A simple, fast and efficient validated method is developed for determination of magnesium content in Esomeprazole-Magnesium by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) with 0.2 nm slit width with high speed deuterium (D2) lamp. The read time was set at 3.0 second with 285.2 nm wavelength. The system performance was evaluated by performing the system suitability parameters. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.01 µg/mL and 0.03 µg/mL respectively. The percentages of recovery for low, medium and high spiked concentration levels of magnesium in Esomeprazole-Magnesium were found to be 91.85, 95.02 and 97.89 respectively. With the developed method the magnesium content in Esomeprazole-Magnesium bulk sample was found to be 3.48 % which compliance the United States Pharmacopoeia standard.
Long-term experiments facilitate the observations of changes in soil properties affected by agricultural activity as well as the reactions of crops to those properties. The aim of the study was the assessment of the relationship be- tween the soil pH as well as contents of organic carbon, total nitrogen, available forms of phosphorus, potassium (K av ), magnesium (Mg av ) and the magnesium content in flag leaves (Mg fl ) in winter wheat. There was also deter- mined the correlations between the Mg fl content and the nitrogen (N fl ), phosphorus, potassium (K fl ) and calcium (Ca fl ) contents in those leaves. The Mg fl content was at-the-highest-level linearly positively correlated with soil pH and its richness in Mg av . The dependence of the Mg fl content on soil properties and the wheat leaves chemical com- position was best described by polynomial equations of the 2 nd degree, except for the K
The effect of plastic deformation and magnesium content on the mechanical properties of 6063 aluminium alloys was observed. Deformation at 40% gave good tensile properties than deformation at 20% up to 0.651%Mg content. Hence, the mechanical properties of the samples increase with an increase in percentage deformation and magnesium content up to 0.651%Mg. Therefore, for improved mechanical properties of 6063 aluminium alloys deformed at 40%, the magnesium content should be kept between 0.451% and 0.651%.
using spectrophotometric or HPLC methods. These methods detect the esomeprazole molecule itself rather than the corresponding magnesium ion. To our knowledge, no volumetric method has been reported so far for the determination of magnesium ion content in the esomeprazole magnesium active substance or raw material. This paper reports a quantitative procedure for the determination of magnesium content in esomeprazole magnesium using a simple and inexpensive complexation titrimetric method. The proposed titrimetric method is based on complex formation between EDTA (added in excess) and the magnesium ions in solution buffered at pH 9. EDTA forms chelates (complexes) with nearly all metal ions, with a 1:1 metal-legand ratio. The complex formation equilibrium is affected by the pH of the medium  .
small percentage is found in the extracellular fluid. The total magnesium concentration of blood plasma in most cases does not exceed 2 mmol l −1 , and the ionic concentration is nromally less than 1 mmol l −1 . The largest portion of the soft tissues is made up by muscle tissue. In muscle, the magnesium concentration is 10–15 µmol g −1 fresh mass, accounting for approximately 20 % to the total magnesium pool of the body (Knox et al. 1981; Van der Velden et al. 1989; Bijvelds et al. 1997a). In the cell, magnesium is one of the most abundant cations; it is stored in intracellular compartments or bound to proteins and the phosphate groups of adenosine nucleotides. The ionic magnesium level in the cytoplasm is kept relatively low, i.e. in the submillimolar range, typically representing less than 10 % of the total magnesium content of the cell (Heaton, 1993).
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Statistical analysis of our data reveals that the hardness of treated wa- ter did not correlate with the calcium and magnesium content, which means that the former was probably determined by other substances present in water and not analyzed in the study. Instead, positive dependence between calcium and magnesium concentrations in the analyzed water samples was found (Figure 1). Interactions between both elements are common, although scientists cannot agree about an optimum ratio between these elements in waters. Conventionally, it is assumed as a 2:1 ratio (D URLACH 1989), but re-
Regarding the mean mineral concentrations obtained in the present study, it can be seen that, except for cal- cium, the remaining elements present in breast milk could satisfy the daily requirements of the infants during the first semester of life. However, if we consider the milk volume produced daily by the mother to be 800 mL, these ingested quantities would be insufficient for 18.5% (13/70) of the infants regarding copper, for 44.2% (31/70) regarding zinc and for 64.2% (45/70) regarding magnesium. Iron concentrations would be sufficient in all cases, while calcium concentrations would be below the daily requirements of the babies.
were observed by Pereira et al. (2002), who found in other species of acai, Euterpe oleracea, 84.7% water in the pulp. The humidity value disclosed by NEPA (2011) is 88.7% in frozen pulp. In contrast, Aguiar et al. (1980) found 36.0% water in acai fruit of the same species. This difference is due to the extraction process, in which addition of water is inherent. Melo Neto et al. (2013) analyzed the water content of a jelly of acai mixed with cacao honey and found similar values to those found in this study – from 35.6 to 39.8% water. According to Viana et al. (2012), the water content in jams is directly related to the storage of the product. The amounts of protein were significantly different in the three acai products. It was observed 3.3, 1.00 and 1.2 g / 100 g of dry pulp, jam and jelly, respectively. The value found in this work for acai pulp is in accordance to the Ordinance n. 01 (Brasil, 2000), which recommends at least 6.0 g in 100 g dry matter of the product, corresponding to 0.72 g in 100 grams of wet weight and is close to the value determined by NEPA (2011) – 0.8 g / 100 g of frozen pulp. The highest concentration of protein in the pulp was due to the fact that the production of jam and jelly involves cooking, and the increase in temperature is responsible for the denaturation of proteins. The cooking time for making jelly is shorter than for making jam, which may explain the difference between the amounts of protein observed in these products. According to Araújo et al. (2014), the cooking process of fruits is fast, and they become softened and lose their shape, as a result of denaturation of proteins and consequent reduction of the permeability of cell membranes, allowing penetration of solutes such as sugar. It is possible to observe the significant difference in the content of lipids between the acai pulp and its products. 5.3 g/100 g was found in the acai pulp, while the values found in jam and jelly were 3.0 g/100 g and 2.3 g/100 g respectively. Similary, Menezes and Guitini. (2008) found in E. oleraceae fruit pulp 5.5 g/100 g of lipids. The value determined by NEPA (2011) is 3.9 g/100 g of fruit pulp. Sanabria and Sangronis (2007) obtained 4.0 g of lipids in 100 g of acai pulp. In a study on fatty acid composition of acai, Nascimento et al. (2008) showed that acai has a high content of unsaturated fatty acids 68-71%, placing this fruit in the classification of functional food, in preventing cardiovascular disease, besides being a high-caloric food (Toaiari et al., 2005).
While coral was the highest contributor to Abaiang beach sand at all sites, there was an unexpected significant difference between coral content at reef sites and lagoon sites, with higher levels of coral at lagoon sites. This was unexpected because of higher coral proportions reported from offshore surveys on windward sites relative to lagoon sites (Lovell, 2000), and may be derived from wind-driven waves and currents being responsible for the active transport of reef-derived materials to the lagoons (Yamano et al., 2002). Coral fragments have high taphonomic durability to mechanical destruction in quiet water conditions (Scoffin, 1992). While the sediment contribution of foraminifera was lower than found at Fongafale Island of Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu (Collen and Garton, 2004), with an average for Abaiang sites of 12% (Figure 4), it also made a significantly greater contribution at reef sites, increasing to a mean of 20% and a maximum of 40% (Table 3). By contrast, little difference (<5% variation) was found in proportions of coral, foraminifera and molluscs on ocean and lagoon facing beaches on Tarawa (Ebrahim, 2000), with less than 5% difference in results. Reef environments fringe Abaiang (Figure 1), with closer proximity and higher diversity and productivity (Paulay and Kerr, 2001) at windward sites relative to leeward reef sites. The significant difference of lower coral proportions in reef beach sediments may be owing to dilution by abundant foraminifera supply at reef sites, with large foraminifera presence described as reflecting coral reef vitality in low nutrient marine environments (Hallock, 2000). Foraminiferal abundance may fluctuate with wind conditions, with direct winds tending to sweep individuals off the substratum (Fujita et al., 2009). No evidence was found in variations of corals, mollusc and foraminifera proportions between the lagoonal sites, likely showing effective lagoonal circulation.
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The street dust in the amount of 0.5 g was min- eralized with hydrochloric and nitric acid in a 3:1 volume ratio in a closed microwave system. All determinations were performed in triplicate. The samples after filtration were transferred quanti- tatively into 50 ml graduated flasks. The content of Ca, Mg, Na and K was determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) on an AAS ICE 3500 Thermo Scientific spectrometer. All solutions were prepared using ultra-pure wa- ter. The glassware used for the determination was soaked in nitric acid (8%) and washed with tap water, followed by thorough rinsing with deion- ized water. The results of the street dust analyses were verified using the certified reference mate- rial (Certificate No. 0217-CM-700I-04, 7003). The measurement results of standard reference material showed good compliance with the certi- fied values. The obtained results pertaining to the contents of tested Ca, Mg, Na and K are given in relation to air-dry dusts.
determined for particular sorbents, soils and their mixtures. The hydrolytic acidity was determined after treating the samples with calcium acetate so- lution with the pH=8.2. The resultant acetic acid was titrated with 0.1 M solution of NaOH. The content of alkaline cations was determined fol- lowing their leaching from samples by means of subsequent doses of 1 M solution of ammonium acetate with the pH=7 [Ostrowska et al., 1991]. In the obtained eluates, the concentrations of cations were determined by means of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (Ultrace
The in vitro antibacterial activity of the extract was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBCs) using broth microdilution method  . For this purpose, stock solutions of the extract and standard drug were prepared at a concentration of 4096 µg/ml and 64 µg/ml respectively; successive dilutions permit to obtain the tested concentrations that varied from 1024 to 8 µg/ml in a 96 micro-well plates containing 95 µl of MHB and 5 µl of inoculum (standardized at 2.0 x 10 6 CFU/ml by adjusting the optical density to 0.1 at 600 nm SHIMADZU UV-120-01spectrophotometer)  . The negative control well consisted of 195 µl of MHB and 5µl of the standard inoculums. The plates were covered with a sterile plate sealer, then agitated to mix the content of the wells using a plate shaker and incubated at 37°C for 24h. Each concentration was tested in triplicate and the experiment repeated three times.
The TAC of seminal plasma in this study was highly positively correlated with sperm motility, viability and seminal plasma Ca and Mg values. The mean TAC values in Ex group was highly correlated with sperm motility and viability, and correlated with seminal plasma Ca values, but in Go group, it was highly correlated with sperm viability only, and in Mo group, TAC was significantly correlated with seminal plasma Mg content. This means that TAC of seminal plasma in buffalo bulls is also an important factor for the sperm motility. Lindemann et al. (1988) in an investigation of the effectiveness of certain antioxidants in preserving the motility of bull sperms concluded that oxidation could be a factor in motility loss in living sperm. 23 Lapointe et al. (1998) reported on the presence of antioxidants in the region of the acrosomal cap of the spermatozoa. 6
The Results for Chloride Concentration from Water Sources Water Samples that was collected and analyzed to determine the concentration of chloride in water sources for the study area is presented in figure 2.6. Chloride is an acid‐base balance, water balance, component of stomach acid (hydrochloric acid). One of three powerful electrolytes required by the body (the other two being sodium and potassium), chloride performs a number of important functions within the body. It makes up about 0.15 percent of our body weight. It stimulates the production of hydrochloric acid. Perform different functions to the body such as, Chloride is an enzyme activator and is also involved in maintaining acid‐base and water balance. It allows fluids to pass in and out of cell membranes until the concentration of dissolved particles is equal on both sides. Chloride adjusts metabolic alkalosis resulting from disease or chronic use of diuretic agents. It stimulates the liver to act as a filter to separate waste and then eliminate it from the body. Chloride and the other electrolytes work with calcium and magnesium in maintaining nerve transmission and normal muscle contraction and relaxation. Chloride, as a member in the chloride ‐ bicarbonate shift, moves in and out of red blood cells and blood plasma. This allows the plasma transport of tissue carbon dioxide as bicarbonate to the lungs for excretion, because of the importance and function perform by chloride, WHO and SON recommend that water for domestic uses should content 400mg/l and 250mg/l of chloride. From the field work and the result from the sample, Borehole water in Dutsinma town has the highest amount of chloride ions compare with other sources which is 163.30mg/l which is below the WHO and SON, while sample collected from Dam has the low concentration of chloride ions which is 31.95mg/l compare with other water sources (Table 2).
Our patient was not well controlled on magnesium glycerophosphate while she had significantly better control on magnesium aspartate. In a study using rats, magnesium was better absorbed from organic magnesium salt replacements (magnesium aspartate and particularly magnesium gluconate) than from inorganic salt replacements (e.g. magnesium sulphate and magnesium carbonate) (17). That some magnesium salts are better absorbed than others is reflected in our patient in respect of higher serum magnesium levels upon switching
In the present experiment, the technology using polyethylene film was employed, which could have had an influence on the yield and share of tubers in individual fractions. Accord- ing to Wadas , the use of covers in the cultivation of early potato cultivars improves the yield, especially the number and weight of large tubers. The use of polyethylene shield can affect the quality of tubers by increasing the content of dry matter, potassium and phosphorus and re- ducing the content of nitrates. This was also con- firmed by the research conducted by Krochmal- Marczak et al. .
The result of conductance, hardness and alkalinity content in air dried stem and leaf are shown in Table 5. It shows that conductance of water soluble ash(mhos),hardness of water soluble ash(ppm) and alkalinity of air dried leaf 8.53x10 -3 , 600 and 6 respectively was found to be maximum than air dried stem 2.33x10 -3 , 400 and 2 respectively. However conductance of acid soluble ash (mhos) and hardness (ppm) of acid soluble ash of air dried stem 184.4x10 -3 and 34900 was found to be higher than air dried leaf 154.4x10 -3 and 19900 respectively.
Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phos- phate in muscle and its serum content is an impor- tant indicator of renal health as it is excreted by kid- neys. Creatinine is able to diffuse from the blood vessel to the intestine and be reabsorbed in the intes- tine. In experimental model of hypercreatininaemia in mouse, montmorillonite is reported to decrease serum creatinine by absorbing that in GI tract and accelerating its excretion from the intestine (44). Urea is the primary metabolite derived from dietary protein and tissue protein turnover. As kidney func- tion decreases, the BUN (blood urea nitrogen) level rises. Bentonite is shown to promote the diffusion of urea from blood vessel to intestine, and inhibits the absorption of urea in intestine (45). Then it sounds that bentonite might be beneficial in renal health.
A large number of methods have been developed to prepare Mg ferrite such as the standard ceramic and citrate precursor techniques [15, 16]. On the other hand, any co-precipitation process is highly pH sensitive. In addition, the sol–gel technique is more sophisticated requiring stringent drying conditions and expensive alkoxide precursors. Furthermore, any wet-chemical routes require high temperature to obtain the final product of powder with expected crystal structure . Combustion process of synthesizing magnesium ferrite is one of the best approaches due to low processing time, relatively lower operating-temperature and cost effectiveness. However, combustion route for the synthesis of oxide materials imparts significant advantages like good stoichiometric control and ultrafine particle formation with narrow size distribution [7, 18 - 21].
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Iron is required in the body for the synthesis of hemoglobin and myoglobin which are oxygen careers in the blood and muscles respectively. The daily iron requirement for men and non-menstruating and pregnant women is 18mg. The iron content of 100% peanut butter was low (2.33±0.04mg/100g) and falls short of the 3.00mg/100g reported by  to be present in the butter from other nuts. The incorporation of ginger into the peanut butter increased its iron content from 2.33±0.04 mg/100g to 2.90±0.52 mg/100g but such increase could not make a significant difference in the iron content of the butter.  Similarly, reported that the addition of ginger to low iron content meal did not have a significant effect on the iron content of the feed. The incorporation of crayfish also increased the iron content of the peanut butter to 2.94±0.50mg/100g but failed to create a significant effect on its iron content.  also incorporated crayfish in their animal feed formulation and concluded that crayfish significantly improved the nutritional value of the feed in many ways but not in terms of its iron value. When both ginger and crayfish were incorporated in the peanut butter (sample D), the iron content of the butter still increased at an insignificant level.
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