Archiving and sharing data for future use is a key requirement to enable reproducibility of scientific research [6, 23, 25, 26]. In recent years, the use of large-scale datasets for research has increased with the emergence of the Web and social media [14, 29, 36]. Despite the increasing interest in sharing social media datasets [33, 38], there is also concern about the persistence of these data . The long-term persistence of datasets can be impeded by different circumstances. One reason is that some datasets become unavailable short after publication due to the lack of stability of the hosting servers ; proper use of data repositories such as Figshare.com and Dataverse.org can help mitigate this issue . Another important reason is that datasets gathered from third party services, such as social media data [7, 10, 11, 19], cannot always be shared in its final form owing to restrictions in the terms and conditions of the data provider. To circumvent these restrictions, researchers can share unique identifiers of individual posts, which then enable recollection of the data, as is the case with Twitter; recollecting social media datasets from unique identifiers, however, leads to the collection of a dataset that differs from the original, as part of the data may no longer be available [18, 41], e.g. because user accounts may have been deleted or suspended . Moreover, the metadata of social media posts can also change over time as their authors update their profile, their number of followers or friends keeps changing and/or the number of shares/likes of posts is altered . Consequently, the dataset collected from a publicly shared list of unique identifiers such as tweet IDs will often lead to a subset of the original dataset, with the additional caveat that the metadata of the collected posts may have changed. However, the researcher recollecting the dataset cannot estimate the extent to which the recollected dataset resembles the data compiled by the original authors; this study makes a longitudinal assessment of the degree to which datasets recollected from tweet IDs resemble original datasets.
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deﬁned and homogeneous study group and for exclusion of interference from galactosemic variants, the required in- clusion criteria were (1) previous clini- cal assessment of IQ by Schweitzer et al by using tests that allow comparison with recent German IQ test versions (cf considerations below), (2) absence of acute or chronic illnesses other than galactosemia, (3) no problems with Ger- man as native language, (4) GALT deﬁ- ciency characteristic of classical galac- tosemia (ie, GALT activity ⬍ 0.35 mol/L red blood cells [RBCs]), (5) evidence of good compliance with the lactose- restricted diet, and (6) written informed consent.
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Review of literature has clearly illustrated the importance of nutritional status assessment, mechanisms of both under and over nutrition and its effect on overall health of cancer survivors. Both underweight and overweight in children with cancer is not desirable. Optimum nutritional status is required to cope with the demands of the disease and its long term treatment effects. Nutrition thus becomes one of the fundamental parts of care of children with cancer and should be recognised as crucial step in cancer treatment. Appropriate and adequate nutrition is needed to maintain optimal growth and development. This will in-turn enhance the survival out-come, decrease the toxicity and improve the quality of life in these children.
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This study offers important insights into the longitudinal shifts in organisational culture experienced by a Hong Kong public hospital during the hospital accreditation process. Overall, we documented positive shifts toward group and developmental culture and away from hierarch- ical culture through implementation of accreditation stan- dards. However, the encouraging cultural shifts were not enduring at the aggregate level beyond the accreditation process. Sustained efforts to maintain culture change are necessary for lasting impact. Recent awareness of the rela- tionship between organisational culture and health care quality has inspired some to invest in quality improve- ment initiatives in which fostering organisational culture change is the primary intervention [3, 40]. Such initiatives utilise approaches based on the diffusion of innovation theory to promote organisational cultures associated with high-performing hospitals, with the ultimate goal of im- proving patient outcomes . Our findings can provide helpful insights into influencing hospital organisational
Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the connective tissue attachment and supporting bone around the teeth. A number of possible pathogens have been detected on the basis of their association with disease progression and also because of their possession of virulence factors which can damage the tissues. Attempts to relate microbiological data to clinical events have proved clinical diagnostic methods. “Periodontal diagnosis” is an important tag that a clinician ties on the periodontal disease condition of the patient, capturing all his past experience with the condition in question. Currently, the clinical parameters that are used to diagnose active periodontitis exhibit poor accuracy and reliability. Modern in-office diagnostic methods are clinical parameters of destructive periodontal disease such as longitudinal assessment of adiographic bone loss, bleeding on probing, suppuration, plaque scores, tooth mobility and patient reports of pain to detect disease. This review is an attempt to summarize the current status of chair side diagnostic tests in the field of periodontology. For that last
Differentiating between the effects of biological ageing and reproductive ageing on mood and depressive symp- toms is most accurately captured using longitudinal assessment with repeated measures. Inconsistency in definitions and methodology used between, and even within, these studies highlights the need to apply stan- dardised definitions and assessment tools. The STRAW criteria used in a majority of the studies described here was the gold standard staging system at the time. The updated STRAW + 10 system was developed based on our understanding of documented changes in men- strual, endocrine, and ovarian markers of reproductive aging [9, 16, 17]. Given the importance of the FMP in any examination of the climacteric, it would be beneficial for researchers to include specific informa- tion about this event in publications. Not only can it serve as a consistent frame of reference for repro- ductive age, but also as a means for comparing large data sets and conducting metanalyses regardless of the definition of menopausal status being used.
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Background: Adverse respiratory effects of particulate air pollution have been identified by epidemiological studies. We aimed to examine the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution from wood burning on school-age students in Christchurch, New Zealand, and to explore the utility of urine and exhaled breath condensate biomarkers of exposure in this population. Methods: A panel study of 93 male students (26 with asthma) living in the boarding house of a metropolitan school was undertaken in the winter of 2004. Indoor and outdoor pollution data was continuously monitored. Longitudinal assessment of lung function (FEV 1 and peak flow) and symptoms were undertaken, with event studies of high pollution on biomarkers of exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene) and effect (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration).
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Both scoring categories and item concepts were well- defined for the educator and average student ability ascended with the category score as shown by the monotonical progression of Andrich thresholds. The most difficult items on which to score highly were those relating to clinical reasoning and the easiest items re- lated to professional behaviour. These findings were similar to the results of other researchers [21, 30] who observed professional items to be scored highest, whilst problem-solving and clinical reasoning items were low- est on clinical placement assessments. The hierarchy of item difficulty was consistent between simulation assess- ment formats (short-form and longitudinal) with the ex- ception of two items. Item 8 ‘ selects and measures relevant health indicators and outcomes’ was scored sig- nificantly higher in the short-form assessment compared to longitudinal simulation assessments, particularly in the 1 week longitudinal format. Item 6 ‘demonstrates clear and accurate documentation’ was scored higher in the short-form assessment compared to the longitudinal formats. Item 6 was a misfit in Dalton et al. data , but we found this item demonstrated appropriate fit for both longitudinal assessment formats (longitudinal 1 week infit/outfit 0.99/0.90 mnsq; longitudinal 2 weeks infit/outfit 1.07/1.18 mnsq, Table 1). Additionally, items
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The study sample size is relatively small and the results are therefore mainly hypothesis generating. In this study, we also excluded patients who were unstable post PPCI (higher Killip class, not able to lie ﬂat because of short- ness of breath and use of invasive monitoring). These patients are more likely to represent a higher risk group with more adverse prognosis. In our study population, the majority of patients with MVO had IMH and only one patient with MVO had no IMH. Hence, it was not pos- sible to investigate whether there remains an incremental value of using averaged-MAPSE for the detection of IMH. Additionally, the absolute measure of MAPSE does not take the total length of the LV into account, which is potentially a better measure of LV longitudinal function as it measures absolute change in longitudinal para- meters. In some diseases, like apical pericardial effusion, the apex may be mobile and this may in ﬂ uence the longi- tudinal function independently.
For the men with four visits and alternating MIS ver- sions, all main effects except race were significant in the initial LMM. Two-way interactions of age, education, and version with visit were significant when added to this model. A three-way interaction among age, educa- tion, and visit was also tested and was not significant. Hence, the final LMM contained random intercepts (that is, subject effects); main effects for age, education, visit, and MIS version; and visit by age, visit by educa- tion, and visit by version interaction terms. The effects of age and education in this model are illustrated in Table 3. While there were few significant PE at the first follow-up, which is unremarkable given almost half the men already had a perfect score at baseline, the youngest men (age 60 years) and men with the highest educa- tional level did show a significant increase over baseline and maintained this PE through the third follow-up. By the second follow-up assessment a significant increase over baseline, which was maintained at the third follow- up, was observed for both educational levels and for all men age 70 years or younger. Although their mean scores did not decrease monotonically, men age 75 years and older showed few significant PE and tended to have lower estimated scores over time. Only the estimated mean scores at follow-up visit 2 for men age 75 years were significantly higher than baseline, while by follow- up visit 3 men age 85 years had estimated mean scores significantly lower than baseline. Finally, between base- line and follow-up visit 3, the proportion of men age 75 years and older at baseline (n = 218) who achieved a
The questionnaire was administered to 8507 individ- uals (6282 primary respondents and 2225 secondary respondents) including 8178 respondents aged 550 years and 329 younger partners of eligible indi- viduals. The response rate is the proportion of selected households including an eligible participant from which an interview was successfully obtained. Interviewers were sent to all of the initially allocated 25 600 addresses. Of these, 22 321 were occupied resi- dential addresses. At 11 819 addresses, contact was made and it was determined that no person aged 550 years was at that address. In 9818, it was deter- mined that there was a person aged 550 years. At 684 addresses, either no contact was made or contact was made, but it was impossible to deter- mine whether there was anybody aged 550 living at that address. Based on those households in which eligibility was determined, it is estimated that 9818/(9818 þ 11 819) 684 ¼ 310.4 of those house- holds were eligible. The estimated number of selected eligible households is therefore 9818 þ 310.4 ¼ 10 128.4. Successful interviews were obtained in 6282 households, giving an adjusted response rate of 62%. The response to the self-completion question- naire is 84%. Over 80% of CAPI respondents have agreed to a physical assessment and these are sched- uled to be completed by July 2011. To date, over 6000 physical assessments have been completed and almost all physical health assessment participants have also provided blood samples.
To overcome these limitations, in this current study, we analyzed secondary data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study 28 to assess longitudinal associations between e-cigarette marketing exposure and subsequent e-cigarette experimentation among youth (ages 12–17) and young adult (ages 18–24) never tobacco users, strati ﬁ ed by e-cigarette use susceptibility at the baseline. We hypothesized that the exposure to e-cigarette marketing at baseline may increase the likelihood of e-cigarette use experimentation among youth and young adults at 1-year follow-up.
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knowledge in the face of other life complications. This assessment of individual beliefs regarding thalassemia treatment can help health providers better motivate their patients. While change in general beliefs may be hard to implement, perceived sensitivity to chelation may repre- sent an opportunity for targeted intervention. Thalas- semia patients may benefit from perceiving that their bodies can actually tolerate the prescribed therapy, and continued efforts to find effective chelators that are pain- less and without significant side effects seem warranted. In the meantime, devising strategies and interventions to help patients effectively cope with side effects might be ultimately beneficial in lowering body iron burden. As beliefs were found to differ by age, sex, and race, support groups mixing patients could be of interest. Despite their requirement for demanding, multimodal therapy, it is en- couraging that thalassemia patients have positive views about medicine, with high belief in their necessity and relatively low concerns about their therapy.
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According to Lindhe and Meyle , who stated that the assessment of incidence and risk factors require longitudinal, prospective or case-control studies, we included in the present review only prospective trials comparing a cohort of individuals presenting the investigated risk factor with a group of not exposed individuals in the format of a longitudinal study. However, it is necessary to evaluate prospective cohort studies for internal validity due to the presence of selection bias and confounding variables. The three publications included in this systematic review [31-33] did not fully address the STROBE checklist for cohort studies, especially in terms of sample size definition, exposures, predictors, potential confounders, and effect modifiers. Also the diagnostic criteria for peri-implantitis were slightly different among the studies and the definition of periodontal disease followed different parameters (one study did not report it at all ). Potential confounders (e.g. systemic conditions, age, sex, bone quality, implant features, type of prosthesis, parafunctions) were only partially reported and seldom assessed during outcomes analysis. The quality assessment following NOS (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) scheme, accordingly, revealed the absence of complete adherence to the different items.
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Retinal assessment was performed using longitudinal in vivo imaging with DARC (detection of apoptosing retinal cells) and OCT (optical coherence tomography) technologies and revealed increased RGCs (Retinal Ganglion Cells) apoptosis and a transient swelling of the retinal layers at day 20 of the rotenone insult. Follow-up of this model demonstrated characteristic histological neurodegenerative changes in the substantia nigra and striatum by day 60, suggesting that retinal changes precede the “ traditional ” pathological manifestations of PD. The therapeutic effect of systemic administration of different formulations of rosiglitazone was then evaluated, both in the retina and the brain. Of all treatment regimen tested, sustained release administration of liposome-encapsulated rosiglitazone proved to be the most potent therapeutic strategy, as evidenced by its significant neuroprotective effect on retinal neurons at day 20, and on nigrostriatal neurons at day 60, provided convincing evidence for its potential as a treatment for PD. Our results demonstrate significant retinal changes occurring in this model of PD. We show that rosiglitazone can efficiently protect retinal neurons from the rotenone insult, and that systemic administration of liposome- encapsulated rosiglitazone has an enhanced neuroprotective effect on the retina and CNS (Central Nervous System). To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo evidence of RGCs loss and early retinal thickness alterations in a
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Several limitations have been identified in each chapter of this programme of research. However, there are three that warrant the most consideration. Firstly, as the investigations of this programme of research investigated semi-competitive elite male cyclists of a relatively small sample size, the degree to which these findings are representative of the wider population is limited. Furthermore, as anthropometrics of only the lower body were collected and body composition measures were not acquired the importance of complex anthropometrics of the upper body and torso in the kinanthropometric assessment of cyclists and the extent to which any differences highlighted are attributable to differences in fat free mass, fat or bone remains unknown. However, to extend this research to the torso and upper body reconfiguration of the protocol would be necessary; validating the system for measurement of these segments, as it would be logistically difficult to capture all of these elements in a single session without a much larger (and therefore much more expensive) system. Secondly, this programme of research adopted a focus on peak power output as a measure of cycling performance. Whilst peak power production is a determinant of cycling performance and the use of a consistent performance measure allowed comparison between groups, its importance to performance varies between cycling disciplines. Thus, the extent to which anthropometrics relates to direct measures of cycling performance for each cycling discipline remains unknown. Finally, it is possible that the use of a relatively inaccessible 3D imaging system may limit the transferability and practical implications of the findings and recommendations reported within this body of work.
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shows that reductions in CVD-RFs are associated with not only weight loss but also age at the time of surgery, preoperative BMI, sex, and race. The identification of the predictors of change in CVD-RFs is novel and important. We offer clear evidence that weight loss after adolescent MBS predicts the degree of longitudinal improvement in elevated hs-CRP, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we demonstrate an important relationship between highest baseline BMI and decreased probability of hs-CRP normalization. In conjunction with data showing that adolescents in the highest BMI categories have a lower likelihood of achieving a normal postoperative BMI, 32, 33 these results
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A recent publication on cross-sectional findings in knee OA patients using the same MRI protocol as the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) showed that BMLs appear larger in the water-sensitive intermediate-weighted turbo spin echo (IW-TSE) sequence compared to the findings obtained by using the dual echo steady state (DESS) . However, to date, there has been no head-to-head com- parative study done in a sufficiently large OA patient population assessing BMLs with different MR sequences acquired during the same exam. The performance of a steady state gradient echo sequence vs. a water-sensitive intermediate-weighted sequence for their reliability in the detection of BMLs and their sensitivity to estimate change over time is still in debate. Our hypothesis sug- gests that the IW-TSE sequence had a higher sensitivity to change in the assessment of BMLs. To this end, we compared the BML prevalence and their change over time using the IW-TSE and DESS MRI sequences from a subset of patients from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI)
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy for selected heart failure (HF) patients to improve symptoms, ventricular function, and survival. Although increasingly used, left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony assessment by echocardiography has failed to show enough pre- dictive value to assess patient response to CRT and the current guidelines do not recommend its routine use. Furthermore, a variety of echocardiographic techniques used for the purpose, in- cluding tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), real time three-dimensional echocardiography, M-mode, and various Doppler parameters, showed limited value and poor agreement between the studies and methods, greatly influenced by interobserver variability. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a more recent approach that uses strain imaging to assess LV dyssynchrony. This article discusses the speckle tracking for LV dyssynchrony and its current clinical applications.
CMR study with 210 DCM patients that the assessment of LV longitudinal function with FTI serves as an inde- pendent predictor of survival . In addition, in a study of Miszalski-Jamka et al. patients with Churgh-Strauss- Syndrom and Wegener's granumolatosis displayed re- duced values for longitudinal strain measured with fea- ture tracking software despite clinical remission, normal ECG and normal echocardiography . However, in a val- idation study of the feature tracking algorithm, Augustine et al. showed that feature tracking of circumferential strain displayed reasonable agreement with tagging and accept- able inter-observer reproducibility, but comparability and reproducibility with longitudinal strain was poor . Still, a standardized and reproducible approach for longitudinal strain imaging is not available for CMR which hinders its implementation in clinical routine analysis and reporting. Saba et al. took a different approach to evaluate longitu- dinal function. In their study the longitudinal motion of the lateral and septal atrioventricular junction was mea- sured using a special tracking software algorithm. The values assessed with this novel method for measurement of mitral annular motion were significantly different in HCM patients compared to healthy volunteers. The measurement time in this study was approximately 10 minutes per subject . Similar to strain imaging this analysis required a special software tool for off- line analysis. Bonnemains et al. on the other hand