Humanitarian logisticsinformationsystems can eliminate the need for duplicate data entry and offer more timely and accurate information during the response phase (Lee and Zbinden, 2003). This not only increases the efficiency and effectiveness of the disaster response, but also assists in later phases of the disaster management cycle. After the response to the 2005 Kashmir Earthquake one NGO had a number of emergency response supplies remaining. However, due to a lack of proper informationsystems, it was unknown which donor funded the items, and what the donor’s regulations were regarding their use. As a result, they were unable to be distributed in response to flooding in Pakistan the following year. Where warehouse inventory reports are not maintained, it is common for surplus stock from emergency response not to be utilized and to go to waste.
2.2. Second case characteristics
The second of the studied operators is a large enterprise. It is the operator of 3PL. However, you can point out the areas in the company that in literature are indicated as features of 4PL operators * . The company operates globally. The headquarters is located in the Wielkopolska voivodeship, and the examined branch is situated in Silesia. The company has several branches. The company provides services to small, medium and large enterprises that decided on com- prehensive outsourcing of logistics services. The company provides services in freight forwarding, transport and storage of products. Together with the client, the company determines the terms and conditions of storage and completion of products (even for individual orders and goods), analyses the stages of work together with the customer. Product labelling (e.g. bar codes) is not done for the customers. Headquarters make strategic decisions for all departments (purcha- sing, analysis and planning of the costs level, scope and level of customer servi- ce). The company owns and handles itself its own supply network across Euro- pe. Among the activities of tasks performed by the company that should be mentioned at first, there is a contract logistics, warehousing, transportation, inc- luding international one, freight forwarding by sea and air. The company per- forms its own tasks related to deliveries. However, there are areas where it uses external services – most of all in terms of external drivers in the FTL delivery, and warehouse staff (staff outsourcing). The company also leases and manages the warehouse space. The company has an ICT network – computer network and other telecommunication devices forming a coherent system (e.g. mobile ne- twork). For example, the use of electronic tools includes mobile phones which the drivers use to send a message regarding confirmation of delivery after de- livering the consignment.
The function of traditional logistics is to achieve profit through cost reduction. This operational objective is too narrow to accommodate modern logistics activity management. Recent trends in business sustainability are to conduct business with a long term goal of maintaining the well-being of the economy, environment, and society by efficiently utilizing the limited sources, flexibly coping with changing business environment, and timely responding to new customer demands. Such goal-seeking attempts inevitably expose to uncertainty (Kang et al., 2012; Hassini et al., 2012) of minimizing costs, time, opportunity loss, and maximizing flexibility. Uncertainties have affected performance of logistics operations and have important roles in decision making (Hsiao et al., 2010; S.A, 2008). A number of uncertainty management activities such as customer complaints, support, order cancellation, product damage in inventory and packaging, transportation cost, lead time, warehouse distribution, volume of product return in reverse logistics, and price variation in purchasing and procurement (Yu and Li, 2000; Biehl et al., 2007; Salema et al., 2007; Pishvaee et al., 2009; Hsiao et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2011; Tsao, 2011) instigate further investigation to mitigate consequential business risks.
Some applications or features are perceived as useful by the software designer and developer but as useless by the actual logistics user. What is technically feasible maybe too costly for the logistics professional from a time and money stand point.
Recommendations: Logistics software has a long way to come, but made significant strives in the last few years. The development of international standards in terms of IT applications in logistics has made great progress both in hardware and software standards. Software applications in Asia often lack the interfaces and middleware to bridge various applications for in-house, government (customs) and customer usage ending up in re-entering the data in various formats. There is another issue which deals with the creation of the software and middleware and the available skill sets for a reasonable cost. Cost is also a major issue when it comes to the decision to automate a manual process. In Asia and in particular Thailand the labor costs are relatively low compared to the price of international software licenses. Therefore the integration of software applications is driven by the customer requirements, and the customer facing solutions are being computerized and integrated while the internal processes still rely on manual processes and copying and recopying original paperwork and entering into the system and cross checking the outputs from previous systems. The recommendation is to expand the research from logistics software to logisticsinformationsystems (LIS)
Above the network infrastructure layer is the data storage layer, which stores various data used for querying, policy information or private data belonging to small and medium enterprises. At present, there are many kinds of manual data collection technology in the logistics indus- try like bar code technology, magnetic, radio frequency identification technology (RFID), EPC system (Elec- tronic Product Code), etc. As there is no common stan- dard for all enterprises to follow, the encoding code and data format for the same object maybe different between logisticsinformationsystems, due to the backward of logisticsinformation collection. The data storage layer needs to have strong data format compatibility, and sup- port not only common data format such as text file for- mat, database format, xml formats, but also extended data format. Since the data sources on public information platform is very complex and often be required to inter- act with each other to get necessary information, how to extract information from different data sources and en- sure the data consistency and accuracy becomes an ur- gent problem. To solve this problem, current data inte- gration software is being used to ensure the relevance of heterogeneous data sources, and ETL tools (data stage, quality stage etc.) is used to do necessary data extraction and cleansing. In short, this level’s implementation
Combining this context information with process informa- tion, the doctor can be provided with relevant patient records according to his location. For example, if patient Henry Jonson is in Room 301 and the doctor enters the room, he automatically gets the patient record of Henry Jonson (e.g., on his tablet). The granularity level of the patient record depends on the user’s role and the current process step, i.e., only parts of the patient record are provided which are necessary for the doctor when examining a patient. Use Case 2. Our second use case is based on the third process step of our clinical process, i.e., the prescription of drugs. This process step is highly knowledge-intensive (due to questions like which disease has the patient and which treatment should he get) and includes, among others tasks, the interpretation of symptoms (e.g., excessive thirst, tired- ness), the determination of diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus type 2), and the identification of treatment options (e.g., physical activity, balanced diet, prescription of drugs).
According to Davidson and Kowalczyk (1997, p.1): “Logistics is the process of managing the flow and storage of materials and information across the entire or- ganization with the aim to provide the best customer service in the shortest time at the lowest cost.” This definition highlights that logistics has to provide solutions for resource planning and transport in the broadest sense. Examples of logistic problems include fleet management, order management, route planning, scheduling and cargo management. Most of these problems have in common that they are very difficult to solve (e.g. NP-hard) and therefore no fast algorithms exist, which can deliver optimal solutions in complex real-world situations. In the following some of the most important characteristics will be discussed in more detail (cf. Davidson and Kowalczyk 1997, Perugini et al. 2003):
was shown a table that outlined typical IT jobs and their salaries. I could do a three year degree, get a few years of experience and earn close to $100k; I wanted in. I understood the theory of coding but wasn’t great at applying that theory. My passion is people. InformationSystems gave me the best of both worlds. My dad’s advice: Every job in the world will work with money, people and/or technology. Make sure you tick as many of those boxes as you can; you’ll be marketable that way. With my father’s advice in mind, I opted for the Bachelor of Commerce and Administration majoring in Management and InformationSystems. This combination opened many doors and options. I loved tutoring at the School of Information Management (SIM). I really enjoyed teaching others and igniting potential. Helping students excel and find passion was an indescribable feeling. SIM is a fairly young school at Victoria so it was flexible in its tutoring approach and was very supportive of all students. I loaded my degree with the InformationSystems papers that focused on the people side of systems. I took a Successful Systems Implementation course and my world changed. I wanted to be an Organisational Change Manager (OCM). In 2006, OCM was non-existent in New Zealand, so I used the Business Analyst role as a stepping stone into OCM. After three years at Contact Energy I became a certified Business Analyst and a certified OCM practitioner.
As countries continue to expand health programs and strengthen the supply chains that support them, there is an increased need for user-friendly tools and software packages to support the timely and accurate collection and reporting of logistics management information. This information can be used for operational decisionmaking, advocacy, and resource mobilization. Automation of a logistics management information system (LMIS) can greatly facilitate the work of supply chain managers by enabling faster collection, transmission, and aggregation of data; by reducing human error in calcula tions; and by allowing for visibility of data up and down the supply chain. Reducing the time re quired for data collection, transmission, and aggregation results in data being available more quickly for timely decisions and actions to help ensure products are available where and when needed. Software development and, more speciﬁcally, the automation of an LMIS can and should follow project management and information technology (IT) best practices. These guidelines were written for managers in the Ministry of Health, program managers, donors, and MIS program ofﬁ cers as a reference when considering starting an LMIS automation project, planning for one, and execut ing that plan. By having a common reference to draw on, the authors hope the different managers who are involved in critical decisions of an automation project will understand the steps required to develop a robust IT solution and their role in supporting it.
• Research Question 4: How can the relevance of process information for a spe- cific business process and its process tasks be determined? The relevance of process information can be identified based on the proposed algorithms. In practice, for example, there exist many specific review templates for review processes. Depend- ing on the concrete process, therefore, specific review templates are relevant and hence need to be delivered to the process participants. In POIL, the SIN provides the basis for this task. However, specific techniques and algorithms are needed to determine relevant process information; i.e., currently needed information objects in a SIN dependent on the work context. The reason for this is that the SIN just identifies objects linked to each other for some reasons, but does not consider additional influence factors. We introduced algorithms for identifying relevant in- formation objects in a SIN. The first one (i.e., the SIN LP) determines the link popularity of information objects based on the relationship structure of a SIN (cf. Section 5.5.1). The second one (i.e., the SIN RP) calculates the rate popularity of information objects based on user ratings (cf. Section 5.5.2). Note that these algorithms may be used independently, but also in combination with each other. • Research Question 5: How can process information, business processes, and
(CPS) or other kind of sensor networks make it necessary to process a large amount of data on- time. Thus, we have to cope with an increasing amount of heterogeneous data, leading to the term Big Data. There is no common definition of this term but Gartner proposed its 3V’s model to describe todays situation in information society : Increasing data volumes demand for new storage and analysis technologies. The variety of data makes it hard to transform those into decision supporting information. Last but not least informationsystems today have to cope with the velocity of data input and output. Bonnie  stated that healthcare data will explode from 500 petabytes in 2012 up to 25.000 petabytes in 2016, also forced by the extensive usage of IP- based devices. Remote monitoring and the documentation of health related data will become easier. BITKOM confirms an annual growth of data of around 40-50 % . Frost& Sullivan currently estimated an amount of 1 billion terabytes of health related data within hospitals and forecasted an amount of 1.8 zetabytes in the following years . The expansion rate for Big Data is assumed to be up to 36 % and there is a recognizable chance to positively affect the cost efficiency within the health care sector by integrating and processing different kinds of data . It is expected that the market for Big Data solution will increase from currently € 198 million up to € 1.6 billion in 2016.
Reverse Logistics (RL) is the process by which products are returned from consumers or customer service centers for the purpose of gaining their value or planning for their proper disposal. The RL process is inherently a value added activity in which the values of previously shipped parts, materials, and products are recaptured. The RL system should be accomplished systematically and efficiently for the RL operations to be effective. The RL operations, therefore, add significantly to the value chain by considering the reverse flow that is capable of adding value to the products and generating a competitive advantage for companies.
“The major players should include all the service providers who help the cargoes move.”
These players include the customs agents, inland transport operators, cargo warehouse operators and government authorities which deal with customs and port governing.
When interviewees were asked who can be the integrator in the maritime logistics chain, some of them indicated that the shipping carriers are more competent than port operators as they are mobile, while others claim freight forwarders could be the integrator as they provide a wider range of services. Some interviewees pointed out that the government sector has public authority and more resources to be the integrator. It is worth noting that interviewees suggested that each major player has their strength to integrate other resources in their own specific area. For instance, shipping carriers could integrate the container transport and terminal operation, freight forwarders could integrate cargo flows, and port operators could integrate inland resources as well as the government authorities:
As stated by Ruiz-Torres et al. (2012) logistics problems in Latin America are abundant and complex, however “Latin America is now a large potential market” (Blanco and Paiva, 2014). Therefore, it is important to identify logisticssystems that have been successful in the region. One of the key elements in the success of global companies running operations in Latin America is the development of a specific local approach when designing and executing their logistics (Branco et al., 2014). To do this, local and global companies need human resources with high logistics knowledge and competences when designing the “local footprint” in best practices that have been proven in developed markets. This would be the first step in the design of logisticssystems that respond directly to the local reality. Thus, local logistics knowledge management is already critical to succeed.
Global support for immunization, catalysed by the formation of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) in 1999, has been increasing over the years. But without a corresponding attention to strengthening CCL systems, the concentrated effort to accelerate new vaccine introduction will be threatened. Fortunately, their importance for new vaccine introduction has been recognised in the requirement that GAVI-supported countries undertake vaccine management assessments every 2-3 years. The GAVI support for Hib and hepatitis B vaccines placed increased burdens on CCL systems and highlighted the critical need for effective vaccine management. The use of combination vaccines reduced the additional burdens from these vaccines, but this option may not be available for other new vaccines. The current packaging for pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines means that, there will be at least a 3-fold increase in storage requirements for each vaccine. Other new vaccines, including a vaccine for pandemic influenza will create additional challenges.
The ims 295 inkjet systems are ideally coordinated for use on fully automatic wire processing machines in the Kappa, Alpha, Gamma and Zeta series. They have an Ethernet interface (TCP/IP) and an RS232 interface and are compatible with future, current and earlier machines. With the leadset editor of the machine control, the marking text, the font and the (marking) position can be easily defined.
The combination of previous research of LIS and the emerging trend in IS provided an ex- cellent framework to build this research. However, the do not in them selves provide a theoretical framework for analysis. To ensure that this current research does not provide another ‘‘snapshot’’ set of ﬁndings, a key element of LIS adoption was the timing of the adoption of the technologies and that impact. While most of the previous studies identify some timing issues, the diﬀusion rate of these technologies is an important point. Rodgers (1995) provides an excellent framework to identify the early verse the late adopters and the impacts of diﬀerent timing. He identiﬁes that (1) early adopters will diﬀer from late adopters, (2) the perceived attributes of an innovation will aﬀect its rate of adoption, and (3) that critical factors must be in-place to create the ‘‘S-shaped’’ curve. These points present an excellent framework to test the impacts of imple- mentation of the various LIS, ERP, EC and other IS factors on various logistics areas including integration.
Consumers demand a food supply where food safety can be documented and tracked during every stage of pro- duction, processing, distribution, and service. Folinas , Regattieri , and Wu et al.  claimed that due to the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, traceability has become an essential tool for food safety, quality, and tracking within the meat supply chain. Moreover, product quality improvement, need for healthy consumption, reducing risk rate and liability, and brand name protection are among the most common driving forces for traceability system implementation . From a legislative point of view, Engelseth  stated that the European Union General Food Law of 2005 required that food and feed business operators iden- tify the immediate supplier of the product in question and the immediate subsequent recipient, which has in- creased the demand for tractability systems in the foodservice industry.