Social anxiety disorder is a disabling anxiety disorder characterized by an ex- treme fear of unconstructive estimation in public situations. Human beings are social creatures. Accordingly, fear of social situations can be severely dis- abling. This study aimed at exploring the prevalence and factors associated with social anxiety disorder among children. The study employed cross-sec- tional descriptive survey. In this study (n = 300) out of 403 total population were selected randomly. Psychometric screening questionnaire administered and the association between social anxiety disorder with selected socio- demographic variables and victimization in children (aged 12 - 17) was inves- tigated. Both descriptive and inferential statistics like, Frequencies distribu- tion, univariate, bivariate and multivariate methods were used to analyse the collected data. In multivariate analysis, multiple linear regressions were used to see the predictive power of associated factors of social anxiety disorder. Be- sides, with these statistical method prevalence and the associated risk factors between demographic variables and victimization factors of social anxiety disorder were analysed. In this study, the prevalence of Self-reported social anxiety disorder among children was 63%. From total sample of respondents 33% belongs age group below 15 years and the remaining 67% belongs age group above 15 years. This study indicated that, as the age of children in- creases prevalence of social anxiety disorder increases and in line with this, the higher prevalence of social anxiety disorder was found to be among chil- dren aged above 15 years. Females reported social anxiety disorder to a sig- nificantly higher degree than males in all age groups. Experiences of peer vic- timization, maltreatment and sexual victimization were also significantly re- lated to social anxiety disorder. The study generally revealed, social anxiety disorder was associated with female gender, higher age group, low educa- tional status, lowincomelevel of parent, experiences of peer victimization, How to cite this paper: Achiko, A. G., &
Despite the irregular buying capacity of rural markets, due to its lowincomelevel, low literacy rate, improper infrastructural facilities and low awareness levels of the population, when the urban markets started to show stagnation the need for exploring new markets became evident. Present paper is about the tools which companies are using to make their presence felt in the rural markets and it also to find the modern ways for marketing their product propositions.
In this paper, we investigate the impact of child and adult survival on child labour. We find that, while a rise in adult longevity always has a negative effect on child labour because it increases the returns in education, the impact of child mortality reduction depends on the initial level of income. At a lowincomelevel, where parents choose zero or a very lowlevel of education for their children, an increase in child survival, ceteris paribus, renders quantity more attractive than quality because it decreases the net cost of
This section has discussed the perception of tenancy as temporary tenure. It has concentrated on the location of rental accommodation and whose needs it serves - migrants and those who came to cities on a temporary basis. Rental accommodation was therefore associated with lack of finance to purchase or to build houses. However, it played a significant role for migrants; it enabled them to save for a plot. The relation between this form of accommodation, migrants and rents is that it represented a cheap form of accommodation that was easily available and could be occupied within a short space of time. Under these conditions tenancy enabled the transformation of migrants to homeownership. Mobility, according to this perspective, is only upwards, it begins when a migrant rents a room and starts saving for a plot, and ends when a plot is purchased and the goal of becoming a homeowner is fulfilled. Secondly, since the emphasis of these studies is on tenancy, renting is presented as in an advantageous light. It should also be noted that those pointing out the impermanence of tenancy have acknowledged that homeownership and the construction of low-income housing took place in the peripheral settlements; self-help settlements are explicitly linked with the construction of houses for ownership (consumption) rather than for rental. Implicit in this perspective is the notion that tenancy ends in the city centre, while ownership flourishes in self-help settlement. Since the conceptualisation of tenancy focuses on how tenants consume houses, little emphasis is placed on the production of tenements as well as on the producers (landlords). However, the existence of landlords is implicitly referred to when relating to the role of cheap accommodation for migrants. Turner has for instance acknowledged the multipurpose usage of housing by owners. He writes: “the owner or possessor-occupier can use his house as a workshop, or rental property” (Turner, 1968:357-358). Therefore, by concentrating on the consumption of housing, and associating tenancy with impermanence, these proponents fail to go beyond the consumption of rental accommodation and to realise that houses in low-income settlements are increasingly produced for both consumption and for rental. As will be shown in Chapter 2, the redirection of studies from consumers of rental accommodation (tenants) to producers (landlords) of low-income rental housing unveils the forms of low-income landlordism found in low-income settlements.
recreational value to the locals, and they have the potential to become an attractive tourism location in Poland. These habitats are, however, threatened by the current policies, which do not prohibit the mining industry from discharging their debris in the rivers, creating spoil heaps. According to the ecologists, if the current situation prevails, levels of biodiversity in this region, including the number of different species of plants and animals, their population levels as well as the number of different habitats and their sizes will reach a minimum level. As explained in the previous chapter, the EU is committed to conserving the ecological status and especially biodiversity riches, in the wetlands and catchments, as stated in various EU regulations and Directives, including the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC), Article 1(a) of which in particular calls for the prevention of further deterioration of European wetlands, their protection and the enhancement of their status; the EU Birds Directive (1979/409/EC) and the EU Habitats Directive (1992/43/EC).
Abstract: The paper depicts the grievous effect on different parts of economy like Export, Price level, Activity of port, Tourism sector, Human right etc. Trend, nature and the running of the wheel of the economy basically depend on the concerted adjacent of the related sectors of economy. As a result if the situation becomes entangled in a certain stage the wheel of the entire economy are bound to be halted abruptly. For this reason it is essential for our politician to search an alternate of hartal. The paper identifies a disappointing fact that hartal imposes a large cost on the economy. Also it attempts to explore the negative impacts on GDP and revenue collection. Based on the findings, a number of suggestive policy measures that the planners and implementers may consider for the future development of political situation in Bangladesh are embedded in the end of the paper.
Having established the basic eects of competition on balance sheet quantities as well as on loan and deposit pricing, this subsection examines the impact of competition on bank failures. Eco- nomic theory observes that an increase in competition from low-income CUs and the narrowing of interest rate margins|the gap between lending and deposit rates|could help drive out inecient or less protable banks from the sample through failures or mergers. This can make the eects of competition on bank outcomes heterogeneous. While failing or weak banks might experience a sharp drop in lending in the face of low-income CU competition or a loss of deposits, this se- lection mechanism could in turn leave behind survivors that lend more aggressively or shift into loan markets that face less competition from LICUs in order to boost protability and eciency. Given that the number of banks declined by about 1,400 over the sample period; of which, some 475 failed outright, selection pressures could feature in the data, inducing very dierent responses to competition among incumbent survivors.
Furthermore, the findings showed respondents earned fifty thousand naira and above as the highest amount that enable them to have much access to diabetes drugs if other family issues are not challenging. Place of residence, majority of the respondents lived in urban and it could enhance the chances for easy access to diabetes drugs compared to those in rural area which most of them depend on chemist stores. The effect of educational level on access and non-compliance was equivocal after reviewing thirteen articles which focused on the impact of educational level as they used different criteria for “higher” and “lower” education. Several studies found that patients with higher educational level might have higher access and compliance to diabetes drugs , while some studies found no association . Intuitively, it may be expected that patients with higher educational level should have better knowledge about the disease and therapy and therefore be more engage to search for the drugs and comply with prescription. However, educational level of the respondents assessed on the challenges faced in accessing diabetes drugs in low and middle-income settings in Aba North, indicated higher percentage between secondary level of education and less of no formal education. In reference to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) that set a standard for diabetes self- management education and found that there was a four-fold increase in diabetic complications for those individuals with diabetes who had not received formal education concerning self-care practices .
improve livelihood of farmers and attention to be given to improve farmer’s welfare and increase in income from agriculture.This will reduce the disparity between farm income and non-farm income respectful income.Respectful income from agricultural will attract it’s toward farming profession.Doubling farmer’s income by 2022 is quite challengeable too.Attention should be given to development initiatives, Technology initiatives and policy reforms in agricultural.
(b) The competing explanation is that those with good employment prospects exit lowincome quickly. The policy implication of this interpretation is that we should wait for some time before intervening, otherwise we will be helping individuals who would have exited lowincome on their own after a short stay. 2 Unfortunately, the longitudinal SLID sample is small and, as a result, most of the independent variables of the hazard models tested here, including the effect of the duration of spells, turned out to be statistically insignificant. As a result, in addition to the more conventional hazard analysis, we used OLS regression analysis to assess the effect of various factors on in-progress spells. This approach is methodologically less satisfactory than hazard analysis but, in the face of sample size limitations, it provides a simple way of complementing the hazard analysis results.
This study applied long-term follow-up data on the eld- erly participating in the Taipei health examination at least twice to analyze the possible risk factors for mood disorders in the elderly. In our study, we collected all potential risk factors from the health examination. In addition to finding out the risk factors from the existing literature, we also tried to examine some new factors from our unique database. Although elderly mental health is an important issue in past studies, this study demonstrated different kinds of potential risk factors to- gether and had multiple repeated measurements to val- idate the results. We found not only risk factors, but also protective factors for mood disorders in the elderly simultaneously in one study. The results suggest that health policy makers implement behavior intervention to reduce mood disorders with health education. We found that the residents living in districts with a higher average educational level were more willing to participate in the health examination. In addition, we also identified the personal demographic factors, health behaviors and self-report of medication factors associated with mood disorders.
It is highly possible that mothers of pregnant adoles- cents were also pregnant adolescents (15). In the present study, one out of three mothers of pregnant adolescents also had adolescent pregnancies. With the increase in educational level of girls, rate of adolescent pregnancy has decreased. Early motherhood makes it harder for women to benefit from educational and economic opportunities (16, 17). There is an inverse proportion between educational level and adolescent pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancy is more common among women with low educational levels compared to women with high educational levels. While 7% of uneducated women begin to give birth in adolescence, this rate decreases to 4% in women with at least high school education (7). Young girls, especially the ones with insufficient education, are prone to be forced to get married and engage in sexual rela- tionship at an early age. According to 2008 TDHS, 20.9% of adolescents in the 15–19-year age group were uneducated, while 18.5% were elementary school graduates (7). In the present study, the educational level of adolescents was higher than Turkey’s average; 12% of pregnant adolescents were illiterate and 34.5% were elementary school graduates. The majority (97.7%) of pregnant adolescents were not employed and almost 24% did not have any health insurance. However, average employment ratio in Turkey was 9.8% in this age group and 87% had no health insurance (7). In a study on socio-economic status of pregnant adolescents by
Previous research has distinguished personal norms and social norms and scrutinized their effects when perceptions and attitudes regarding tax were analyzed (Wenzel, 2004; 2005a). However, in these studies social norms were measured in terms of individual perceptions regarding the social norm, based on the following questions: “ Do MOST PEOPLE think they should honestly declare cash earnings on their tax return? ” and “ Do MOST PEOPLE think working for cash-in-hand payments without paying tax is a trivial offence? ” (Wenzel, 2004, 220). This index is considered as a subjective evaluation rather than objective one. Hence, this measure of social norms is regarded as an endogenous variable. Endogeneity bias seems to occur when tax perception is a dependent variable and the measure of social norms is included as an independent variable. To avoid this problem, in this paper, the social norm is measured as the average rate of those who prefer redistribution policies within the area that the respondent resides. The JGSS included a question concerning preferences for redistribution: “It is the responsibility of the government to reduce the differences in income between families with high incomes and those with low incomes.” There were five response options, ranging from “1 (strongly disagree)” to “5 (strongly agree)”. In this paper, the average value of the responses within a residential prefecture is defined as the norm for redistribution shared by neighbors.
Parents play an important role in referring children to psychiatric clinics. Therefore, parental health beliefs, as well as their attitudes, knowledge and experience of men- tal health services, influence consumption patterns [4, 13, 14]. An analysis of worldwide resources for child and ado- lescent psychiatry carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO), described huge differences between different global regions . In low-income countries, such resources were often virtually non-existent and they were also scarce in many middle-income countries. This means that immigrant parents from these regions of the world could be expected to have very little experience of such care in their country of origin.
 conducted a study on Tax compliance behaviour of small scale enterprises in Bassa Local Government of Kogi State in North central of Nigeria. A survey design was used and data were gathered from the register of Bassa Local government Area Council. The Krejcie and Morgan sampling technique was used to determine a sample size of one hundred and ninety seven registered taxpayers. The hypotheses were tested using one sample chi-square. Their results showed that taxpayers’ social psychological factors have significant influence on tax compliance level and that taxpayers’ demographical factors have significant influence on tax compliance level. They recommended that tax authority should take tax education as a routine responsibility and that there should be a stiff penalty on any taxpayer who is found wanting in sharp practices.
Details of our data collection and processing approach was reported in a previous publication (please see ). In summary, we used a high-level keyword search strat- egy to identify the literature relevant to HPSR and en- sure inclusivity. Additional terms and keywords can be added to refine the search or learn more about sub- groups under the HPSR umbrella. The syntax of the high-level keyword search strategy used the logical Bool- ean operators “ AND ” and “ OR ” : (health AND policy) OR “health system*”. While the specific topic of the paper may be related to any area within the scope of HPSR, this strategy assumes that papers related to HPSR would have the words ‘health’ and ‘policy’ or ‘health sys- tem(s)’ somewhere in the text. PubMed includes a pre- scribed set of filters to identify specific topics related to clinical queries and medical genetics . The exclusion criteria can be applied to the search strategy using the
The study findings are signals for the FMoH and Regional Health Bureaus to strengthen the human resource man- agement system and practices to improve nurses’ overall job satisfaction and motivation, especially among nurses with 5 – 10 years of experience on the job. Expanded recog- nition systems and opportunities for advancement are needed to increase nurses ’ motivation and job satisfaction, while equitable and transparent salary and benefits pack- ages are also needed to reduce their dissatisfaction with the job. The findings may serve as a benchmark for the government ’ s 10-year HRH strategic plan and to evaluate the effectiveness of various HRM interventions to be implemented from 2016 to 2025. Moreover, the study contributes to low- income countries to enhance perform- ance of nurses and improving quality in nursing care. We recommend conducting a mixture of quantitative and qualitative research to explore reasons for low satisfaction related to remuneration, work conditions and living con- ditions for three groups of nurses: male nurses, nurses working in health centers, and nurses with 5 to 10 years of working experience.
The Present Study covered a total number 400 consumers across five retail segment in Haveri district ( Haveri , Hanagal, Hirekerur, Byadag,i Ranebennur, Savanur, and Shigganvi ) for the purpose of maintaining accuracy and consistency in response. The Present Chapter provides details of the socio economic background of these respondent consumers,. The information obtained through personal interviews with the respondents related to their rural / urban background, age and gender details and caste affiliations, family and household occupation and family income. Other aspects covered by the study relate to the type of house. Size of the family, family ownership of land, earning members of the family, dependent members of the family education status of the respondent consumers. The personal and family details of the consumers provided a good insight into their socio economic background which would be related to their taste, buying behaviors etc…
As a conclusion, this paper tries to put a better understanding on how incomelevel could give an impact to residents in smart state Selangor. From the result, it is clearly stated the different in level of income may give a variety of appetite on their environment perception and economical view. Whereas, people with high income more or less comfort with their classy environment which they might afford to have. However, at the same time, they also urge the state government to pay an attention to other group level of income for their better living environment. The high level of income group is satisfied with what being provided by state government in a way to help the other level of income groups. In economic perspective, this high level of income group is satisfied with how state government serves and system to maintain and to facilitate stability of economic condition. Thus, they satisfied with the saving allocation and their life assurance. State government manages to help in subsidized some of the needed for an emergency with a few of assurance scheme provided for the residents. On the other hand, from this research, there should have a further discussion on specific measurement or scale to measure the impact of level of income towards health and emotion. This paper seems to have a fair result toward health and emotion. One assumption can be made is because of the state government had provided enough tool and facilities to help them to keep healthy and safe. Researchers are highly recommending this paper could be extended to investigate and set the index on it for future use.
Surprisingly, we did not observe any significant rela- tionship between housing conditions and severity of CAP among the studied subjects (P > 0.05), which was contrary to our expectations and to previous findings of Grant et al., who reported that lower quality living envi- ronments increase the risk of CAP and that improving housing quality may reduce the burden of CAP in New Zealand . However, reporting in our study may have been unreliable, and a study to cover an extended popu- lation is recommended to better assess housing quality in the Nile Delta of Egypt, both in rural and urban areas. Our multivariate logistic model indicated that a low maternal education level, unavailability of adequate medical care, a low family income, and parents’ smok- ing habits were significant independent predictive risk factors for severe CAP among the studied children (all P < 0.05).