theoretical results on the complex polarization behavior of localized structures generated in an optically-injected broad area VCSEL. A linear stability analysis of the spin-flip VCSEL model is performed for the case of broad area devices, in a restrained and experimentally relevant parameter set. Numerical simulations are performed, in one and two dimensions. They reveal existence of vector localized structures. These structures have a complex polarization state, which is not simply a linear polarization following the one of the optical injection. Experimental results confirm theoretical predictions. Applications of this work can lead to the encoding of small color images in the polarization state of an ensemble of localized structures at the surface of a broad area VCSEL.
Various mechanisms have been proposed to generate localized structures in VCSELs. Ex- perimental evidence of LSs has been performed by using two beams: a holding beam and a writing beam . The holding beam allows to ensure optical bistability and the writing beam is used to locally make the system evolve from the lower branch of the bistability to the higher and reciprocally. Soon later it has been shown that LSs could be observed in absence of driving (holding) beam. In this case, LSs have been realized on three different experimental schemes: a monolithic VCSEL with a saturable absorber , two coupled VCSELs in a face-to-face configuratio , and a VCSEL with frequency selective feedback with  or without  a writing beam. LSs are not necessary stationary objects: it has been shown theoretically that they can exhibit a spontaneous motion under the thermal effects [53,54], or by a regular delayed feedback [55–59]. If the pump has a circular profile the LS moves along the boundary under the presence of a saturable absorber . This motion is a consequence of the drift instability described in .
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The organization of the paper is as follows. In Section 2, a general functional separation solution containing two arbitrary functions is obtained for 1.1. Equation 1.2 is transformed into a single heat equation by a function transformation in Section 3. Exact solutions and localized structures are discussed in Section 4, and their interaction properties are numerically studied. The conclusion and discussion are given in Section 5.
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The Swift–Hohenberg equation provides a dependable framework for studies and control of the dynamics of spatially localized states as proved time and time again [17, 27]. For this reason the robustness of the resonance structure predicted by adi- abatic theory for parameter values far from the adiabatic limit leads us to expect similar dynamics in related systems, and in particular in models of desert vegeta- tion . The reason for this expectation is that the phenomena described here are fundamentally low-dimensional. Indeed, a similar series of resonances is present in a simple ordinary differential equation, the periodically forced Adler equation, as described elsewhere .
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The idea of the experiment is that the background beam experiences a local variation of the amplitude and phase inside the sodium vapor, if there is a spatial variation of the complex susceptibility. During the propagation of the light field from the sodium vapor to the feedback mirror and back diffraction takes place and provides the spatial coupling required for the formation of structures. Since the susceptibility of the sodium vapor depends on the intensity of both the incoming and the reflected light field, certain spatial modulations of the susceptibility can stabilize themselves.
play a role in the early stage of transition. At low Reynolds numbers puﬀs can be in an equilibrium state where they have roughly 20 pipe diameter length (Mullin 2011) and propagate at a speed of approximately 0 . 9 times the bulk mean velocity (Nishi et al. 2008; Wygnanski & Champagne 1973). The lowest value of the onset Reynolds number (based on the pipe diameter and the bulk mean velocity) of equilibrium puﬀs was estimated to be 1750 by Peixinho & Mullin (2006). In plane channel ﬂow, on the other hand, two types of localized structures have been observed: one is a turbulent spot localized not only in the streamwise direction but also in the spanwise direction (Carlson et al. 1982), and the other is a turbulent stripe localized in the direction inclined from the streamwise direction in the spanwise direction (Hashimoto et al. 2009). Turbulent spots ﬁrst arise at lower Reynolds numbers, and as the Reynolds number increases they develop into stripes through their growth and subsequent break-up (Aida et al. 2010). Spots grow spatially in time, and their leading (or trailing) edge propagates at a speed of about 1 . 0–1 . 3 (or 0 . 5–0 . 8) bulk velocity (Carlson et al. 1982; Lemoult et al. 2013). An equilibrium state of spots like that of puﬀs has not been reported even at their onset, and equilibrium structures in a plane channel might be turbulent stripes rather than spots (Aida et al. 2010). The onset Reynolds number (based on channel height and bulk velocity) of spots is around 1333 (Carlson et al. 1982; Hashimoto et al. 2009).
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Nonlinear wave phenomena appear in various scientific and engineering fields    , such as fluid mechanics, plasma physics, optical fibers, biology, solid state physics, chemical kinematics, chemical physics and geochemistry. The higher order Korteweg-de Vries equation is one of important equations for de- scription localized structures in the modern physics, such as two-layer fluid , steady-state solitary waves in a fluid , a three-layer fluid with a constant buoyancy frequency in an each layer  , which means the investigation of the travelling wave solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations plays an important role. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation   is first used to describe the nonlinear long internal waves in a fluid stratified by both density and current. The higher-order Korteweg-de Vries equation is investigated with different methods   , which is written as follows.
Central to our approach is the localization resp. spatial confinement of the transient traveling waves. Reaction-diffusion waves would engulf all of the medium, if formed in a two-variable system with only one activator and one inhibitor with the system’s parameters in the appropriate regime. In contrast, localized traveling waves indicate a demand-controlled excitability. Similar ideas to obtain localized traveling, though not transient, waves have been introduced in various contexts, for instance, an integral negative feedback or a third, fast diffusing inhibitory component for moving spots in semiconductor materials, gas discharge phenomena, and chemical systems [31, 44– 46]. Furthermore, in neural field models , localized two-dimensional bumps are studied [48–50] in integrodifferential equations (without diffusion) in the context, for example, of memory formation . Localized structures have also been discussed in the context of cortical spreading depression (SD) in migraine before, in particular a model with narrowly tuned parameters that shows transient waves [13, 52, 53] and a model with mean field feedback control that allows for localized waves . But it is for the first time now that a model is presented in which wave phenomena oc- cur that are both localized and transient, so that a variety of new questions that are controversially discussed in migraine research [18, 54–56] can be addressed. A cen- tral question is of course, which level of detail a model of SD needs to investigate localization of SD and the transient response properties.
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Localization of FLAG-ChsB. Localization of FLAG-ChsB in the hyphae of FB-3 was determined by indirect immunofluo- rescence with anti-FLAG antibody. The fluorescence was pri- marily observed at the hyphal tips and septa (Fig. 4). Fluores- cence at the hyphal tips was observed as apical crescent covering the hyphal tips. Punctuate loci near the cell surfaces and in the cytoplasm near the tips were also observed (Fig. 4A). No fluorescence was observed when the wild-type strain was subjected to indirect immunofluorescence (data not shown). Double staining of FLAG-ChsB and actin showed that most punctuate loci at the hyphal tips colocalized with actin, sug- gesting that these structures are associated with actin patches (Fig. 4A). FLAG-ChsB also localized at a small number of septa. This suggests that FLAG-ChsB localizes at forming septa (see below). In these septa, we observed a pair of spots with intense fluorescence (Fig. 4B, arrows).
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Electron-microscopic studies of enlarged ND10 structures in cells exposed to Bac-PML and infected with HSV-1. The objective of this series of experiments was to examine the ND10 structures by electron microscopy in order to determine whether PML and ICP0 form topologically identifiable aggre- gates. The procedures were as described in Materials and Methods. Briefly, the cells were harvested at 3 h after infection with HSV-1(F). Thin sections were reacted with antibodies to PML or PML and ICP0 and then with secondary antibodies conjugated with 15-nm gold particles for PML and 5-nm gold particles for ICP0. Examinations of thin sections showed that the 15-nm gold particles were present in roughly circular elec- tron-translucent areas of this section. Some thin sections con- tain numerous such electron-translucent areas (Fig. 7A). The 3-h time point was selected to insure that ICP0 colocalized predominantly with ND10 structures. As shown in Fig. 7C, the 5-nm gold particles were present in clusters but were also singly dispersed throughout the ND10 structures. There was no apparent clustering of ICP0 with PML. ICP0 is also seen in the electron-dense material immediately to the right of the elec- tron-translucent area. The PML (15-nm gold particles) at the lower right portion of Fig. 7C may represent a portion of another ND10 structure. We conclude that the electron-micro- FIG. 4. ICP0 colocalizes, but does not overlap, with PML. pHF fibroblast slide cultures were infected with Bac-PML and HSV-1(F) at 3 h after HSV-1 infection and were treated as indicated in the legend for Fig. 2. The images were captured with a Zeiss confocal microscope with the aid of software provided by the manufacturer and were not modified subsequent to capture.
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DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2019.108062 960 Journal of Modern Physics energetically very close and so get strongly hybridized. As a result, wannieriza- tion may give even more ambiguous results in this case. Depending on whether certain constraints are applied [Figure 3(c) and Figure 3(d)] or not [Figure 3(e)], one can obtain either very extended and ill-shaped or very well-localized Wannier functions. In the latter case, however, the effective Hamiltonian’s ei- genvalues are a poor match to the LDA + U bands.
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understand how it works. These demonstrations all use the Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL) multimedia library, which I go more into depth on in just a little bit. All of these demonstrations are located in the \demonstrations\ directory on the CD. After that, I show you how to actually code the structure or algorithm in C++. The code for these sections is mostly platform free, so it will usually compile on any compiler. I mention any sections that are platform-specific in the book. All of the code for the data structures and algorithms can be found on the CD in the directory \structures\ for your convenience. Copies of the files have also been placed in the directories of every demo that uses them. Whenever necessary, I have included console mode Examples on how these structures work in the \examples\ directory on the CD. All of the examples use pure C/C++, with no extra SDKs or APIs needed, so they use input and output to the text console window on your computer.
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sensing. CNTs have attracted significant research interest because they can be functionalized for a particular chemical, yielding a specific physical response which suggests many potential applications in the fields of nanotechnology and sensing. So far, however, utilizing their optical properties for this purpose has proven to be challenging. We demonstrate the use of localized surface plasmons generated on a nanostructured thin film, resembling a large array of nano-wires, to detect changes in the optical properties of the CNTs. Chemical selectivity is demonstrated using CO 2 in gaseous form at room temperature. The demonstrated methodology results
Often, a seemingly simple representation problem for a set or mapping presents a difficult problem of data structure choice. Picking one data structure for the set makes certain operations easy, but others take too much time, and it seems that there is no one data structure that makes all the operations easy. In that case, the solution often turns out to be the use of two or more different structures for the same set or mapping. Suppose we wish to maintain a "tennis ladder," in which each player is on a unique "rung." New players are added to the bottom, that is, the highest- numbered rung. A player can challenge the player on the rung above, and if the player below wins the match, they trade rungs. We can represent this situation as an abstract data type, where the underlying model is a mapping from names (character strings) to rungs (integers 1, 2, . . . ). The three operations we perform are
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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding.
We conducted a cross-sectional study with adult LoS patients to determine the convergent validity in addition to inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the LoSCAT. The LoSCAT was completed independently by two phy- sicians and one of them completed it again after 48 h. Because LoS is a slow, progressive disorder, disease status is unlikely to change within this short period; however, the period seems to be is long enough to avoid recall bias [19, 20]. There was excellent agreement among repeated scores of the LoSCAT performed by a single rater (intra-ra- ter reliability) as well as among raters (inter-rater reliability). The almost perfect intra- and inter-rater agreement was unsurprising, and we think it resulted from intensive train- ing and preparation of an appendices to the LoSCAT before Table 3 Construct validity of the Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool components with global assessment of disease tools
Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a rare neoplasm. In Literature up to 800 cases [1-3] have been reported, and these numbers show its rarity, despite of mesotheliomas, the most pleural tumors represented. Males and females are equal distributed and the same is true for age. No correlation with exposure to asbestos, tobacco or others environmental agents, were found for its development. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura occurs as localized neoplasms of the pleura and was initially classified as “localized mesothelioma”. Recently, with the aid of the electronic microscope and immunohistochemistry, has been possible emphasize that their origin is mesenchymal and not mesothelial, so the term “localized mesothelioma” has been replaced with “solitary fibrous pleural tumor” STFP . In the past STFP were described only in the pleura but recently it has been found located also in other sites [5,6] such as abdomen, liver, peritoneum, retroperitoneal spaces, meninges, orbit, thyroid, salivary glands and soft tissues including the breast [7-10]. The STFP can be associated to other synchronous or metacron neoplasms like prostate, lung, breast, endometrial carcinoma and thyroid. Although most of STFP are benign neoplasms, a part of these could have a malignant behavior. The clinical behavior is unpredictable and probably is due to their histological and morphological features. STFP may remain silent for many years before turning into malignant form .
Included in the .NET Framework library is a set of collection classes, which range from the Array, ArrayList, and Collection classes, to the Stack and Queue classes, to the Hashtable and the SortedList classes. Students of data structures and algorithms can now see how to use a data structure before learning how to implement it. Previously, an instructor had to discuss the concept of, say, a stack, abstractly until the complete data structure was constructed. Instructors can now show students how to use a stack to perform some computations, such as number base conversions, demonstrating the utility of the data struc- ture immediately. With this background, students can then go back and learn the fundamentals of the data structure (or algorithm) and even build their own implementation.
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In the Java examples we've shown so far, we've stored primitive variables of type double in our data structures. This simplifies the program examples, but it's not repre sentative of how you use data storage structures in the real world. Usually, the data items (records) you want to store are combinations of many fields. For a personnel record, you would store last name, first name, age, Social Security number, and so forth. For a stamp collection, you'd store the name of the country that issued the stamp, its catalog number, condition, current value, and so on.
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Hybrid structures of gold nanostars and the J-aggregates of the JC1 dye were produced by the addition of the concentrated ethanol solution of the dye to an aqueous solution of gold nanostars in the presence of ammonia at pH8. Interactions between nanostars and JC1 mole- cules of J-aggregates resulted in the formation of chain- like tightly bound agglomerates of gold nanostars interconnected by an organic matter, with a typical ap- pearance exemplified in the scanning electron micros- copy image (obtained using an environmental scanning electron microscope Quanta 250 FEG, FEI, Hillsboro, OR, USA) in Figure 3. These agglomerates were separated from the excess of dye molecules or J-aggregates not bound to gold nanostars by centrifugation at 3,800 rpm for 2 min and redispersed in aqueous solution. CTAB, which