The Colorado Health Institute (CHI) analyzed data from the 2013 Colorado Health Access Survey (CHAS) to identify and quantify the factors associated with a 14.5-point difference in health insurance coverage between Hispanic and non-Hispanic adults in Colorado. The analysis found a number of specific factors associated with the lower rate of health insurance among the state’s Hispanics, including citizenship status, health status, the availability of employer-sponsored health insurance and family income. To a lesser extent, marital status, disability status and gender are considerations.
unknown. We measured glucose disposal rates at submaximally- and maximally-stimulating insulin concentrations in 192 nondiabetic Pima Indians and followed their weight change over 3.5 +/- 1.8 y (mean +/- SD). Results: (a) Insulin-resistant subjects gained less weight than insulin-sensitive subjects (3.1 vs. 7.6 kg, P less than 0.0001). (b) The percent weight change per year correlated with glucose disposal at submaximally-(r = 0.19, P less than 0.01) and maximally-stimulating (r = 0.34, P less than 0.0001) insulin concentrations independent of sex, age, initial weight, and 24-h energy expenditure; the correlations were stronger for glucose oxidation than for glucose storage. (c) Weight gain was associated with an increase in insulin resistance more than four times that predicted from the cross-sectional data. We conclude that insulin resistance is associated with a reduced risk of weight gain in nondiabetic Pima Indians.
By contrast, the extraction rate for cash-out refinances in response to HPI increases is greater in lower credit score areas or areas with higher utilization, in line with Mian and Sufi (2011). But the extraction rates for other channels of extraction are lower in credit-constrained areas. The extraction rate for HELOCs in response to HPI increases is greater in areas with higher credit scores and lowerrates of credit utilization. For HECM originations, credit-constrained areas with lower credit scores or higher utilization rates are more responsive to house price declines. This may indicate a greater need for liquidity among borrowing-constrained households, who originate HECMs to lock in equity as house prices fall. Credit approval rates (Panel C) have a greater effect on equity originations than the other credit constraints. Areas with lower credit approval rates (one standard deviation below the mean) are not responsive at all to increases in house prices for equity extraction (the sum of the coefficients is negative). In areas with low approval rates, the only type of extraction that increases in response to HPI increases is cash-out refinances. This is likely indicative of the relaxed underwriting for cash-out
Another study compared utilization data on diabetics in a chronic condition SNP (C–SNP) with diabetics in FFS Medicare in the plan’s service area (Cohen et al. 2012). The authors found that the C–SNP enrollees had lowerrates of emergency department utilization, more primary care visits, and lower hospital admission and readmission rates than the comparison group in FFS (differences that narrowed after risk adjustment). In particular, the C–SNP readmission rates were 29 percent lower than the FFS comparison group. However, the C–SNP in this study has higher than expected readmission rates. This plan’s observed-to-expected ratio is 1.26, which is among the highest observed-to-expected ratios among SNPs (see Table 13-8 in our March 2013 report for comparisons with other plan types). We should note that the authors use a different readmission measure. They use a 3-month readmission period while the HEDIS measure we report uses a 30-day readmission period.
Sections 2, 3, and 4 consider models with exogenous specialization. Would similar results hold if countries could choose which goods, and how many goods, to produce? We consider two reasons for specialization; increasing returns in production and costly product development. We show that in both cases the terms of trade e®ects continue to operate and ensure a common long-run growth rate across countries. As a byproduct of this analysis, we also obtain a simple theory of cross-country total factor productivity di®erences: countries with lowerrates of time preference (higher saving rates) have better technologies, contributing to their higher relative income. Another implication of this analysis is that whether countries share the same technology frontier or not is not essential to our results: in the model with increasing returns in production all countries share the same technology, while in the model with costly product development countries have di®erent technologies.
This study has extended the previous evaluation of the Matlab ALRI control program by Ali et al.  by includ- ing three additional years of mortality records as well as by incorporating measures of socioeconomic status and arse- nic exposure that have not been previously used. Baris with higher SES were associated with lowerrates of child mor- tality from ALRI in this study even after controlling for the treatment area effect. A case–control study on child ALRI mortality in Gambia did not find a significant association with SES , and, similarly, a prospective cohort study of children under 5 years in Matlab did not find an association with incidence of respiratory infections and various soci- odemographic measures . However, other studies have found various measures of social status including income, home ownership, and education to be predictive of res- piratory infections in various age groups and country set- tings [53, 54, 66]. SES may affect respiratory infections by increasing exposure to pathogens in crowded living quar- ters or by decreasing an individual’s immune status due to stress or poor nutrition . The conflicting findings in the literature may be due to differences in the specific meas- ure of SES used in each study. Further work is needed to explore the role of SES in ALRI.
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Between significant net sellers and buyers appear both marginal net sellers and buyers. They both spend relatively similar amount of money on food consumption, higher than significant net sellers but lower than significant net buyers. Their discrepancies become apparent when we look at the production side. Insignificant net sellers (column D) produced on average more than insignificant net buyers (+6.3%) only due to the 2005/6’s harvest levels (+28.5%). When we only take account of the last two surveys, the picture becomes reversed, with insignificant net buyers (column E) producing and selling globally more than insignificant net sellers, although net sellers are still selling more staples than net buyers (+18.8%). Other important differences between these two sub- groups are related to the levels of farm profits, hired labor, or time spent on off-farm employment. Hence, the above analyses of household characteristics disaggregated by their net position in the food market provide the following key messages that will become apparent in the subsequent sections. First, treating all households as a homogenous group is likely to result in a misleading picture of the dynamics occurring among them. One evidence of this is that food purchases of non- agricultural households are for instance at least 2 times higher than the overall average food expenditures (second column). Second, decomposing agricultural households between net sellers and net buyers still hides important heterogeneity in terms of consumption, production, and other household characteristics. Ideally, given the complexity of agricultural households’ behavior (Singh et al., 1986; Strauss, 1986; de Janvry and Sadoulet, 1991; Key et al., 2001), one would need to build as many homogenous sub-groups as data allow. Since different sub-groups of agricultural households will certainly be diversely affected by food price changes, depending on their initial conditions, observable characteristics, and unobserved heterogeneity, group-specific targeted policy interventions are likely to be more effective than uniform policies.
As noted in Table 2, CRBSI was the most common complication noted in the study. There were a total of 8235 catheter days in both the upper and lower extrem- ities: 6045 from the upper and 2190 from the lower extremity. The rate of CRBSI in the study was 11.6% (7.1 infections per 1000 catheter days) in the upper extremity and 9.3% (4.8 infections per 1000 catheter days) in the lower extremity (not statistically signifi- cant). Neonates with lower gestational age and birth weights had significantly higher rates of CRBSI in the upper extremity (P ⬍ .005 and P ⬍ .0001, respectively; Fig 1A and D). In contrast, lower extremity PICCs showed no statistical difference in gestational age and birth weight in neonates with and without CRBSI (Fig 1B and D). Neonates with CRBSI had an increased num- ber of PICCs placed (P ⬍ .0001; Fig 1C). Time to CRBSI was longer in the lower extremity (14.5 days) as com- TABLE 1 Demographic of Patients With PICCs From the Upper and Lower Extremities
Findings from the current study highlighted a gap in the current literature by examining the differences between sense of coherence according to sexual orientation, gender presentation, and gender identity. At present, the only published study examining sense of coherence in an LGBTQ+ specific study focused exclusively on sense of coherence as a protective factor for psychological distress among gay men in Australia (Lyons, Pitts, & Grierson, 2014). Not only was this study an exclusively male sample, but it did not take into account factors beyond orientation such as gender presentation and identity. As such, the current study broke new ground by exploring how demographic variables beyond those previously studied might impact sense of coherence within the (female, Latinx) LGBTQ+ population. Cisgender women who identified as bisexual had a significantly higher sense of coherence compared to their lesbian or queer-identified counterparts. Women who described their gender presentation as feminine also possessed a higher sense of coherence, while androgynous presenting persons scored lower on sense of coherence. Regarding gender identity, female-identified persons scored significantly higher on sense of coherence compared to their gender queer or non-binary identified counterparts.
Cukierman (1992) has a complete description about this relation. It is argued theoretically that the relation between CBI and inflation should be negative, which means countries having more independent central banks exhibit lower inflation rates and help the economic stability of their countries; see Grill, Masciandaro, and Tabellini (1991) and Alesina and Summers (1993), among others. However, empirical studies based on regressing inflation rates on CBI tend to reject the hypothesis and show that there is no negative relationship. For example, Campillo and Miron (1997) find that when controlling for other explanatory variables, there is no negative effect of CBI on inflation; see also King and Ma (2001).
When most other developing economies embarked on import substitution industrialization in the 1950s, Africa was still under colonial rule and remained so, well into the 1960s. Consequently, the im- port substitution phase in most of SSA was relatively short, lasting barely a decade in many countries due to the lateness of independence and the early onset of economic slowdown due to the 1970s’ oil shocks (Mkandawire, 1988). Import compression following the debt crisis led to lower utilization of existing capac- ity and a fall in investment, and prevented many countries in SSA from making a positive adjustment to the changed global environment. In this context, trade liberalization, beginning in the 1980s, prematurely exposed African ‘infant’ industries to global competition with much more mature industries, causing de- industrialization. UNIDO notes that African countries had been increasingly gaining comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufacturing before such forced import liberalization. Given the BWI presumption that import substitution was bad, there was no attempt to see how such industries could form the bases for new export initiatives. Presuming that African import-substituting industries had been protected for far too long, and would never become viable, let alone internationally competitive, the policy was simply to aban- don existing industrial capacity.
Most animal tissues undergo continual incorporation of stable isotopes including 13 C and 15 N, and so the stable isotope values change over time depending on the diet fed and tissue-specific metabolic rates . In the present study, an interesting phenomenon was observed in that different dietary δ 13 C values, compared with that of the tissues, differentially modulated the stable carbon isotope incorporation into tissues. When rats were fed low stable carbon isotopic ratio diets, δ 13 C values in liver, muscle and blood decreased significantly which is con- sistent with previous research . However, we found
Using the MBS pricing model that was estimated using data from the “subprime dominance” era, the out-of-sample fit during the “normal” period is very tight (top panel, figure 6). As was the case with the “normal” era regression, the out-of-sample fit for the regression estimated with time-series data from the “subprime dominance” era deteriorates markedly during the financial crisis. This similar pattern is a little surprising given the differences between the regression results for the two periods: That is, prepayment risks seemed to have been ignored by investors during the “subprime dominance” era since proxies for such risks were not significant in the regression model estimated with data from that time period. Nevertheless, the end result is the same: After May 27, 2009, MBS yields largely returned to reflect fundamentals since the actual MBS was only 8 basis points lower than the predicted yield on average.
Table 3 provides the same severity analysis for the US inmates. Not surprisingly, the prevalence rates are consid- erably lower than that found in the UK facilities specializ- ing in addressing inmates with behavioural health problems. However, two key findings hold for the Minne- sota state prison inmate population. First, alcohol emerges as the most prevalent substance involved in dependence. Second, of those meeting dependence diag- nosis for a given substance, the tendency is to be in the more severe ranges. Except for marijuana, the majority of those meeting dependence criteria for a given substance in the US sample are positive on at least six of the seven dependence criteria for that substance.
Currently, vaccination rates have not met goals for compliance in many facilities. This quality improvement project focuses on improving the process on inpatient vaccination using a systems approach. By taking into consideration the workflow, the educational level of staff and patients, the technological resources, the supply available, and the competence of the staff, the most cost effective and least burdensome process to increase inpatient influenza vaccination compliance rates is to implement a Standing Orders Program.