has administrative responsibilities for primary health care in Norway. Those responsible for health care at the local level often find themselves torn between their professional responsibilities and the municipality ’ s market-oriented funding system. The introduction of the new health care reform process known as the Coordination Reform in January 2012 prioritises primary health care while simultaneously promoting a more collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to health care. Nurse leaders experience constant cross-pressure in their roles as members of the municipal executive team, the execution of their professional and administrative duties, and the overall political aims of the new reform. The aim of this article is to illuminate some of the major challenges facing nurse leaders in charge of nursing homes and to draw attention to their professional concerns about the quality of nursing care with the introduction of the new reform and its implementation under NPM- inspired municipal executive leadership.
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Health care and social care costs of pneumonia in Denmark: a register-based study of all citizens and patients with COPD in three municipalities

Health care and social care costs of pneumonia in Denmark: a register-based study of all citizens and patients with COPD in three municipalities

With the aging populations, the costs of pneumonia are likely to increase over time. As a large part of the pneumonia cases are preventable, this study may provide useful evidence for the national, regional, and local municipality levels and for health care providers on the benefit of investing further in the prevention and treatment of pneumonia. The results of the study imply that the budgets of the average Danish munici- pality (with 50,000 older than 18 years inhabitants) like the three municipalities are affected with around half (49%) of the total attributable cost due to pneumonia of US$3.1 million for a 6-month period – a figure that will be larger covering a whole year. Focusing solely on patients with COPD being a group with a high frequency of pneumonia episodes, the same picture arrives, although with a bit lower attributable costs due to high costs in the COPD control group. Danish municipali- ties and other similar local authorities in comparable countries may therefore have a closer attention to pneumonia of their citizens, eg, starting in COPD, and its future prevention.
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SUSTAINABLE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT FROM PERSPECTIVE OF CITIZENS: SALASPILS MUNICIPALITY (LATVIA) CASE

SUSTAINABLE LOCAL DEVELOPMENT FROM PERSPECTIVE OF CITIZENS: SALASPILS MUNICIPALITY (LATVIA) CASE

, Poland; Botkyrka, Sweden; Mulhouse, France, Braine-l-Alleud; Belgium; Pergine, Italy; Covilha, Portugal; Kavala, Greece) were approbated innovative methodology for measurement and improvement of well-being indicators (URBACT, 2009). The methodology (SPIRAL) was elaborated by the ex- perts of Council of Europe. The methodology is aimed at improvement of the dialogue between society and municipality using so-called co-responsibility approach (Council of Europe, 2008). The idea behind this approach is to foster social inclusion and improve the well-being of mem- bers among the municipality thanks to a close cooperation between public authorities, citizens and private stakeholders (URBACT II, 2012). During the research, the subjective evaluation of well-being of inhabitants are grouped by 8 well-being dimensions: (1) Access to means of living; (2) Living environment; (3) Social balance; (4) Personal Balance; (5) Attitudes and initiatives; (6) Feelings of well-being and ill-being; (7) Personal relations; (8) Relations with institutions. After collection of all data, they are analyzed by designed software ESPOIR. On the bases of inhabitants responses the subjective well-being indicators are developed. Next steps includes development Local Action plan, which aims to improve the indicators that are in bad situation commonly by authorities and citizens in co-responsive way. In this way citizens have opportunity to participate in decision-making process for more sustainable development of the municipality.
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“There is no reward penny for going out and picking up youths”: issues in the design of accessible youth healthcare services in rural northern Sweden

“There is no reward penny for going out and picking up youths”: issues in the design of accessible youth healthcare services in rural northern Sweden

physical and psychosocial health with a special focus on sexual and reproductive health and responding to youths’ healthcare needs. YCs are often located outside general healthcare facilitates and are staffed with midwifes, coun- sellors and physicians, however, the size, number of staff and variety of profession varies widely between YCs [6, 7]. However, many rural municipalities in northern Swe- den do not have YCs, and there has been no research into how youth health needs are managed in these areas. The aim of this paper is to examine the issues around youth healthcare access in one municipality without a YC, and to explore whether and how a youth clinic model might contribute to access in this municipality. While limited to one case example, the study provides valuable insights into developing research into youth health services and access in small rural communities, and considering alter- natives to the ‘clinic’ approach which generally seems more suitable to larger rural/regional communities.
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'“We used to live like bears in the forest”: The Waterworld of Roma in Dolenjska, Slovenia

'“We used to live like bears in the forest”: The Waterworld of Roma in Dolenjska, Slovenia

Another Romani settlement, which is located in the woods and near the industrial zone of Kočevje, is home to a family of nine siblings, each having his or her own household. There is one communal pipe for all. The settlements Mestni Log and Trata Jezero are categorized „other‟, because of the considerable internal heterogeneity, preventing placing them in one category. Mestni Log can be roughly divided in two parts, each part consisting of family members. The first part, which is located closer to the main road, has had access to water inside the houses for approximately ten years. This, however, is a self-made and thus illegal connection. In the other part access to water is lacking and people collect water at public points, often from the graveyard which is next to this Romani settlement, and from houses of non-Roma people living in Kočevje. There is an unofficial, but geographically slightly visible „border‟ between those two parts of Mestni Log. One of my respondents in this settlement who lived on this „border‟ collected water through a water pipe located in the barn of the first part. In Trata Jezero elderly people access water in their houses. The municipality has provided this connection approximately ten years ago. According to a male respondent it was arranged after he in despair stole water from a public trench to take care of his horses. In another part of this settlement, located closer to the local industries, water is accessed with a communal pipe.
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Ecoso exchange newsletter 2/25; Apr. 1993

Ecoso exchange newsletter 2/25; Apr. 1993

In addition to serving their own particular municipality tne people employed in local government human services, in Victoria, are making a significant contribution to social policy, pa[r]

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EXAMINATION OF BARRIERS TO WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN SAVELUGU/NANTONG MUNICIPALITY, GHANA

EXAMINATION OF BARRIERS TO WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN SAVELUGU/NANTONG MUNICIPALITY, GHANA

Evertzen (2010) noted that, a gender analysis of government budgets can contribute to an increased transparency of government budgets, it can make visible what resources and services are allocated to what sectors, and who benefits. The analysis of budgets, started in Australia, where it was not successful because it was only an exercise of the government; it lacked pressure and interest from outside and in South Africa, the initiative started in 1993 and was far more successful, being a product from both the government and parliamentarians and non-governmental organisations. The civil servants provided data, the NGO carried out operational advocacy, and the parliamentarians lobbied. The import is that, when policies are advocated towards women participation in local governance, it is not only to remain the task of the women to realize it but the cognitive effort of all stakeholders makes the policy a reality. Other applicable strategies could include networking, lobbying and public pressure at policy- making levels to change the content of laws or design new laws. That is to build networks between women‟s organisations and gender sensitive politicians; create an umbrella organisation at the national level, to co-ordinate activities; and also networking with organisations of other countries (Geisler, 2007).
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Threats to local drinking water in the municipality of Ljubljana

Threats to local drinking water in the municipality of Ljubljana

veloping countries don't have a safe and sustainable water supply. It has been estimated that a minimum of 7.5 litres of water per person per day is required in the home for drinking, preparing food and per- sonal hygiene, the most basic requirements for water; at last 50 litres per person per day is needed to ensure all personal hygiene, food hy- giene, domestic cleaning, and laundry needs [2]. The large majority of people in European community have their water supplied by water utili- ties, some 10 % receive their water from small or very small supplies that are often owned by the consumers themselves. Protecting source water using good management strategies can help communities to re- duce the threat of drinking water contamination [3]. Source water pro- tection in a watershed context poses significant challenges for local communities, especially smaller ones [4]. Small and very small water systems are common in Europe. For example in Germany up to 20 % (about 16 million people) have drinking water distributed by small scale water utilities and private wells [5].
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Consumers’ Food Value Attributes on Ghana’s Local Market; Case Study of Berekum Municipality

Consumers’ Food Value Attributes on Ghana’s Local Market; Case Study of Berekum Municipality

(3) safety, and (4) affordability. The least important food values were value for money, price, origin and natural. However, consumers’ perceptions on product values appeared to differ by socio-economic backgrounds and the cultural value system. The study also found that food values are significantly influenced by consumers’ traditional perceptions on product values. In addition, consumers’ food value choice can differ by regions. The survey indicates the significance of weights and measures related to price decisions of consumers in Berekum, Ghana, and about 80 percent of consumers agree to use the same weights and measurements in pricing of agricultural products. These suggest that consumers at the local market prefer the use of a standardized measure either conventional or traditional.
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Of Slums and Politics in Puri, Odisha: The Localisation of the Slum-Free Cities Mission in the Temple City

Of Slums and Politics in Puri, Odisha: The Localisation of the Slum-Free Cities Mission in the Temple City

Action (2013). Technically, the urban local body is to prepare this plan in consultation with concerned state government departments, technical experts, as well as resident communities (Kundu 2013:15–16). Kundu identifies two main deficits: he misses both “a reliable framework for identifying non-tenable slums and legitimate slum households that are entitled to get dwelling units”; and “a clear road map for its time bound implementation” (2013:15–16). What would be needed, so Kundu, are “clear policy directives defining the ground rules at the national and state levels … [and] standard criteria … proposed at the higher levels without any ambiguity and then applied in the field by taking the local context into account” (2013:16). So far, attempts to operationalise the Mission at the city level “have faced enormous problems and conflicts of interests, often leading to legal impasse.” In particular, the “categories of hazardous or ecologically sensitive locations and public purpose are used to arbitrarily evict slums” (Kundu 2013:16).
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Localisation and development opportunities of rural communities in the opinion of local representatives

Localisation and development opportunities of rural communities in the opinion of local representatives

of new employing establishments as investments eff ectively infl uencing the growth of entrepreneur- ship of a given village. Investments in social infra- structure, on the other hand, are viewed as under- takings indirectly infl uencing the local economic activation through the growth of living standards in a given region and its attractiveness mainly from the point of view of the place of living. In the future per- spective, this can refl ect in the development of trade and servi ce activity in a given village. Investments in technical infrastructure (e.g. roads) in social aware- ness are associated to a higher degree directly with the possibilities in the economic sphere. But invest- ment projects which might create the conditions for new economic activities were only implemented in one-fi h of the villages.
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The response of a local health authority to reported cases of salmonellosis in a Portuguese municipality, 2007 to 2011

The response of a local health authority to reported cases of salmonellosis in a Portuguese municipality, 2007 to 2011

The field work was done in the municipality of Vila Nova de Famalicão, in the North of Portugal, where GG and EG had been working has Local Health Authorities (LHA) for years; EG still works there; GG was the Head of the LHAs but has moved full time to the University of Porto in 2009. GG conceived and designed the study. With the other public health doctors working as LHAs, GG and EG were actively involved in studying some of the reported cases. EG organized the individual data files. GG and LP performed the analysis and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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ESTABLISHING ORDER REGULATIONS IN MUNICIPALITIES AS AN ELEMENT OF LOCAL SECURITY PROTECTION

ESTABLISHING ORDER REGULATIONS IN MUNICIPALITIES AS AN ELEMENT OF LOCAL SECURITY PROTECTION

As for the rule, the legislator authorized municipal’ organs to issue ordinances. ).The commune head (the mayor or president of the city) has the right to legislate local laws only to a limited extent that should be clearly marked, on an exceptional basis. The mu- nicipality head (mayor or president of the city) has the right to make only one type of local law, namely ordinance regulations. In addition, they can only constitute them if the authorized bodies constituting these local government units, i.e., the municipal (city) council, cannot benefit from the entitlements specified in the act. The premises deter- mining the possibility of establishing such regulations by the municipality head -– that is all urgent situations requiring quick normative reaction which, due to its session sys- tem, it is not able to ensure -– is justified in allowing the issuing of order regulations to the more-available executive body of the municipality operating on a professional basis (Jaworska-Dębska and Budzisz 2012).
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The Community Action Boards in Local Development of Municipality Itagui, Antioquia

The Community Action Boards in Local Development of Municipality Itagui, Antioquia

The question is, if more than 80% of Colombian municipalities are level 5 and 6 with scarce resources, how will the regions achieve the resources and efficient use of them in the construction of the Development Plan with a Territorial Approach to Peace? How to prevent further loss of local public resources? Demobilized guerrillas, for being part of political groups, have the opportunity to work with the community, in building development plans with a Territorial Approach. They may agree projects with community for its future development, to serve the reconstruction of the social fabric, contribute to the implementation of infrastructure projects, participate in political education projects for peace, among other works that includes the JEP for repair restoration and non-repetition (Agreement on the Victims of the Conflict, 2015). How to ensure the efficient use of scarce mu- nicipal resources? How to ensure the social union for that ex-combatants of the armed conflict and the general community they can become true builders of a Development Plan with a Territorial Approach to Peace?
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Implementing Decentralization

Implementing Decentralization

The decentralization plan of Kosovo is ambitious and needs a great deal of cooperation and coordination at both the horizontal level (central government level) and vertical level (centre and local government). For the most part Kosovo municipalities are eagerly anticipating the devolution of competencies as laid out in the Ahtisaari Proposal. Many mayors have expressed their exasperation at the sluggish progress of this process which has left them in a competency ‘limbo’. The mayors resent the fact that they receive citizen complaints about issues that they do not have the power to deal with. In particular most mayors would like to gain responsibility for public utilities, as this is a frequent source of complaint from citizens. Despite being aware of the limitations of their administrations, an overwhelming majority of mayors would prefer the immediate full devolution of competencies 23 . This fact highlights their lack
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Perception of the Local Population toward Urban Forests in Municipality of Aerodrom

Perception of the Local Population toward Urban Forests in Municipality of Aerodrom

Currently the municipality builds new green spaces and parks in settlements Micurin, Lisice and regional centre of Aerodrom. For the maintenance of the green space, municipality use the services of public enterprise in Skopje - PE “Communal Hygiene” and PE “Parks and Greenery”. In addition to better hygiene and maintenance of the green spaces, municipality hires seasonal workers [15]. Also, the municipality has purchased machinery (lawn mowers) tools and other equipment needed for that purpose. Maintaining hygiene of the green spaces municipality is conducting with the help of the public enterprises, with certain omissions, through its points. Local government is also working intensively on their urban documentation as a condition for sustainable development, quality of life and attracting investment [15]. All this is very important for the local population, science, public undertakings, parks and greenery.
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