popular magnetic materials for their use in a wide range of applications 1,2 . Moreover, they also have interesting magnetic and ferroelectric properties at low temperatures 3,4 . Here we study the effects of tuning the magnetic ordering (Néel) temperature all the way to zero resulting in a geometrically driven zero-temperature phase transition of the underlying spin system and the emergence of an electric-dipole glass. These novel properties are expected to be important for a wide range of advanced quantum and cryogenic applications including, for example, electro-caloric and magneto-caloric refrigeration, and quantum memory devices, as the materials can be readily controlled by magnetic fields and voltage gates.
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One of the oldest techniques for electromagnetic field analysis and computation relies on magnetic and/or electric field equivalent circuits. Historically such circuits tended to be simple with few degrees of freedom due to limitations of available computing power; notwithstanding, these methods are still helpful in providing efficient estimates of global parameters and are used for teaching purposes as they are well based physically and avoid complicated mathematical descriptions. Dramatic increases in computer speed and available memory have removed many restrictions and contemporary network equivalents are often based on finite element formulations and are very detailed and accurate. It has been shown before [1–3] that finite element equations are equivalent to loop or nodal descriptions of appropriate magnetic or electric networks. Thus models stemming from the finite element approach may be viewed as network models. The number of branches in such networks is consistent with the number of edges or facets in the discretised mesh. Hence the models are fully multi-node and multi- branch, which explains why they are called the networks. This contribution builds on previous publications and, in particular, addresses the coupling between magnetic networks and electric networks when both conduction and displacement currents may exist.
Regenerative shock absorber has been developed and investigated widely since last two decades. Several methods have been studied to acquire maximum regenerated electric power, better efficiency and to maintain its performace close to the convensional shock absorber in providing vehicle ride quality. In this paper, a novel study on the influence of battery state of charge (SOC) and electric generator properties on the dynamic characteristic of a hydro-magneto-electric- regenerative shock absorber (HMERSA) is presented. The focused study is on how the battery SOC and electric generator properties influence the damping force characteristic, the generated electricity and the efficiency of HMERSA. The battery SOC and generator were tested and the relation between current, voltage and electric torque then formulated based on the test result. The empiric formula of the electric variable were used to develop the dyanmic model of HMERSA and quarter model of the vehicle.The results are reported and discussed in this paper.
The toroidal moment can be used to characterize the magneto-electric properties in antiferromagnetic systems. Its usefulness stems from the fact that is depends on both position and orientation of the magnetic moments and from its well-defined macroscopic symmetry properties, which allow to use point groups instead of space groups, in contrast to a discussion based on the antiferromagnetic order parameter.
The parameters of the edge and facet models may also be obtained in an approximate way (Demenko, 2000; Sykulski, 1995; Hammond and Sykulski, 1994), in which case no coupling between branches can be established, thus no mutual reluctances, permeances, conductances or capacitances are available. Only magneto-electric couplings are preserved, resulting from the dependence of mmf on current and emf on time derivative of magnetic flux.
The concept of exciting electric and magnetic dipole simultaneously to produce equal E and H plane radiation pattern was first introduced by Clavin  in 1954 and since then many researches have been proposed on said complimentary antenna. A wideband complimentary antenna has been redesignated as Magneto Electric Dipole antenna by K.M.Luk in 2006. This section will give a brief overview of the some of the feed line structures that have been used for the design and development of magneto electric dipole antenna.
Nickel cobalt manganese iron oxide (NCMF) is a good piezo magnetic material and lead zirconium titanate (PZT) is a good ferro electric material. The composites prepared from NCMF and PZT materials show good magneto –electric effect. In the present work, nano particles of NCMF (crysallites size ~. 13.5 nm ) were synthesized by hydrolysis process and PZT (17nm ) were obtained by soild state reaction methods . Magnetic behavior of NCMF and electrical behavior of PZT materials were also studied .Resistivity of the materials was measured and magneto electrical study of the composites was made .Magneto –electric composite of piezo magnetic ( 60% NCMF) and ferro electric (40% PZT) were prepared. On the application of magnetic field , piezo magnetic phase undergoes strain , which applies stress on ferro electric phase and as a result of this voltage is developed across the sample. It was observed that magneto electric effect produced by the composites prepared from nano particles was lower than that of produced from composites prepared from commercially available(coarse size) samples.
A novel and simple E-shaped magneto-electric dipole antenna with novel feed design with rectangular cavity has been designed and fabricated. The measured and simulated results indicate that it possesses wide impedance bandwidth, which is 68.8% from 2 GHz–4.1 GHz. A stable unidirectional radiation pattern with more than 90% antenna eﬃciency has also been observed. The antenna exhibits equal E -plane and H -plane radiation patterns with stable peak gain of 10.45 dBi and low cross-polarization level less than − 30 dB. Due to its good electrical characteristics, the antenna is suitable for various wireless communication applications in S-band.
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In recently electrostatic Kelvin-Helmoholtz instability by parallel ﬂow velocity shear in presence of inhomogeneous d.c. electric ﬁeld and only density gradient has been studied by Pandey et al.  and velocity shear ion-cylotron instability with perpendicular a.c. electric ﬁled has been also studied by Pandet et al. .
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get the optimum results. Variation of simulated return loss, measured return loss and the formula based return loss of the proposed antenna with frequency is depicted in Fig. 6. From the ﬁgure, it is clear that the measured results match well with the simulated one within the acceptable limit. The proposed antenna delivers impedance bandwidth of 61.5% ranging from 4.5 GHz to 8.5 GHz. Another important antenna parameter is gain, and the variation of simulated and measured gains with frequency is represented in Fig. 7, which shows the peak gain of 7.4 dBi. This high gain, which is conﬁrmed from simulated results, is in contrast to electrical monopole antenna that provides low gain in the range of operation. One of the most desired characteristic of magneto-electric monopole antenna is to show identical E -plane and H -plane radiation patterns, shown in Fig. 8. From the ﬁgure it is shown that the proposed monopole antenna shows almost identical E -plane and H -plane radiation patterns, indicating the desired omnidirectional radiation characteristics. Cross polarization is another parameter which has to be analyzed to indicate purity of the signal. Fig. 9 represents the cross-polarization radiation pattern of the proposed monopole antenna. From the ﬁgure it is clear that the antenna possesses low cross-polarization level at 5 GHz, 6 GHz and 7 GHz, but at 8 GHz the cross polarization increases which may be due to the presence of back radiations. These back radiations may be reduced by increasing the size of ground plane.
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In this paper, a wideband dual-band dual-polarized magneto-electric antenna is presented. A folded metal double-layer magneto-electric dipole is deployed to generate the dual resonant frequencies. The dual-band dual-polarized antenna is the first one used by folded metal double-layer, and polygon baluns are used in middle of stair-shaped feeding strips to improve match impedance. Moreover, owing to the rectangular box-shaped reflector, the antenna’s back radiation can be suppressed, and high gain can be achieved across the operating frequency range. Besides, due to the special feeding structure, the proposed antenna exhibits better performance in impedance bandwidth, and it can also obtain two wide impedance bandwidths of 60% (1.54–2.87 GHz) in low frequency band and 27% (4.62–6.10 GHz) in high frequency band with the reflection coeﬃcients lower than 10 dB for both input ports. Moreover, it is more suitable for 2G/3G/LTE/5G(4.8–5 GHz)/WiMAX/WLAN application.
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In this paper, we present a wideband double-layered dielectric-loaded magneto-electric dipole antenna for dual-polarization operation. It is composed of two pairs of vertical shorted patches, two pairs of horizontal planar dipoles, two orthogonal Γ-shaped stepped-impedance strip feed lines, and a rectangular cavity-shaped reﬂector. Both of planar dipoles have double layers to enhance the impedance matching within the lower range of the operating bandwidth. Loaded between the vertical shorted patches are dielectric materials to reduce the proﬁle of the antenna . The conventional cavity-shaped reﬂector is introduced to further suppress the back radiation and improve the stability in radiation patterns across the operation band . Measured results show that a wide impedance bandwidth of 57.1% has been achieved for the proposed antenna, i.e., more than twice of its counterpart in . The port isolation maintains above 30.0 dB within the bandwidth. Besides, the radiation patterns are stable over the operating frequencies with low back radiation and low cross-polarization radiation.
The geometry of the dual-polarized magneto-electric dipole antenna is shown in Figs. 1–3. For a better description of the antenna, we deﬁne the xoz-plane as the horizontal plane (H-plane) and yoz-plane as the vertical plane (V -plane). For dual polarizations, two linear polarized magneto-electric dipole elements are located orthogonally. As can be seen from Fig. 1, the proposed antenna consists of a rectangular box-shaped reﬂector, two pairs of horizontal planar patches, two pairs of vertically oriented folded shorted patches, and a pair of stair-shaped feeding strips. The horizontal planar patch has the form of an isosceles trapezoid attached with a semicircle. The rectangular box-shaped reﬂector with dimensions of 130 mm(1.21λ 0 ) × 130 mm(1.21λ 0 ) × 26 mm(0.24λ 0 ) is used to achieve relatively stable
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Magneto-rheological fluid  is a new material with the future development and application value of Engineering (smart materials), good performance of magneto rheological fluid under the action of the magnetic field can generate magnetic rheological effect obvious, namely fast reversible transformation in the liquid and solid, the conversion is completed in a millisecond. In the process, the viscosity of magneto rheological fluid was continuously, also it was changed steplessly, The conversion process is very fast, and controllable, minimal energy consumption, also can realize the real-time control  .
Consequently, this paper presents the implementation of a magneto-electric dipole (MED) antenna for the base station antenna of FM radio broadcasting. This designed antenna is able to cover the frequency range of 88–108 MHz with good directional radiation pattern, low cross polarization, and stable gain. The conﬁguration parameters of the antenna are studied and optimized. Finally, a prototype antenna was fabricated and measured to validate the designed antenna by comparing the simulated and measured results.
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materials exhibiting multi ferroic properties at room temperature. In this material, both ferroelectric and anti-ferromagnetic properties coexist simultaneously. It is an inorganic chemical compound with a perovskite structure. It is unique amongst various magneto- electric multiferroics has a ferroelectric – paraelectric phase transition (FE-PE) at Curie temperature (T c ) of 1123K and antiferromagnetic – paramagnetic phase transition (AF-PE) at
3. ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATION VALIDATION Here, we examine the dense copper SRR medium represented in Fig. 1 for which the dimensions of a unit cell are given. The lattice periods along, x, y, and z axis are 18 mm, 16.5 mm, and 18 mm, respectively and the employed substrate is the Epoxy (² r = 4.4) with a thickness of 1.5 mm. We restrict our study to the case of a plane wave propagating along the z axis when the electric field and magnetic field are applied along the x axis and the y axis, respectively.
Analysis for the microstrip antenna can basically be isolated into two social events; procedures that rely upon the equivalent alluring stream course around the patch edges and moreover techniques that rely upon the electric stream dispersal on the patch channel and the ground plane. For this kind of assessment strategies, the radiation from the microstrip antenna is resolved from the corresponding alluring current apportionment around the edge of the transmitting patch, which is gotten from the looking at voltage movement. Means the examination issue is centered on finding the edge voltage appointment for a given excitation and for a foreordained mode. Two guideline systems reliant on this kind of examination are transmission line appear and the pit show. For the electric stream transport based procedure, the Methodology for a considerable length of time is the most generally perceived. This procedure is considered as a full wave show which fuses basically important conditions or Moment System. The logical arrangement for the assessment techniques are showed up in the Figure 2.
The optical signal from the output of the analyzer 4 goes through an optical fiber and enters to the photodiode 7, then as an electrical signal to the amplifier 8, amplified analog signal in analog-digital converter 9 is converted into a digital code that can be stored in the memory register 10 and the result of measuring the electric current or magnetic field is displayed on the LCD 11.
Abstract—An implantable magneto-electric antenna (IMEA) aiming for operation at ultra-wideband (UWB: 3.1–10.6 GHz) frequency spectrum is presented for biotelemetry usages for the ﬁrst time. The IMEA is composed of a horizontal planar bowtie radiator, from which its middle part excites the antenna, and a vertically inclined rectangular radiator. The two radiators are complementary and correspond to electric and magnetic dipoles, respectively. The radiators are built over a square dielectric material (ε r = 6, σ = 0.0005) with a cavity for embedding suitable accompanying circuitry system. The IMEA with its biocompatible insulator (PEEK: ε r = 3.2, tan δ = 0.01) measures 1456 mm 3 in volume. HFSS software was used to carry out numerical optimization of the IMEA with a simple multilayered model of body tissue (Skin, Fat and Muscle) as the host environment. The simulated result of the proposed IMEA shows over 90% impedance bandwidth ( S 11 < − 10 dB) and records a remarkable high gain of