when caring and feeding their infants. This probably reduced, or eliminated, the separation anxiety and/or dis- comfort of the infants that was associated with previous measurements of metabolic rate [11,32,33]. In regards to energy metabolism, extrapolated 24-h EE and sleeping metabolic rates were both highly positively correlated with fat-free mass. This has been shown in many previous studies in adults [9,10] and infants [14,15,21]. This is suggestive that fat-free mass is the main metabolic component of the body. However, none of these relationships had an intercept equal to zero; there- fore, this necessitated the adjustment of the energy expenditure data for differences in body composition and age utilizing regression analysis, a mathematical method- ology that has been validated in adults [9,10] and in infants . Moreover, body weight alone cannot be used to adjust 24-h EE because the relationship between the two parameters does not pass through zero. This is due to different proportions of metabolically active muscle mass in relation to the assumed non-metabolically inactive fat- mass in same sized individuals, thus causing errors in the adjustment of 24-h EE [9,10].
It is illustrated the related rank energy-per-bit re- sults in Figure 6. The dynamic version present simi- lar rank energy-per-bit levels to the 4-entry system, except for STREAM where levels are larger than 4- and 8-entry. Similar to the 4-entry version, the dynamic transaction queue version presents lowerenergy-per-bit levels than for 1-2 entries. Analyzing the simulator output statistics, it is believed that such event happens due to random behavior settings of pChase. We observe different energy-per-bit magni- tudes from , since we believe the latter calculated and compared The general behavior which is energy- per-bit levels to proportionally increase with lower transaction-queue size is expected since lower trans- action queues are likely to present lower bandwidth, and higher latency, i.e., longer times and therefore
non-zero minima of ε − on the lowerenergy branch. On the other hand S does not change sign near here. The signs of P and S are therefore not strongly correlated for these low energy states, and we conclude that for weak potentials there is no significant spin-momentum coupling. Near r = 0, where ε − has a local maximum, P and S have opposite signs, so momentum and spin are anticorrelated. This is the opposite of the classical correlation of momentum and spin for a rolling motion. Similarly, on the upper energy branch, the expectations of momentum and spin have opposite signs for all r, so they are anticorrelated.
The LET-based strategy is the only available link selection strategy that has been successfully demonstrated so far  for determining stable DG trees in MSNs. However, the LET formulation [19, 31] does not consider the distance between the constituent end nodes of a link and is prone to choosing links that could incur a larger transmission energy and ultimately contributing towards larger energy consumption per round. We opine that links whose constituent end nodes are closer to each other (i.e., the distance between the end nodes of the link is appreciably lower than the transmission range per node) are more likely to be stable (and vice-versa) as it would take a while for such end nodes to move out of the transmission range of each other. We refer to such links as "short distance" links. Also, as the energy lost per transmission is directly proportional to the square of the distance  over which the transmission is made, we claim that the DG trees comprising of short distance links are more likely to be both stable (and vice-versa) as well as incur lowerenergy consumption per round. Moreover, the LET approach  requires a sensor node to be aware of its own location and mobility as well as that of its neighbors. This would require the sensor nodes to be equipped with energy-draining hardware/software systems (like GPS ) that would make them location and mobility aware. All of the above observations form the motivation for the research conducted in this paper.
The conversion electrons will be attenuated by the lithium hydrate ball which surrounds the target to reduce the scattering background. The events in the higher energy peak are from transitions that proceed directly to the ground state; the events in the lowerenergy peaks are the transitions feeding the first excited state (plus some portion of the ground transition events because of the resolution and detector response) . The experiment and the preliminary analysis of the 97 Mo data is by C. L Walker.
One of the limits of observational studies such as this is the inability to determine cause-and-effect relationships, as well as the presence of numerous uncontrolled varia- bles that may confound the results. And while we attempted to account for the most important of these fac- tors, weekly running mileage, certainly other confounding variables remain. As such, the mean differences in fat intake between the two groups were admittedly small and, as demonstrated by the prediction accuracy of the logistic regression, certainly far from the only cause of running- related injury. Fat intake may play a more important role in the development of certain types of injuries (i.e. stress fractures) or in runners where energy intake is already heavily compromised. The benefit of the increased fat intake found in this study may in fact lie with an increase in ad libitum energy intake similar to that seen in work by Horvath et al  and it was originally hypothesized that overuse injury would also be associated with lowerenergy intakes. The energy intake values approached, but did not reach, a significant difference between injured and non- injured runners in this study, possibly due to confounding variables mentioned above.
Abstract. Agricultural production is dispersed in huge areas and requires the transfer of a large number of technological and operational materials, intermediate and final products. Therefore, in the agricultural sector, transport occupies an important place: it begins and completes the processes of crops production and livestock products and carries out technological connections between individual states of work. With the development of agricultural production, the role of transport is steadily increasing: if at present, at the average 45...50 tons of different cargoes is the share of each hectare of ploughed field, then in the coming years, an increase of this volume is expected. For more than 35% of the volume of the main work types is the share of transport works which are carried out by tractors in the agrarian sector. Increasing the dynamic and energy indices of tractors during transport operations in the agrarian sector by ensuring their functional stability will lead to lowerenergy consumption, increase the ecological efficiency of transport processes and will ensure a steady increase in profits in the agro-industry. The concept of the formation of tractor functional stability during transport works, which is based on the reduction of amplitudes of accelerations (slowdowns) in a three-dimensional geometric space, which, unlike the known ones, provides reduction of additional energy costs, is substantiated in the article.
To understand the kinetics of the dissociation reaction, the energy barrier from the long-range state to the dissociated state was calculated using the elastic band method with 8 images and found to be 0.03 eV. This is smaller than the barrier from the long-range to short-range non-dissociated structure of 0.17 eV, shown in Fig. 1. This is consistent with the mechanism proposed by Cabibil in which iodobenzene initially physisorbs and then undergoes C–I scission . However, the barrier between the long- and short-range structure for MIB or DIB was not calculated using an NEB calculation and, thus, 0.17 eV is an upper limit to the barrier. The barrier between the non-dissociated states is, therefore, not likely to be significantly higher than the dissociation barrier, and the short-range structure could occur. More experimental work is required to investigate the nature of the non- dissociated adsorption structure.
The phrase often touted by politicians, “drill here, drill now,” could be a short term solution for energy independence if we can find about 9.7 million barrels per day of oil reserves domestically (Smith, 2011). The good news is that the United States has a large amount of oil reserves. The bad news is that there are many political and environmental obstacles to bring much of this oil to the surface. Most new oil discoveries are unconventional and located in shale formations. They require horizontal drilling and “fracking” to uncover. Some are located under restricted lands. The horizontal drilling and “fracking” involves drilling a vertical hole to the depth where the oil bearing shale is located, then drilling horizontally through the shale. As the well is drilled, it is also cased with steel pipe and cement. Once the well has been drilled, perforating charges are placed into the bore hole and detonated to create holes in the horizontal section of the casing pipe several thousand feet below the surface. After the casing pipe has been perforated, the fracking solution, which consists of a high volume of water, is pumped into the well at extremely high pressure in order to create many cracks in the shale formation which will release the crude oil that has been trapped there for millions of years. This process has caused debate in some areas of the country about the safety of the ground water these wells drill through in order to reach the depth of the oil rich shale. One of the newest of these shale formations is known as the Eagle Ford Shale, located in south Texas. The recoverable oil potential for Eagle Ford shale is around 4.7 billion barrels if only 3% of the oil is recovered from the shale formation and 30% of the oil is usually recovered from a well. Every 1% extraction gained from improved extraction techniques will yield another 1.6 billion barrels of oil (Badiali, 2010). One of the other big shale plays recently discovered is located in Montana and North Dakota. It stretches into Canada and is called the Bakken formation. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) estimated the Bakken formation to hold 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil using today’s technology (USGS, 2008). Much of the drilling activity on the United States portion of the Bakken formation lies beneath the Blackfeet Indian Reservation that makes getting actual results of drilling activities difficult (Brown, 2011).
Decrease the volume of the reaction container. There are fewer moles of gaseous product than moles of gaseous reactants; therefore, an increase in pressure due to a decrease in volume would favor the formation of product. Lower the temperature. A lower temperature favors an exothermic reaction, leading to the conversion of reactants into product.
VAS score (t= 17.56, p = 0.001) in Group A receiving MET. MET may be better than others in decreasing pain for several reasons. The time it takes to administer MET is very short (less than 1 minute). It also allows the clinician to have physical contact with the patient, helping the patient to trust the clinician. Lastly, MET technique can be accomplished without causing further pain or harm to the patient. This is in accordance with a study done by Noelle Selkow (2009) 18 who showed the effects of Muscle energy technique on pain in patients with non- specific lumbo- pelvic pain and demonstrated a decrease in VAS score. The decrease in VAS score by MET is alsohypothesized by a neurological explanation for the analgesic effects ofMET.The increased tolerance to stretch that results from MET are now considered (Fryer 2008) 19 to be due to a combination of nociceptive inhibition of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (i.e. gating via mechanoreceptor stimulation during MET), localized activation of the periaqueductal grey, producing descending pain modulation , up regulation of analgesic endocannabinoids, altered fluid content of connective tissue due to sponge-like behavior during contractions (and compression) associated with MET-isometric contractions (Klingler et al 2004)and viscoelastic changes (Lederman 1997).
general linear coding strategy, in which linear combinations of coded messages can be retransmitted. The motivation behind using decode-and-recombine codes is that it prevents information from spreading too much in the network, away from the path between source and destination, a heuristic introduced by Katti et al. . The use of a decode-and- recombine strategy results in reduced complexity. However, an important question that has to be addressed is whether the use of decode-and-recombine codes leads to a higher energy consumption than is strictly necessary. We answer this question a ﬃ rmatively. An upper bound of three on the energy benefit of decode-and-recombine codes has been given by Liu et al. . One of the contributions of this work is to show that larger energy benefits can be obtained by considering also other types of codes.
moment that absorbed energy. The energy absorption by the triceps surae during this phase was succeeded by a period of considerable energy generation at the ankle during late stance, and some energy absorption also occurred at the hip. However, any negative work performed was mostly by the knee extensors, and even more so by the knee flexors from mid-swing to early stance. Because the knee flexor muscles (the hamstrings) are biarticular they have been found to contribute to the positive work performed at the hip during late swing and early stance through a transfer of energy (Hoga et al., 2003). In the present study, work has been calculated for each discrete lower limb segment, but previous research on race walking has shown that some energy will have been transferred from other segments (e.g. from the thigh to the lower leg during swing) (Hoga et al., 2003, Hoga et al., 2006) as in normal walking (Zajac, Neptune, & Kautz, 2002). The knee muscles’ role as energy absorbers during the swing phase (with the hip muscles acting much more as energy generators) has also been reported for sprinting (Vardaxis & Hoshizaki, 1989), with similar patterns but much less activity during swing in normal walking (Prilutsky & Gregor, 2001). However, the knee must extend more during swing in race walking than in running (Smith & Hanley, 2013), and because it is an endurance event any resulting abnormal stress experienced by the lower limb muscles occurs repeatedly. The rules of race walking essentially mean its ‘grounded’ technique lies somewhere between the two ends of the gait spectrum (normal walking and sprinting) and this paper thus provides additional useful information on work patterns across human gait.
The work-horse of the container handling industry is the Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) crane. For over 50 years, these heavy duty cranes have been a staple at ports worldwide. Typically powered by diesel engines, these cranes require constant maintenance and fuel management to remain operational. In addition to costs, ports have begun to feel the pressure to become more “Green” by local authorities and governments.Pier 1, at DCT is currently utilizingRTGs. High energy consumption and high pollution result from RTGs operating around the clock. This entails a high cost burden for terminal operators and causes serious environmental pollution.An investigation into solutions to lessen operating costs, strengthen business competitiveness, and alleviate environmental pollution is presented in this paper. The results were analyzed and conclusions, as well as recommendations were made.
We have achieved better data transmission using the proposed spectrum sensing scheme. Our proposed system utilizes the unused channel frequency for its Secondary users. Using this we have achieved low delay and energy efficient transmission. We have also integrated trust management which provides malware free environment in the network. In future, we plan to extend our work on Cognitive radio networks with cryptographic security mechanism. Encryption and hash function schemes which provide authentication and data privacy, can detect internal node failures and provide false routing information, and identifies if a node does not cooperate with the other nodes in the network.
A normative aspect has been considered in the TPB. The PN is often examined in relation to pro-environmental behaviors, which have many underlying factors (Harland, Staats, & Wilke, 1999); thus, it may be more general than the ATB (e.g., Botetzagias, Dima, & Malesios, 2015; Chan & Bishop, 2013; Kaiser et al., 2005). As Klöckner (2013) concludes from his meta-analysis research, if each behavior is in line with personal values, parts of the impacts of personal norms on intentions to act are mediated by attitudes. Therefore, when assuming that knowledge contributes to modifying attitudes and values toward behavioral changes (Hines, Hungerford & Tomera, 1987; Kollmuss & Agyeman, 2002; Roy, Dowd, Muller, Pal & Prata, 2012), it can be considered that the VBN model that is predicted by the basic energy knowledge is antecedent to the attitude toward the behavior in the TPB in the configuration of the energy literacy model. Knowledge that is relevant to EE issues ignites students’ interests, touches their emotions, stimulates their awareness and responsibility toward EE problems, and cultivates their norm (Anable et al., 2006). The energy literacy that we consider is not just knowledge, but through energy education, we expect that students who have learned and known the current situation regarding energy-related issues (BEK) may be stimulated and form values, beliefs, and norms (AC, AR, PN). These experiences may yield attitudes toward the proper behavior for solving energy-related issues (ATB) which derives the intention to act, and it will reflect to their behaviors of consuming in everyday life, selecting appliances and services, and voting towards energy policies. Hence, while taking advantages of characteristics of each model, the hypothesis model which is integrated both the “personal interest aspect” of the TPB and the “social motivation” of the VBN is proposed in Figure 3. The intention toward energy-saving behavior is predicted by the attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, and the energy-saving behavior is predicted by independent contributions from the intention and perceived behavioral control. The energy literacy structural model can examine the links among students’ relevant EE knowledge, beliefs, norms, attitudes, intentions, and energy-saving behaviors within a single model. It will facilitate the interpretation of relationships between the distal variables, such as knowledge and behavior, by applying mediation variables and the estimation of a target predictor within the same model (Klöckner, 2013).
The technology of biodiesel production in all countries where it is used is based on processing rape, sunflower, oil radish, and soybean seeds. Compared to all these oilseed crops, safflower has clear advantages in the Lower Volga region due to a more stable yield in the extremely arid condi- tions [Kushnir, 2004; Dubrovin, Narushev, 2010; Narushev et al., 2015].