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Economic Behaviors of Virginia Tobacco Farmers Households in Facing Farming Risks in Lombok Island, Indonesia

Economic Behaviors of Virginia Tobacco Farmers Households in Facing Farming Risks in Lombok Island, Indonesia

Several things that motivate farmers to be the risk taker are: (1) There is no other crops, which can generate high income, to replace tobacco in the dry season. Several crops that have been tried to be planted in Lombok island are soybean, corn, small chilli, big chilli, tomatoes, watermelon, melon; and paddy in some areas. However, when viewed from the cost of farming in the tobacco season, such as land rent, water charges, and the cost of labors; that the farming production of several commodities such as rice, soybean, and corn can not cover the farming cost. The potential crops to replace tobacco are melon, watermelon and chilli; but its market uptake is limited and the uncertainity of the price that often goes down during the dry season. This causes farmers to rarely willing to cultivate these plants. (2) There is a trust from the society to tobacco farmers, for example if the farmers need loan for tobacco farming, they will get it faster than another type of corps; and (3) There are cultures heritages in the tobacco farmers that said “When the needle falls in a deep well, then do not try find it in other wells”. This quote means that if the farmers suffer heavy loss in farming certain crop, then for recovering the loss, they should get it from farming crop not from farming other crops. The socio-heritage aspects, even though they are difficult to quantify, seem to motivate farmers to do tobacco farming. 3.2. The Impact of Farmer Behaviors in Facing the Risk
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Working Hour Alllocation Strategy In Lobster Grow-Out Farming In Lombok Island

Working Hour Alllocation Strategy In Lobster Grow-Out Farming In Lombok Island

In the beginning of Minister Regulation No.1/2015 implemented on 7 January 2015, activities in lobster farming were proven has contributed for economic improvement and widely opened for people in coastal area, mainly located in Lombok Island. Unlimited demand endorsed lobster business as a profitable fishing enterprise. Increasing global demand, a high market value, and sustainability concern of wild stocks have created significant interest in spiny lobster aquaculture development (Radford & Marsden, 2005; Simon & James, 2007). Aquaculture and enhancement were come up as a commercially viable alternative to increase global supply of lobsters. Aquaculture offer tremendous economic growth opportunities to provide jobs and income for millions of coastal households and they have potential foreign revenue investments. The strong market for lobsters and farmers succeed to grow-out lobster indicated that lobster aquaculture will generate a profitable business opportunity in coastal communities where puerulus and juvenille lobsters can be found. Lobster farming was easily conducted by the relative poverty by practicing households with the subsistence nature activity and also reliance on predominantly family labor utility in various income sources and created family forming on capital.
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Factors Affecting the Decision of Farmers to Use Panulirus ornatus sp Seeds in Lombok Island, Indonesia

Factors Affecting the Decision of Farmers to Use Panulirus ornatus sp Seeds in Lombok Island, Indonesia

Abstract: Lobster is a fishery commodity with high economic value and potential to be developed in Indonesia. One of the lobster producing regions in Indonesia is Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara Province. There are two species, Panulirus ornatus sp and Panulirus homarus sp which are commonly cultivated by farmers. Although specifically Panulirus ornatus sp has several advantages compared to Panulirus homarus sp, this species is relatively less cultivated by farmers. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence the decision making of farmers to use Panulirus ornatus sp seeds in lobster farming business in Lombok Island. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression models. The results of this study conclude that the factors that significantly influence the decision of farmers to use Panulirus ornatus sp seeds are farmer’s business experience, access to credit and access to seeds. Factor of lenght time of lobster farming has significant negative effect on farmer’s decision to use Panulirus ornatus sp seeds. While the factors of age, education, number of family members and cage area did not significantly influence the decision of farmers in using Panulirus ornatus sp seeds.
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E-Marketing as a Business Advantage for Improving Smes Competitiveness in Lombok Island - Indonesia

E-Marketing as a Business Advantage for Improving Smes Competitiveness in Lombok Island - Indonesia

The success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is the availability of a clear market for the products. Meanwhile, the fundamental weaknesses faced by SMEs in marketing are low market orientation, weakness in a complex and sharp competition and inadequate marketing infrastructure. Faced with an increasingly open market mechanisms and competitive, market control is prerequisite for improving competitiveness. Therefore, expansion of market access with Web-based Information Technology is now needed as a medium for global communication. One thing that gives a competitive advantage in international trade competition is information technology of electronic marketing or e-marketing. This paper intend to shows the important role of e- marketing for SMEs in Lombok Island - Indonesia and how to develop the model of e-marketing.
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Local Community Participation in Protection Area of Water Resources Conservation in the Rinjani Forest Management Unit (Fmu) of Rinjani Barat, Lombok Island

Local Community Participation in Protection Area of Water Resources Conservation in the Rinjani Forest Management Unit (Fmu) of Rinjani Barat, Lombok Island

Conservation of water resources in the Rinjani Barat KPHL area is not only the duty of the government, but also the responsibility of all components of the community. In fact, the success of sustainable forest management so far is not determined by the large amount of funds allocated for these activities, but is strongly influenced by community involvement and participation [35][36][37][38]. Based on this description, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive study on "Local Community Participation in Protecting Water Resources Conservation Areas in the Protected Forest Management Unit (KPHL) of West Rinjani, Lombok Island". The objectives of this study are: (1) to examine the participation of local communities in water resources conservation, (2) analyze the determinants of local community participation in water resources conservation, and (3) formulate a participatory water resource conservation model in the Rinjani Barat KPHL area.
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The Formulation of Student Social Interaction Model at Halal Tourism Area on Lombok Island

The Formulation of Student Social Interaction Model at Halal Tourism Area on Lombok Island

This study aims to formulate a model of student social interaction, especially junior high school students at the halal tourism area on the Lombok island.The method used is mixed method with data collection conducted by purposive sampling technique and Analitycal Hierarchy Process (AHP). The result and discussion of alternative policy of social interaction development in Lombok island, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia are: (1) Increasing parent role of student. (2) Strengthening the role of ulama / community leaders. (3) Teachers instil positive social interaction of students through school and laity programs. (4) The government has an important role in facilitating the parents, teachers and ulama / community leaders in developing positive social interaction of students, so that social conflicts that can cause dispute in Lombok society can be avoided.
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Antibacterial Assay and Alkaloid Lombine Distribution Study of Voacanga foetida (B.I) Rolfe from Lombok Island

Antibacterial Assay and Alkaloid Lombine Distribution Study of Voacanga foetida (B.I) Rolfe from Lombok Island

Lombine, the newly isolated alkaloid was isolated from the barks parts of V. foetida by Hadi et al., (2002) and found to effectively inhibit E. coli and S. aureus from the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. Therefore, lombine is a potent material for a new lead compound of new antibiotic development. Nevertheless, the existence of lombine in the barks was unstable. Hadi et al., (2002) found lombine as a major compound in the barks of V. foetida from Kekait village, West Lombok. However, a follow-up identification from different cultivated location showed no presence of lombine. Hence, this research intends to explore the distribution of the lombine by identifying the presence of lombine in the leaves and the barks of V. foetida collected from three different areas of Lombok Island.
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Growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) adapted to lowland  Lombok Island as an alternative food crop for dryland

Growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) adapted to lowland Lombok Island as an alternative food crop for dryland

Abstract: Wheat is not currently grown as a commercial crop in Indonesia, however since the consumption of wheat in Indonesia is steadily increasing and alternative of dry season crops are required for farming system diversification, wheat becomes an important crop to be adapted in dry land areas of Indonesia, one of them is dry land area of Lombok Island. The aims of this experiment is to adapt and screen wheat varieties including national and introduced Australian varieties in lowland Lombok Island. In future, wheat is expected to be an alternative crop for degraded lands. The experimental method used to evaluate growth and yield of 10 wheat varieties to look at the adaptability on the lowland of 200 m asl (Pringgarata) and on higher land of 400 m asl (Aik Bukak). The results showed that at a lower altitude (Pringgarata), wheat growth is slower than in Aik Bukak, which can be caused by the temperature at 200 m asl has exceeded the tolerance limit for grain growth (supra optimal temperature). Wheat can give good yields on 400 m asl, but the yield is decreased at 200 m asl (average 1.68 t/ha vs 0.82 t/ha). This low yield is mainly due to sterility indicated by the low number of grain/spikelet (<2 grain/spikelet). There is genetic variation of wheat crop responses adapted to the lowlands. Nias, Dewata, Mace and Estoc give good yields (> 2 t/ha ), higher than other varieties .
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FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE IN KAKONG COMMUNITY: A Study in Lombok Island

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE IN KAKONG COMMUNITY: A Study in Lombok Island

The study was conducted in Kakong Village, a small village in Gangga district of North Lombok, with the total population over thirty hundred people. In daily life, most of the Kakong community work as farmers, but some of them work as civil servants such as teachers or nurses. The researcher of this study is a member of Kakong Community thus she has good access to do her research. Besides, she also has the good understanding about language being used there.

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Measuring Literary Sides of Tuan Guru Abdul Madjid’s Creative Work Wasiat Renungan Masa Pengalaman Baru: A Study on the Most Influential Spiritual Leader of Lombok Island

Measuring Literary Sides of Tuan Guru Abdul Madjid’s Creative Work Wasiat Renungan Masa Pengalaman Baru: A Study on the Most Influential Spiritual Leader of Lombok Island

This paper is intended to discuss how far literary side of Mualana Syekh TGKH Muhammad Zainul Abdul Madjid‟s work, from Pancor, East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara province entitled “Wasiat Renungan Masa Pengalaman Baru” (Advice of New Experience Era Contemplation). Maulana Syekh TGKH Muhammad Zainul Abdul Madjid is the Indonesian national hero and the most influential spiritual leader from Lombok. He is also known as a literary writer. Specifically, this paper tries to evaluate proper or not this work to be categorized as a literary work particularly in sense of its form and content. The discussion of this work is important since it has become one of the main references by Nahdhatul Wathan‟s followers, an Islamic organization developing largely in Lombok and West Nusa Tenggara Province. The discussion of this work is hoped then as a way to know further the uniqueness of the work so anything comes up from the work able to be a representation of Indonesians or Malayans‟ identity from West Nusa Tenggara. Therefore, this paper more or less can show how big the writer is in sense of being an inspirator for all Sasak people and West Nusa Tenggara people. In this regard, this paper tries to analyze literary sides of the work by using a simple logic from structuralism theory especially initialized by American structuralists in the New Criticism School.
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The Effect of Tourism Development on Land Conversion in East Lombok Regency

The Effect of Tourism Development on Land Conversion in East Lombok Regency

Basically, land conversion certainly will have an impact on existing balance.as mentioned by Dedi Hermon that, the conversion of forest, agricultural land, and bush for the sake of economic improvement leads to an icrease GHG concentration improvement. An increase in green house gas cocentration will directly affect on global warming and climate change. Glenn Kreag stated that the impact will be in manifested in economic impact, socio-cultural impact and environmental impact.He added that not only negative impact, but land conversion can also have positive impact. There are 13 coastal tourism objects in East Lombok. Other than coastal tourism, East lombok also presents mountain tourism destination for example Rinjani moutain, a second highest eruptive mountain in Indonesia, cultural tourism, and other various tourism destinations (Armin Subhani, 2010).Agricultural products are potential to be processed into local food which will support the development of local tourism. Now, there are some local food to be realized in some areas in Lombok Island (Zainuri).Tourism is an industrial and service sector that relies on services, including nonphysical service such as hospitality of local people and physical services such as adequate infrastructure, transportation and accomodation (airport,ship, bus, taxibike, road access and others), inn, accessibility, and basic things like security procedure,eligible oxygen tube for diving, and swimming vest for shipping and others.
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A Study on Sasak’s Local Wisdom in Supporting Tourism Development in Central Lombok Regency

A Study on Sasak’s Local Wisdom in Supporting Tourism Development in Central Lombok Regency

Since a long time ago culture has been playing an important role in forming spatial structure of a settlement. Spatial structure of a settlement could be represented by other cultural perspective such as the implementation of religious rituals and ceremonies. The events are regularly performed but the space used is not solely for ritual only that the structure appears temporal. People of Sasak in Lombok Island are very dependent on culture in organizing their residential space, life cycle, and various religious events (Sasongko, 2005). Sade Village is a tourist attraction that realizes the benchmark of the cultured village in order to implement vission and mission that have been designed by parties involved in the making of the tourist attraction.
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Model of Agricultural Land Use Change and Effects on Social Economy Condition of Local in East Lombok Regency

Model of Agricultural Land Use Change and Effects on Social Economy Condition of Local in East Lombok Regency

East Lombok is the one of the regencies located in the administrative area of West Nusa Tenggara Province. Located in the eastern part of Lombok Island with an astronomical position on 116°-117° BT dan 8°- 9° LS. East Lombok Regency has long coastline, north of Java Sea in the north, Alas Strait in the east, Indonesia Ocean in the south, Central Lombok Regency and North Lombok Regency in the west. As an area directly adjacent to the waters, East Lombok has a number of small islands called Gili. Based on data from the Department of Marine and Fisheries of East Lombok Regency, there are 35 gili in the waters of East Lombok, 5 among other are Gili Beleq, Gili Bidara, Gili Maringkik, Gili Ree and Gili Sunut are already inhabited. Compared to other regencies / cities in Lombok Island, East Lombok is the largest district with 1,605.55 km², equivalent to 33.88 percent of the total area of Lombok Island reaching 4,738.7 km 2 (Badan
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Land Characteristics Study as Halal Tourism Destination Supporting Factors at Benang Kelambu Waterfall in Central Lombok Regency of West Nusa Tenggara Province

Land Characteristics Study as Halal Tourism Destination Supporting Factors at Benang Kelambu Waterfall in Central Lombok Regency of West Nusa Tenggara Province

Indonesia’s history and dynamic ethnic diversity and its 719 local language in those islands. Prambanan Temple, Borobudur Temple, Toraja, Yogyakarta, Minangkabau and Bali are some of cultural tourism destinations in Indonesia. Until 2010, there were 7 locations in Indonesia which include in UNESCO World Heritage Sites list. Meanwhile, other 4 representatives were also included in UNESCO Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, namely wayang, keris, batik and angklung. Benang Kelambu Waterfall, as one of most beautiful waterfalls in Lombok Island which is located at Dusun Pemotoh, Air Berik Village, Batukeliang Utara District, Central Lombok Regency of West Nusa Tenggara Province. It is the upstream of Benang Stokel Waterfall. This waterfall is flowing out of the sidelines of shady grambung trees with six rows of water points gushing from the top of a hill that similar to a mosquito net or a curtain. That is why this waterfall is named after Benang Kelambu (mosquito net) (Hermon, 2017; Hermon et al., 2017).
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PEARL BUSINESS IN INCREASING PROSPERITY OF PEARL CRAFTSMEN IN SEKARBELA AREA OF KARANG PULE MATARAM CITY, PROVINCE OF WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

PEARL BUSINESS IN INCREASING PROSPERITY OF PEARL CRAFTSMEN IN SEKARBELA AREA OF KARANG PULE MATARAM CITY, PROVINCE OF WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA

Seeing a lucrative business opportunity, now many regions are trying to develop a welfare level as pearl craftsmen in Lombok Island of West Nusa Tenggara, one of them is in Sekarbela of Karang Pule District of Mataram city that is 4 km from the city center. Sekarbela environment in Karang Pule village has the biggest household of handicraft industry compared to the other areas that are only 584 households specializing in the craft industry of gold and pearl because it has economic value and promising business. The existence of the pearl industry will also drive the other industrial sectors in Sekarbela that will spur growth and the wheels of the economy in this area.
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School Adaptation Character Development Policy to Support Halal Tour in East Lombok Regency (Case Study at Senior High School in East Lombok Regency)

School Adaptation Character Development Policy to Support Halal Tour in East Lombok Regency (Case Study at Senior High School in East Lombok Regency)

Along with the development of tourism in Indonesia, one of them is East Lombok Regency located in West Nusa Tenggara Province with the Mataram as the capital of the province. The tourism sector is one of the industrial and service sectors that are currently experiencing growth rapidly. The island of Lombok tourism activity has been known since 1990. Generally, tourism in Lombok still not developed when compared with tourism in Bali which is a barometer of tourism in Indonesia according to Kanom (2015). According to Kusmawan (2013) the beauty of NTB's natural scenery is not less interesting with Bali, such as Gili Indah (Gili Meno, Gili Air and Gili Trawangan), while the island of Bali has been known as a tourist area since 1986 according to Dahles and Bras (1999) in Kurniawan (2016). In addition to the extraordinary natural beauty of Lombok Island is also known as the island of a thousand mosques, wherein every village there are mosques, according to Sulhaini (2017) with the majority of the population is Muslim. Social life is very thick with Islamic nuances, show a very friendly and friendly character.
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ANALYSIS OF BALE MEDIASI IN SETTLEMENT OF SOCIAL CONFLICT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ANALYSIS OF BALE MEDIASI IN SETTLEMENT OF SOCIAL CONFLICT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT

From the analysis of the effectiveness of Bale Mediasi analysis in resolving social conflicts, it can be seen that Bale Mediasi both in Sintung Village, Pringgarata District and Aiq Dareq Village, Batuklian Subdistrict, Central Lombok Regency have clearly made mediation efforts in resolving social conflicts. This conclusion was obtained after analyzing the 7 (seven) dimensions of effectiveness according to James L. Gibson, but the handling of social conflicts conducted by Bale Mediasi cannot be said to be optimal or effective with several arguments that can be stated as follows: 1. Clarity of purpose; Bale Mediasi does
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The conservation status of the Cook Strait Click Beetle, Amychus granulatus (Broun) (Coleoptera: Elateridae): with comments on other threatened insects of the Marlborough Sounds

The conservation status of the Cook Strait Click Beetle, Amychus granulatus (Broun) (Coleoptera: Elateridae): with comments on other threatened insects of the Marlborough Sounds

granulatus to have been present in recent times on North Brother Island, Stephens Island, Middle Trio Island, Maud Island and Sentinel Rock. A further, unconfirmed re[r]

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Climate and climate change in the sub Antarctic

Climate and climate change in the sub Antarctic

Despite its importance as part of the global climate system, and the sensitivity of many of its biological systems to climate change, there is remarkably little published information on either climate or climate change in the sub-Antarctic. Much of the limited discussion that is available in the literature appears to represent the sub-Antarctic through reference to the climate at individual locations; figure 1 shows most of the stations and geographical features referred to here. Smith (2002), for example, discussed climate change in the sub-Antarctic using recent changes on Marion Island as an illustration, while Whinam & Copson (2006) used Macquarie Island as their reference point. These two papers also have climate change impacts on biota as the underlying reason for presentation of the work, which may reflect a dearth of purely meteorologically- based discussion on climate and climate change in the sub-Antarctic. Even the largely meteorological paper ofRouault etal. (2005) is mostly confined to considering climate changes evident around Marion Island. There is some discussion of Antarctic climate that has some relevance to the sub-Antarctic; for example Turn er & Pendlebury (2004 ) reported on climate and weather forecasting aspects at various stations in the sub-Antarctic though their focus is on the Antarctic itself.
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Geomorphic Contrasts between Natural and Human-Altered Barrier Islands: Outer Banks, North Carolina.

Geomorphic Contrasts between Natural and Human-Altered Barrier Islands: Outer Banks, North Carolina.

coastal geomorphic features based on their physical and/or dynamical characteristics. Price (1951) and Shepard (1950) argued for disambiguation and a standardized nomenclature specific to the barrier island system, with particular emphasis on removing the reference to barrier islands as offshore bars—a moniker promulgated by Johnson (per Davis (1994)) some 50 years earlier. More detailed geomorphological and geological barrier island investigations would emerge from the scientific community in the 1960s, first notably with Davies (1964) barrier island classifications. Davies was the first to characterize barrier plan morphology based on tidal range (e.g., micro-tidal, meso–tidal), and reference wave and tidally dominated island systems. John Hoyt (Hoyt, 1967) refined Davies‘ tidal classifications, and conducted studies directed at island formation and evolution. Hoyt‘s work was focused along the Georgia coast. He concluded that the Georgia barriers likely formed, as McGee had earlier postulated, as a result of in-place beach ridge drowning and detachment. He based this conclusion on the lack of marine sediments found landward of the present-day islands. Other research carried out along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico also found evidence that barrier islands here were formed at or near their current positions, and little or no subsequent movement has occurred since inception (Davis and Kuhn, 1985),(Otvos, 1970). Evidence presented in other studies, however, points to a sea-level low stand, distal continental shelf origin, with subsequent landward migration in accord with later Holocene sea level rise (Swift, 1975),(Field and Duane, 1976),(Dolan et al., 1980a),(Nummedal, 1983),(Riggs et al., 2011). It is likely that no one single mechanism is responsible for all barrier island development (Schwartz, 1971),(Field and Duane, 1976),(Nummedal, 1983),(Davis, 1994). de Beaumont‘s vertical accretion theory, for instance, while considered an insignificant means of barrier island genesis (Pierce and Colquhoun, 1970),(Field and Duane, 1976),(Davis, 1994) may have played a role in the re-emergence some 500 years ago of a portion of North Carolina‘s Outer Banks. Further, there are recent and modern examples of barrier island construction via accretionary spit extension. Barrier islands along the Texas Gulf Coast have formed from the erosion and lateral redistribution of abandoned delta forelands associated with the antecedents of the modern Trinity Brazos, Colorado, and Rio Grande Rivers (Nummedal, 1983),(Morton, 1979). Moreover, Nummedal (1983) describes a similar process currently underway in the barrier islands associated with relic and the active Mississippi River delta complex. Likely then, barrier island systems owe their existence to multiple formation pathways.
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