As a real application for the equation determined above, a field survey was conducted to obtain an independent set of data representing 118 operating tractors (2WD, 4WD, and crawlers) in northern Italy with the aim of retrieving actual values of lubricantoil consumption observed in the field. The field data were obtained from three sources: (1) large farms, (2) contractor companies, and (3) dealership and au- thorized workshop databases (Buckmaster, 2003; Calcante et al., 2013; Lips, 2013; Hawkins and Buckmaster, 2015). For the purposes of this study, these data were assumed to be reliable because they were all obtained from subjects who kept traceable machinery records as part of a broader man- agement accounting system (Morris, 1988).
ABSTRACT: Lubricantoil from Pump motors, automobile engines and engines of boats and ships constitute an important pollutant of water and soil ecosystems, leading to devastating damage to the aquatic ecosystem at times of accidents. There are wide varieties of microorganisms in water and soil known to utilize petroleum hydrocarbons as an energy source and degrade them. Hydrocarbon utilizers (HCUs) found to be useful in the remediation of oil pollution in soil and water, includes certain species of Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Bacillus. This work is primarily based on degradation study of engine oil and evaluation of the effectiveness of indigenous microorganisms in the process. Microbes isolated from polluted sites have been screened for their ability to grow under in vitro culture, where used engine oil was the sole carbon source. Evaluation of residual oil content and percentage degradation of oil in culture medium was measured at regular intervals of 7 days for a period of 28 days. Residual oil was estimated by the toluene cold extraction method, percentage degradation of hydrocarbons was evaluated using Gas Chromatography (GC). And heavy metals in the sample before and after remediation were also analyzed by Energy diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) and characterised using Scanning Electron microscope (SEM). Results of the study have indicated that microbes are potential agents studied under in vitro conditions for restoring oil contamination and thereby biodegrading the harmful hydrocarbon pollution
Frictional force is a one process in which both surfaces touch each other. These forces are having advantage and disadvantage, but extreme friction can give adverse effect on a surface in engine components and cause wear and erosion which may lead substantial losses to consumers (Abdullah et al. 2013). Great losses may happened because the choice of lubricantoil not suitable for the engine characteristics. The immediate effects on the engine are loss performance, increased fuel consumption and increased environmental pollution (Duchesne et al. 2000).
Lubricant oils are petroleum derivates and they are widely used in automobile engines, hydraulic systems and industrial machines (AMUND, 1996). The lubricantoil discarded in nature causes con- tinuous concern due to its impact in the environment. However, its hazard has not being quantifi ed yet. It was observed that the lubricantoil persisted in the environment for more than six years in some eco- systems and it was able to cause chronic problems for biota (BURNS et al., 1994)
Lubricants work smooth the movement of automotive engine part and marine engine (e.g. outboard engine boat or inboard engine boat) also apply the lubricant to reduce friction, so that it can protect from being wear by the separation of surfaces, metallic or plastic, which are moving with respect to each other (Anand, 2015).
Sulphur test is one of the important tests. For this 2 gm. weighted sample of lubricant are used (i.e. in this dissertation sulpher test are used for 2 gm. oil samples). First of all, weight of crucible is determined by the universal weighing machine. Net amount of sample are then mixed with the dilute HCl. Then heats up this mixture for 30 minute and then allow the mixture for cooling about 30 minute. Then mix the saturated solution of BaCl2 (which work as the indicator) in this solution. If sulpher is present in the mixture then solution changes their colour otherwise not. If sulpher is present then an arrangement of conical flask and funnel are made. Watt men filter paper is placed on the top the arrangement (i.e. funnel) and applies solution on it. Liquid is filtered by filter paper and only sulphur is present on it. Then allow this paper for dry. When the paper is dried then put is on the crucible and burn the filter paper. When the filter paper is burnt, again weight the crucible. Subtract the pre-determined value of the crucible from it. Result weight shows the sulpher present in the 2 gm. sample. Similar procedure is applied for the entire sample and determined the sulpher present in all sample.
Based on the observation and results obtained it is clear that the blended lubricantoil of has a slide edge over the conventional mineral oil depending upon the comparison of the properties and various other aspects. Since their oil, but also the blended oils showed good anti-wear properties than the mineral oil. All the samples were tested in engine for any change in the performance and mainly the emission respectively.
production of petroleum as well as the commercial drilling, engineering has advances led to the adoption in different application where machines with high specific power, simple design, light overall weight and low cost was required. Furthermore, engines development which are consist of moving components like pistons, turbine blades or a nozzle over a distance whereby includes the transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy requires effectiveness of lubricant toward moving parts in order a mechanism between two contacting surfaces will slide smoothly over each other. Lubricant has been used since the day machine has invented where insufficient lubrication will affect the machine performance. A study by Suhane et al., (2012) state that lubricants have becoming very common and highly demand by various industrial afterwards since the industrial revolution, which influenced the price and availability of lubricants used from vegetable until animal sources. A study by Mobarak et al., (2014) stated that to achieve reliable and safe operation at desired operating conditions need an effective lubrication toward a moving components to allow the components to slide more smoothly over each other.
The optical single piston-ring lubricant assembly is the same as that used by  and the full details of the setup, lubricants details, measuring sensors and measurement procedures are provided by  and will not be repeated here. Here a summary of most important aspects of the experimental setup, details of the different lubricants, image analysis using MATLAB, and the running conditions would be presented and discussed. Figure 1 shows the arrangement of the optical test-rig together with the liner and the ring units. The overall test-rig is shown in Figure 1a which consists of a sliding optical liner made of flat quartz window imbedded in an aluminum plate simulating the principle operation of a reciprocating motion over a single stationary ring unit. The sliding liner unit is connected to the crank guide linear bearing and transmission unit by an arm through several bearings where the angular motion of a DC electric motor is converted to linear motion; the DC motor was fully isolated from the rig to avoid any vibrations transmission. The sliding liner holder assembly, Figure 1b, was designed to allow access to the fixed ring unit, Figure 1c. The ring specimen is fixed in the ring holder which sits on a knife edge to allow it to tilt in the transverse direction ensuring good conformity between the ring and the liner. Controlled load is applied at contact point by a loading arm connected to the end of liner block assembly (shown in Figure 1a) through a set of high precision low friction roller bearing. The lubricant supply assembly consists of an electric pump that circulates the lubricant from supply tank to a filter and then to a heat exchanger before feeding into the ring/liner interface continuously through eight jets located on both sides (four on each side) of the ring to ensure a fully flooded condition at liner-ring interaction. The lubricant temperature was controlled via an adaptive system through the heat exchanger capable of varying and maintaining the oil temperature up to 80 ◦ C with maximum variation of ± 0.5 ◦
The influence of the different lubricant temperatures on the specific wear rate of the brass, aluminium and mild steel are presented in Figure 5.20 considering three different temperatures: 22 o C (room temperature), 40 o C and 80 o C. In general, one can see that the increase in the lubricant temperature increased the specific wear rate for all the materials. The main reason for the increase in the specific wear rate with the increase of the temperature is the reduction in the viscosity of the lubricant with the temperature increase (see Figure 3.13). The presence of the low-viscosity lubricant in the interface may help to clean the interface area but not separate the rubbed bodies completely, as seen in Figure 5.14. Ciantar et al. (1999) reported that low-viscosity oils resulted in severe wear since there is material transfer between the asperities and worn materials increase. This has also been concluded by Velkavrh and Kalin (2012) and Imran et al. (2013) when the tests were conducted at different lubricant viscosity. The current study highlights that the temperature of the same lubricant impacts the wear performance. In addition to the viscosity modification due to the environmental temperature leading to an increase in the interaction between the asperities, the low viscosity of the oil helps to clean the interface from the worn debris. This could have advantages or disadvantages since washing out the debris will prevent the presence of the third body reported in Figure 4.13. Conversely, the washing out of the debris from the interface prevents film formation (plastic deformation on the rubbed surface), which in turn increases the removal of the material and decreases the stability of the surface characteristics. In other words, there are two occurrences that may assist in understanding the increase of the specific wear rate with the increase of the environmental temperature (reducing the viscosity): the continuation of modifications on the rubbed surfaces and the low separation of the two rubbed bodies. Observations of the SEM and the roughness of the worn surface will assist further and is discussed in the next sections.
surface of the mild steel after testing under the applied load of 30 N under the condition of waste cooking oil as a lubricant at a temperature of 22 o C showing: abrasive wear mechanism marked as “A”; plastic deformation marked as “Pl” and polishing process marked as “P” ................................................................... 72 Figure 5.11: Specific wear rate vs. sliding distance of different materials tested under
Stark, M.S. orcid.org/0000-0002-2175-2055, Wilkinson, J.J., Lee, P.M. et al. (4 more authors) (2006) Lubricant degradation, transport and the effect of extended oil drain intervals on piston assembly tribology. In: IMechE 50th Anniversary Conference. Tribology 2006: Surface Engineering and Tribology for Future Engines and Drivelines, 12 Jul 2006.
We can also see is that the lowest solar yield occurs in June, July, August and September which are the monsoon months. However, this is also due in part to the angle of the solar collector which is inclined 22.5° to the south in order to achieve the highest annual yield. By changing the angle, the performance in these months could be improved albeit at the expense of the overall annual performance. The heat energy from the solar collector would either be used to heat the oil being pumped into the dehydration tank via a heat exchanger; in which case surplus energy collected in the daytime would be stored in a hot water tank for use at night. Or alternative all the energy collected in the daytime would be used to heat an intermediate oil storage tank, with the used oil being pumped from this tank into the dehydration tank as required. The solar plant’s control would be programmed to operate automatically. With the only regular maintenance being the periodic cleaning of the collectors and checking and cleaning of used oil filters.
to its high viscosity (among palm oil categories), a thick lm is able to tolerate the extrusion force. Its characteristics are similar with those of the preferred existing metal forming lubricants so that boundary lubrication between two surfaces can be created . It contains fatty acid that helps to maintain the thin lubrication layer between tapered die and billets [5,34]. According to Yingying et al. , with the increase of FFA, the yield of glycerol decreases slightly. Glyc- erol normally will react together with fatty acid to create a thin layer between sliding actions. This reaction reduces friction, wear, and extrusion load. The more glycerol and fatty acid, the thicker the layer.
However, vegetable oils lacks in term of thermal stability due to the presence of bis-allylic protons (Erhan et al., 2006). These active sites are extremely liable to radical attack and consequently the molecules undergo oxidative degradation and form polar oxy compounds. This results in the formation of insoluble deposits and rise in oil acidity and viscosity (Liu et al., 2015). The oils were effective as lubricants with zero failures, but the viscosity increases over time and produced deposits on the bore (Fox and Stachowiak, 2007). This study shows an approach to enhance the oxidation behavior of canola oil which has been selected as a choice of vegetable oil combined with zinc diamyldithiocarbamate (ZDDC) as antioxidant.
There are various types of experiments that have been conducted by many researchers through a combination of vegetable oil with different concentrations of ZDDP to analyze the behavior of the wear and friction generated. A research of developing a new bio-lubricant conducted by Mahipal et al. (2014) on the performance of karanja oil as lubricant with addition of different concentration of ZDDP as additives showed that the coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter of karanja oil with right amount of ZDDP had a better results compared to mineral based lubricant SAE 20W-40. However, karanja oil with excessive concentration of ZDDP resulted in increment of the coefficient of friction which is exceeds the coefficient of friction of the mineral based lubricant. This research proves that the right quantity of ZDDP added into vegetable oil are desired in order to produce a bio-lubricant with lowest coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter compared to mineral based lubricant.
5 Vegetable oil based lubricants are non-toxic and biodegradable compared to conventional petroleum based lubricants (Mahipal et al. 2014). This will minimize the damage to the environment. Moreover, vegetable oils are sustainable energy and cheaper base oils for lubricants compared to synthetic fluids. This is because the resource of vegetable oils is renewable and it can be found in abundance. Vegetable oils also show good properties, such as excellent lubricity, high viscosity index and high flash point (Mobarak et al., 2014). The triglycerides of vegetable oils provide lubricant films which interact with the metallic surfaces and they will also reduce the friction and wear between the contact surfaces. This is one of the reasons why the vegetable oils can be used as lubricants. Furthermore, vegetable oils also exhibit high solubilizing power for polar contaminants and additives molecules (Erhan et al., 2006). This property will help the lubricant additives to dissolve into the base oils for the future development of lubricant.
M. M. S. Prasad and R. R. Srikant  investigated on the performance of nanographite particle inclusions with cutting fluids with MQL in turning of AISI 1040 steel. HSS and cemented carbide inserts were used in machining of steels. Nanofluids were prepared with suspending nanographite powder particles ( 80 nm size ) in various proportions like 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% by weight and water soluble oil as base fluid are used as coolants in MQL with different flow rates. The influence of nanofluids on various process parameters like surface finish, cutting forces, tool wear and temperatures were studied.