The fashion industry is becoming increasingly more important in world economies. Not for nothing is it one of the industries that, despite the crisis, has continued to grow and generate profits. Natural resources are becoming scarce and those brands whose manufacturing processes do not comply with sustainability standards are now being penalized, a state of affairs that not only concerns fashion, but also any other business environment. Sustainability is the sum of environmental and social benefits that enhance global welfare. Moreover, eco-luxury is being advanced as one of the most novel trends in fashion consumption and as a balance between economic return and social awareness. The aim of this study is to show, on the basis of a real project for creating a communication agency specializing in fashion, that entrepreneurs and brands are investing in sustainability and that eco-luxury has become a corporate hallmark. Contextually speaking, this research includes a content analysis of the leading communication agencies in Spain, in order to identify the keys to entrepreneurship and to respond to the current needs of fashionbrands and green consumers. The findings not only point to a renovation of materials, resources, and creation and manufacturing processes, but above all reveal changes in business behaviour as regards the way of communicating sustainability and highlighting it as an exclusive, luxury trend, both factors inherent to fashion consumption.
The consumption of luxurybrands is oftentimes viewed as the symbol of social status and wealth (Vigneron & Johnson, 1999). The most important personality dimension identified in this research is Prestigious. This finding is consistent with the luxury brand positioning strategies: they are built on the premise of offering high symbolic value to a very selective segment of consumers, who are more focused on high status associations than the underlying price. Managers of luxurybrands create and sustain the image of prestige and exclusivity through advertising, celebrity endorsement, selective distribution, premium pricing, and producing limited edition lines (Fionda & Moore, 2009). Remarkably but not surprisingly, a negative personality dimension emerged in this research, namely Snobby. It encompasses negative items such as greedy, haughty, and snobby. This dimension is the reflection of characteristics that define snobby (or conspicuous) on luxuryfashionbrands’ personality. Conspicuous or luxury consumers can be categorised as snobs, who have higher socioeconomic status and prefer limited edition products, while refraining from products consumed by many (Corneo & Jeanne, 1997). Although a new luxury paradigm (individualistic type of luxury consumption driven by new needs and desires for experiences) is radically different from the traditional ‘old’ luxury consumption (motivated primarily by the desire for prestige and the public display of social status), the finding confirms that those top luxurybrands are still portrayed by consumers as snobbish, class-oriented exclusivity goods and services that only a small segment of the population can afford or is willing to purchase (Granot & Brashear, 2008).
Despite the many harms discussed above, luxuryfashion businesses have a significant contribution as a positive role model for sustainable consumption due to the longevity inherent in certain brands. We do recognise that, in encouraging consumers to buy second-hand luxury clothing, new markets and their related, alternative retailing spaces are being created, which in turn generate their own set of idiosyncratic impacts. However, ‘the thing about a Hermés bag is that it will last forever – it’s the Land Rover of the bag world’ (Blanchard, 2007). In contrast, cheap fashion retailers such as Primark have been criticised for their celebration of ‘throwaway fashion’ or ‘speed chic,’ fostering a relentless appetite for new clothes and over-consumption, while ignoring the environmental damage this creates (Bray, 2009; Lee, 2003; Shaw et al., 2006). Thus, to some extent luxuryfashionbrands represent the antithesis to disposable fashion since many customers cherish their heritage and quality, and the after sales service that extends purchase life. For example, UK Savile Row tailor Gieves & Hawkes consider their return and repair services as an essential element of their customer retention, while Louis Vuitton has five repair centres in Japan to ensure damaged products continue to be used. Unlike the Haute Couture practices mentioned above, these are local repair centres that extend the longevity of fashion items, thus reducing the harmful waste that stems from premature obsolescence. As evident from the sustainable progress made in the EU white goods market as a result of the WEE Directive introduced in 2005, organisations are more likely to commit to waste reduction policies in the face of ‘regulating’ forces (Campbell, 2007). Consequently, rather than governments off-loading regulatory responsibilities solely to NGOs and independent accreditation bodies, it is recommended that policymakers implement a strong state policy regarding the reduction of, e.g., waste and emissions within the textile sector, rather than just the voluntary, ‘nudge’ type policies favoured by the likes of Defra (see details of Defra’s SCAP discussed in the introduction).
Social media marketing presents numerous opportunities for both consumers and luxuryfashionbrands. From the perspective of consumers, social media has enabled them to reach abundant information and resources and acquire any needed knowledge about brands they are interested in. It also reduces the risks and uncertainty related to online shopping since consumers can consult opinions or comments of other consumers through the online interaction (Kontu & Vecchi, 2014). For instance, Phan et al. (2011) and Jin (2012) both mentioned that social media may function as a virtual brand community which is formed by groups of admirers of a brand, offering a public platform where people could express their mutual preferences and sentiments. Meanwhile, social media serves as a cheaper and perhaps more effective alternative for brands to promote themselves online by reaching a wider range of audience (Kontu & Vecchi, 2014; Karamian et al., 2015). Particularly in this era when customers are much more powerful and busy, a convenient and easily available communication channel such as social media would be of great importance (ibid).
Regardless of the amount of money that is needed to buy luxuryfashionbrands, people have to go through different decision-making processes first, which then lead to positive or negative purchase desires and intentions. Considering that luxuryfashionbrands are high-involvement products that are not bought out of impulsiveness or spontaneity, it is in both companies´ and marketers´ interest to have a clear understanding of the factors that influence consumers in their buying intentions. Consumers have to go through invisible, mental processes that cannot be observed or captured easily, because people make use of their different personality factors as sources of making decisions (Gohary & Hanzaee, 2014). Consumers choose brands not only due to their functional performance benefits, but also because brands can be used to express consumers´ personality to fulfill diffeerent needs. According to Homer and Kahle (1988), personality traits are important underlying determinants of consumers´ consumption behavior. Based upon which personality factors are the most significant, consumers will be motivated or demotivated to desire and purchase products. Therefore, this correlational study intends to find out which personality factors of consumers play a role when desiring and intending to purchase luxuryfashionbrands such as Gucci, Chanel, Christian Dior, Versace, Prada and Yves Saint Lauren.
analyse what are the features that our respondents takes in consideration while purchasing luxuryfashion items. Therefore, according to Figure 12 and Figure 13 (see above), these figures demonstrates an analysis of the all answers generated from the whole respondents based on tangible or intangibles values of these particular products. The analysis reveals that primarily, the hedonistic value is extremely expressed from our respondents (20% among Londoners and 30% between Parisians). It is also, well acknowledged that generally luxury consumers are seeking for pleasure and comfort when consuming Luxury products (Kapferer & Bastien, 2009; Keller, 2009). This refers to facets that luxuryfashionbrands communicates to their customers, thus it is widely relevant that the majority of respondents have chosen this answer in the survey. Secondly, the Uniqueness value is mostly selected from respondents (10.6% among Londoners and 16.5% between Parisians), this fact can be explain by the need for uniqueness from luxury consumers when they want to acquire a luxury product. Indeed, this phenomenon represents one of the main reason why Luxury customers consume those specific branded items (Dubois, Laurent, Czellar, 2001; Kapferer & Bastien, 2009; Keller, 2009). Then, the usability value, which refers to the core function of luxury branded goods (305% among Londoners and 9.4% among Parisians)., as well as the materialistic value, which in terms of choice was mostly selected from Londoners (2.4%) against (1.2%) Parisians.
Recently automobile and jewelry luxurybrands like Faberge, Tissot, Boucheron and BMW have adopted augmented reality technologies in order to give the shopper the possibility of trying on products, getting a more real-live feel, and making the product come to live on screen. This adoption of technology has however not reached the luxuryfashionbrands yet. Berta de Pablos, Global Director of Marketing & Communications at Boucheron, talked about her experience with augmented reality, saying, “You have to start with the brand, not the technology. You have to ask, how can we create the dream of the brand in the minds of the consumers? ..The Internet can be a catalyst of emotions. We experienced that people were intimidated going into our stores, but we wanted them to interact and connect with the brand. Augmented reality allowed for this.”
Bastien 2009a; Silverstein and Fiske 2003), however, does not fully explain the more than 200 billion dollars that these brands are generating globally per year (Datamonitor 2011). Instead, people “outside” their core target segment account for a significant part of luxurybrands’ sales: while “luxury products are the ordinary products of extraordinary people,” they are “the extraordinary products of ordinary people” (Kapferer 2010, p. 44). As luxurybrands are positioned around a wealthy upper-class segment, displaying such possessions might allow its owner to signal a high rank in society and hence to have high status (Belk, Bahn, and Mayer 1982; Berger and Ward 2010; Han, Nunes, and Dreze 2010; Silverstein and Fiske 2003). Luxurybrands thus stimulate vertical comparisons, create social distance, and facilitate a downward comparison accompanied by a boost in agentic feelings (e.g., feeling superior compared to others). Note that status signaling, however, is not a definitional component of luxuryfashionbrands. While signaling might be important to some, it is clearly not critical for all consumers (Rucker and Galinsky 2009). For example, it appears to be highly unlikely that pope Benedict XVI’s decision to have his red Papal shoes manufactured by the luxuryfashion brand Prada was driven by status signaling considerations.
I am Siti Nadia Binti Sheikh Abdul Hamid, a postgraduate student from University Utara Malaysia (UUM), Sintok, Kedah. This research is undertaken to examine the motivations behind Generation Y consumers’ purchasing intention towards luxuryfashionbrands in Malaysia. From this research, we hope to discover the factors that significantly influence Generation Y consumers’ purchase intention towards luxuryfashionbrands, which will be used in gaining a deeper understanding of this market segment.
Only half of the observed brands used video features (fashion shows, brand or campaign videos) on their websites in 2006, whereas the majority of brands did in 2008 and 2010 (80%). The videos are all very stylised and controlled. They are inherently without video posts, blogs or interactive videos, where the brand can talk directly to fans and customers as exemplified on social media platforms (i.e. Burberry‟s video posts to Likers on Facebook). Burberry furthermore utilised an interactive 3D video on its site where the user could drag the models and products in all directions on screen creating a very engaging and entertaining interaction. Recently automobile and jewellery luxurybrands like BMW, Faberge, Tissot, and Boucheron have adopted augmented reality technologies in order to give the shopper the possibility of trying products, getting a more real-live feel, and making the product come live on the screen. This adoption of technology has however not reached the luxuryfashionbrands yet. Berta de Pablos, Global Director of Marketing & Communications at Boucheron, talked about her experience with augmented reality, saying, “You have to start with the brand, not the technology. You have to ask, how can we create the dream of the brand in the minds of the consumers? …The Internet can be a catalyst of emotions. We experienced that people were intimidated going into our stores, but we wanted them to interact and connect with the brand. Augmented reality allowed for this.”
By taking into account the particular field of the cultural industries, it would be interesting to identify how in such a difficult scenario different sectors, for example fashion and design, can meet in order to mutually enhance their circuits of value. Some studies have demonstrated that in order to confront such new global challenges, luxuryfashion firms may discover strategic opportunities in art (Codignola, 2016). In fact, thanks to its nature, art can concurrently convey an aura of culture, exclusivity, prestige and luxury. In addition, it inspires creativity (Eisner, 2002), which can be used as an essential element to enhance satisfaction alongside with personal experience. Several studies have shown that the link between luxuryfashion firms--and luxuryfashionbrands (thereafter referred to LFBs)--and art is on the rise. Buyers of the former are frequently buyers of the latter. For instance, in order to show their social status and wealth, consumers from emerging economies and ‘high-net-worth individuals’ are often characterized by this particular purchasing inclination to integrate both luxury goods and art works. Moreover, as is the case with luxury items, one of the primary economic features of the art market is that it is –theoretically-- based on the scarcity of supply. “The art market is supply-driven and depends fundamentally on the limited amount of high-quality art works offered on the market. As a consequence, a feature of the art works is their high prices” (Codignola, 2016, p. 52). Just as for luxury goods, this means that only high-end individual buyers can afford to buy and collect art works.
Demography is very useful for understanding social and economic problems and identifies the solution (Thomson, 2007). There are two demographic variables, which are age, and income level, are used to explain the youth purchase intention toward luxuryfashionbrands. Young consumers in different age have different behavior. A nineteen years old consumer may behave differently with a twenty-five years old consumer (Madahi & Sukati, 2012).
This study, which proposes hypotheses about the relationship between indicators and concepts for measuring concepts, can be considered as a theoretical framework for modeling purchasing behavior in luxury consumption. The study aims to find the consumer buying behavior and decision-making process of Azerbaijan. In our study, the results of my empirical findings based on surveys, interviews and secondary researches were analyzed using the traditional consumer buying behavior model and decision-making process. In this report, important factors will be emphasized and discussed at every stage of the decision-making process that affects consumer buying behavior. Azerbaijan, Turkey, and by examining the current luxury market our neighbors, we will do a short work about growing luxury markets. This research is based on an analysis of the prerequisites for retail growth of luxurybrands as well as the success and failure factors to ensure a victorious attempt in the Azerbaijani market. The study also looks at external and internal environmental factors that may affect the internationalization of fashion companies in Azerbaijan.
Practically, this study also provides three implications. research has proven that the difference in the three distinct categories have impacted the effectiveness of their campaign, which is knowledge that marketers can use when designing an influencer campaign destined to improve a brand’s recognition among consumers. Secondly, the proof of an influencer’s influence differing across the category of endorsement may be useful for marketers. This finding may help marketers design more thoroughly researched influencer marketing campaigns in the future as this consideration may be done depending on the goal of the brand. Finally, should luxurybrands be trying to carry out an influencer marketing with a similar target group to this study, the results may provide three suitable influencers depending on the type of post they are aiming for.
Industries nowadays have been comfortable with the incorporation of social media to their marketing strategy. Italy has been known as a major center of the European fashion industry, a sector that is also following the social media marketing trends. This paper provides empirical findings on Italian luxuryfashionbrands’ social media marketing activities. We present and analyze two case studies of Italian luxuryfashionbrands: Gucci and The Bridge (Il Ponte Pelletteria). Gucci is one of worldwide leading Italian fashion companies and The Bridge is a SME fashion brand that focuses on leather products. This study is based on a conceptual framework on social media marketing strategy synthesized from extensive social media marketing literature. The research methodology includes content analysis of Gucci’s and The Bridge’s public posts on their Facebook brand pages and Twitter. Our findings suggest that social media actions implemented by both brands are directed toward promotion and sales marketing activities. However, there are differences on the specific actions carried out by both brands, and the use the companies make of the two social media platforms. This paper provides valuable insight for framing social media marketing strategic actions and set the basis for social media performance measurements, especially among luxuryfashionbrands.
of luxury and fashion: writing its own story through the use of more social media and creating a mix of virtual and real experiences "builds an integrated communication. So a brand must communicate on the web to increase its dream value, increase brand awareness at low cost while maintaining a positive image. The conclusions we can draw from the use of the internet for online sales of luxuryfashionbrands are different. To sell a product creates a personal, affective relationship between the brand and the customer and this one-to-one relationship is vital in the universe of luxury goods. Luxury has a strong human dimension that is purely relational, the aspect of the advice of the sales staff is decisive in luxury, it is part of the brand, therefore the distribution must be carried out so that the customer can buy in peace and security and the staff, must make understand all the subtleties of a product, must share the quality, the spirit of the place, objects and time present in each object. One of the problems of luxury today is the Internet dilemma as a web strategy is essential for a luxury brand. The Internet is an effective communication, experiential and advertising tool, but the channel that presents problems is e-commerce for this "a luxury product must communicate via the Internet but should not be sold via the Internet." This may come as a surprise as most luxurybrands have an e-commerce site. The Internet is essential for high positioning and to recreate the distance with brands that are not of real luxury. Communicating and selling are two different things. Recreating the experience of a real boutique online does not sell because e-commerce sites reduce the dream of the brand by providing too many unqualified people with too easy access to products, make the personal relationship disappear and deny the invitation to experience one
Multi-brand e-tailers allow large luxurybrands the opportunity to reach both time-pressed consumers who don’t have time to shop around on multiple mono-brand sites and more rural customers who aren’t easily able to visit urban boutiques. Yet along with this visibility to a wider audience, multi-brand retail also carries the risk of over-exposure and dilution for luxurybrands. Because brand cache is so important, luxuryfashionbrands must have a clear strategy of how to distribute and market offerings across both channels. Most luxurybrands still actively steer the selection of which items they put into multi-brand e-tailing. The “long-running classics” are often only distributed through their own brand website, rather than multi-brand e-tailers.
There are some fantastic Irish fashion designers who have emerged in recent years such as Emma Manley, Natalie B Coleman, Sorcha O’ Raghallaigh, Orla Kiely and JW Anderson to name but a few. These can be described as premium Irish fashionbrands. A Gucci bag may have the same tangible functions as, take for example a bag from premium Irish brand Orla Kiely but commands a much higher price. An Orla Kiely handbag can be purchased for €228 - €368 (Kiely, 2013) whereas a Gucci bag costs €620 - €2000 (Gucci, 2013). This price gap points to that the Gucci bag has intangible properties such as reputation and image as well as tangible properties as quality and craftsmanship. Premium brands are brands that aspire to become a luxury brand but their marketing mix is targeted towards a mass market (Onkonkwo, 2007). The main difference between premium and luxury products is that luxury is tied to the social hierarchy whereas premium goods are simply better good’s, they are the best in class products, after examination of their comparative performance. Luxury is elsewhere and is seen as even better than premium (Kapferer 2011). The real characteristics of a luxuryfashion brand must be studied in order to get a better understanding as to why Irish fashionbrands are not receiving as much recognition as those of British, French and Italian designers.
One major limitation of this study is the lack of empirical evidence for these propositions. Future research should focus on developing a quantitative marketing research with primary data to examine the level of Instagram use to influence luxuryfashion purchases, in general and related to a particular high-end brand. Another idea for expanding this study is to conduct a qualitative research based on text mining and sentiment analysis to gather new information from users’ comments about their use and perception of luxuryfashionbrands’ presence on Instagram. The study could also be extended in developing a cross-cultural research that examines consumers’ use of Instagram and how they perceive social media marketing practices of luxuryfashionbrands.
In the past, luxuryfashionbrands resisted the Internet because e-commerce had the perception of being a lesser-than experience that could not convey the heritage of the brands. This has stifled innovation in their branding and marketing strategy. Luxury is really about the customer experience, not just about the product. With the evolution of consumer behaviors through the Internet and more specifically through social media engagement, the Internet is now a valuable tool that brands need to think about from an experience standpoint. Use of text, pictures, and videos to allow customers to engage with brands and share their stories is very important to consider in the design of a future digital roadmap for luxuryfashionbrands.