Making a recommendation that directly influences a person (negatively)

Top PDF Making a recommendation that directly influences a person (negatively):

It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly

It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly

Market markers: routinely not honoring their quotes, it gets ridiculous to point of becoming useless of trying to execute against them. The question is then where the liquidity that they are supposed to provide ? It seems they only provide it in rare cases when they need it for themselves. In fast markets they abandon their duties and pull away from the inside market to a safe distance. SEC should design the rules in such a way so that market makers can not pull out a quote if someone is executing against their quote. They must honor their quotes as everybody else is required to do, else don’t put out an empty quote. Another solution is to abandon the concept of market making
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Motivation Factors of Decision Making Person

Motivation Factors of Decision Making Person

Decision making is a creative and knowledge de- manding process which is being analyzed in scientific publications and continually improved in practice. The Authors of this article have sought to systematize results of behavior of both motivation factors of decision making person (DMP) and environment factor found in various publications and also to present their own approach to perception of information meaning within diverse time intervals. Environment factor in econometric models is understood as what influences activity of analyzed system but acts independent of the system. Problems of investi- gating environment factor’s influence in the decision support systems are related to receiving exact informa- tion about state of this factor. Unlike environment factor which acts as unknowing gambler decision making per- son is described as a conscious gambler. Market, social relations, nature, non-managed organization and other objects might be considered as environment factor while separate individual, group of decision making persons or managed organization are named as decision making person. Elements, that sophisticated system is made of, have their purposes and problems related to problems and purposes of the whole system to solve. Solution of every problem depends upon elements’ available amount of resources. Conflict situations come up because total resources of the whole system are limited but the pur- poses of different elements vary and it is difficult to com- bine amount of resources needed for solving problems of these elements with limitations of the whole system. How- ever the biggest problem when making decisions is the estimation of environment factor’s influence. Therefore it is very important to pay attention to the circumstances that environment states research should include evalua- tion of risk factor of receiving exact information from reliable source. If consultancy was paid for reliable in- formation soon, it is possible to incur large losses seeing that, after circumstances have changed this information might lose not only worth but also meaning. Therefore, if time for project implementation is t but managers have to make decision on fixed time moment t 0 they must size up
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Cognitive Influences shaping Grade Decision Making

Cognitive Influences shaping Grade Decision Making

Ensure assessment criteria are robust and clear for all markers concerned We acknowledge that a number of discussed manifest variables were not directly considered in this analysis which was focused upon the cognitive stage of allocating a decision. Some of these omissions were also for research design reasons. For example, all the assessed work was undertaken anonymously and therefore the scope for using a grade developmentally is discounted (DEAI), the marker of an assessment may or may not be involved in the delivery of the unit’s materials and thus delivery issues were discounted (VOCO, SCCO) and all the grade allocations made were first marks prior to any form of moderation (thus discounting SMMP). PEDE is difficult to capture without a follow up activity with the markers and in particular the students concerned, which was not feasible for practical reasons. However, it is our intention to explore those variables in subsequent work drawing upon this data and outcomes
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Evidence-based Decision Making: Influences on Central-Office Administrators' Decision-Making Practices

Evidence-based Decision Making: Influences on Central-Office Administrators' Decision-Making Practices

Wilkinson and the TFSI (1999) recommended that researchers use strategies that are not overly complex, yet sufficient to answer the research questions. They also recommended that researchers provide results that were “easier to communicate—to both scientific and lay communities” (p. 3). More specifically, Wilkinson and the TFSI (1999) recommended that researchers include effect sizes (ES) and confidence intervals (CI) when reporting their study results. In 2001, the 5th Edition of the APA Publication Manual was published and contained recommendations for researchers concerning reporting practices that were aligned with the recommendation s of the TFSI. The recommendations in the APA Publication Manual fell short of any endorsement for banning NHST, but recommended that researchers should report p values, ES, and CIs (APA, 2001). In the manual, APA (2001) did not make reporting p values, ESs, and confidence intervals a requirement; but, instead encouraged journal editors to support the recommendations in hopes that it would result in publications with more substantial results (Wilkinson & TFSI, 1999).
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Ontology learning from user tagging for tag recommendation making

Ontology learning from user tagging for tag recommendation making

C(  / , /+&(< _ (   |  T, 87, 9  4& (,  7 is a set of tags, each of which is a synset term of ( . 2) Partial Mapping: When a tag could not be directly mapped we firstly conducted phrase shortening by one word at a time from start of phrase to the end to see if in any stage we can map the shortened phrase. This is done based on English grammar that, most phrases will hold the head word at the left end of the phrase and the modifying words at the right of them.

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Metacognition and Decision Making: between First and Third Person Perspective

Metacognition and Decision Making: between First and Third Person Perspective

Such research of processing fluency and decision difficulty points to a more complicated picture of what we base our decisions on, what choices we prefer, etc. Our metacognitive experiences are interwoven with our goals, our beliefs, theories about the source of our experiences, our motivations, social context, etc. Oppenheimer states that “people do not use fluency blindly as a cue for judgment but attempt to attribute it to the appropriate source. This leads people to develop naive theories about the causes of their fluency experience and to apply fluency accordingly … when there is an obvious alternative cause for fluency people will spontaneously discount the fluency experience, and the effects of fluency on judgment will be diminished or reversed … Thus, the interpretation of a fluency experience relies on past experience and the current context, and depending on the interpretation, fluency can have very different influences on judgment.” [30; p.238]. Our choices are influenced by diverse factors: metacognitive experiences, judgments of metacognitive experiences, accessible declarative information and theories we use to interpret them [31]. If our choices were completely bound by our metacognitive experiences or similarly by strong emotions we would not be able to be flexible in our decisions adapting them to our goals, beliefs and values. If we never had the opportunity to monitor and self-reflect on our intuitive responses, we would be bound to “chains of the moment”. On the other hand our metacognitive experiences and also emotions [32] help us navigate the complex world we live in. It is this entanglement of experiences and beliefs (metacognitive and cognitive) we should take a close look at: from a third person perspective and maybe even more so from a first person perspective, especially if we are to understand how each individual experiences and makes decisions.
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Social Influences, Decision-Making, and Career Retention of Novice Teachers

Social Influences, Decision-Making, and Career Retention of Novice Teachers

very much try to not make that the case. But I said I’m going to come out of my shell, I’m going to go and eat lunch, in the lunchroom. I’m going to meet new people. So, I went in my first few days, and it was packed, it was a tinier lunch room but there were still seats, so, I saw an open seat and I said “Is anybody sitting here? Is it ok?” and, oh that’s so and so’s seat, oh, yeah, you can’t take that. I was like ok. And they said “but, not that we don’t want you to sit with us, you can grab a chair, add it here”, so now they made me feel welcome, but your sitting and they are talking, and some of them tried to get to know me, and I told them about myself, and I tried to get to know them, and their families. And then the person comes in and takes her seat, “oh my gosh, you guys didn’t give away my seat, you guys are the best!” I felt like I was surrounded by my students again.
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Societal background influences social learning in cooperative decision making

Societal background influences social learning in cooperative decision making

Contrary to our predictions, our experiment indicated that in- dividuals in our collectivist samples are more oriented towards peer payo ff s than majority behavior. One potential explanation for this un- expected fi nding is that in collectivist societies, conformity is limited to in-groups where people have established social relationships (Yamagishi et al., 1998). Our participants did not know one another and decided under anonymity — two features that inhibit strong in- group perceptions. Personal reputation was not directly at stake in our experiment, which may have reduced perceived needs to conform, especially among our Chinese participants (Yamagishi, Hashimoto, &
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Spending the pupil premium : what influences leaders’ decision making?

Spending the pupil premium : what influences leaders’ decision making?

view of the children’s education “because obviously we’re trying to educate the whole child and it’s not just about academia ”. This commitment to supporting a child’s wider development and outcomes was clear from the majority of our participants. Unsurprisingly, perhaps, it was particularly highlighted by those who had roles which were directly linked to pastoral support, wellbeing or inclusion. One Assistant Head who was also SENCO, Safeguarding Lead and Head of LAC provision, for example, championed the use of PP funding to pay for an educational psychologist to work with specific children, the development of a new forest school, and the employment of a specialist sports coach. Interestingly, this view of how the different ways that the funding can be used contrasts with one of our participants who is a Virtual Head, responsible for LAC educational achievement for a large, urban Local Authority.
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Dopaminergic Influences on Emotional Decision Making in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

Dopaminergic Influences on Emotional Decision Making in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

and working memory in this same cohort after pramipexole treatment (Burdick et al, 2012), suggestive of a pro- cognitive effect of this agent in euthymic BPD patients. One potential explanation for these contradictory effects might be related to the action of pramipexole at both the D2 and the D3 receptor sites. Although the primary binding site for pramipexole is the D3 receptor, its affinity to the D2 receptor remains high (Kvernmo et al, 2006). D2 receptors are localized to several brain regions that are critical to higher-order cognitive control (van Holstein et al, 2011), and D2 agonists such as bromocriptine have demonstrated pro-cognitive effects in healthy individuals (Kimberg et al, 1997; Luciana et al, 1998), particularly in cognitive domains linked to PFC functions. We would hypothesize that pramipexole’s activity at the D2 receptors could readily explain enhancement on attention and working memory tasks that are closely linked with the availability of DA in the PFC (Badre, 2012). In contrast, D3 receptors are most widely distributed in regions involved in reward-based learning (Beninger and Banasikowski, 2008), which might be more directly relevant for task performance on emotional decision-making measures, such as the IGT. D3 receptors are primarily expressed in the mesocorticolimbic DA pathway, and structures in this circuitry show increased activation during impulsive decision making (see Madden et al, 2010 for review). D3 receptors are involved in phasic, not tonic, DA signaling, suggesting an important role for the D3 receptor in modulating the emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment (Kelley et al, 2012).
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Influence of Peer Recommendation on the Neural Dynamics of Preference-Based Decision Making

Influence of Peer Recommendation on the Neural Dynamics of Preference-Based Decision Making

Meanwhile, idiosyncratic, task-related differences also highlight the ultimately limited relevance of results from perceptual decision making to the value-based literature. As in the comparison of the present work with earlier studies from our group (Philiastides & Sajda, 2006; Philiastides et al, 2006), the finer points of the neural mechanisms suggested by individual tasks will likely continue to show at least slight differences. Though adaptive coding allows the comparisons across domains (Krajbich et al, 2015), it is crucial to the investigation of ever more subtle influences that the origin of these task-related differences is explored.
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A Review of Web Personalization and Recommendation for Making Decision using Sequential Pattern

A Review of Web Personalization and Recommendation for Making Decision using Sequential Pattern

VI. D ECISION MAKING IN WEB PERSONALIZATION For performing the task of decision making the concept of Decision Support System is used. (DSS) is a tool used to improvise the process of decision making in complex systems. A DSS can covers from a system that replies easy queries and allows a subsequent right decision to be made, to a system that applied artificial intelligence and provides detailed query across all the spectrum of related datasets in database. From the most important applicable areas of DSS are those complex systems that directly answer questions, in particular high level what-if scenario modeling. During previous decade there was a transition to decision support using data warehouses. In data warehouse scenario it is more controlled and hence more durable and reliable for decision support than the previous methods.
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On Incomplete Fuzzy and Multiplicative Preference Relations in Multi-Person Decision Making

On Incomplete Fuzzy and Multiplicative Preference Relations in Multi-Person Decision Making

3. Processes to estimate missing judgements in GDM It is often assumed in theoretical approaches to GDM that all the experts are able to provide preference degrees between any pair of possible alternatives, which means that complete PRs are assumed. However this is not always possible because of time pressure, lack of knowledge, decision maker’s limited expertise on the field dealt with, or incapacity to quantify the degree of preference of one alternative over another. Thus, an expert might decide not to guess the preference values in doubt to maintain the consistency of the values already provided. To model these situations the concept of incomplete PR was introduced in 11 . In this section we analyse the main techniques in the literature to deal with incomplete information in decision making when the experts express their judgements by means of APR and MPR. We should remark at this point that the algorithms developed for one of them can be directly applied to the other one using the transformation function between (reciprocal) MPR with values in the interval scales [1 /9, 9]
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Environmental exposure to the bacillus, usually through contaminated wounds. The disease is not directly transmitted from person to person.

Environmental exposure to the bacillus, usually through contaminated wounds. The disease is not directly transmitted from person to person.

Tdap has a safety profile similar to Td and is generally well tolerated. 27, 28 20.7.2 AEFIs The 1994 US Institute of Medicine review of adverse events from tetanus vaccine concluded that the evidence supported a link with brachial plexus neuropathy (brachial neuritis) at a rate of 0.5–1 per 100,000 doses within four weeks of immunisation. 29 Occurrence of brachial neuritis following vaccination does not preclude the future use of a tetanus-toxoid containing vaccine in the same person. 22

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The Peculiarities of Spatial Orientation of Person in Conditions of G-Influences

The Peculiarities of Spatial Orientation of Person in Conditions of G-Influences

Taking the above into account, it is proposed that in conditions of G-load influence because of the lability of subjective spatial co-ordinates, pilots with visual modality of perception[r]

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Healthcare decision-making and the older person

Healthcare decision-making and the older person

Individuals who feel that their rights under the Convention have been violated by the State can ultimately bring a case to the European Court of Human Rights. However, domestic remedies must first be exhausted before applying to the ECtHR. The infringement of human rights may not always be intentional but can come about due to weakness in service delivery, the poor provision of information, resource limitations, and inconsistencies in clinical practice (Sykes and Groom 2011). The manner in which care and treatment is structured can therefore have a considerable impact on the manner in which human rights are recognised, protected, and realised within a jurisdiction. In effect, the abstract nature of the rights contained in the legal framework come to be reflected and embedded in everyday practice and interactions between healthcare professionals and the older person. It follows, that the manner in which the older person experiences and participates in their medical care and treatment can draw out strengths and weakness in the relationship between clinical practice and the law, particularly in the context of healthcare decision-making.
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Person-Context Influences on Educational Involvement in Rural Cambodian Schools

Person-Context Influences on Educational Involvement in Rural Cambodian Schools

low monetary incentives, low teacher quality, and inequality resulted in dropouts in Cambodian schools. Primary reasons for girl’s dropping out have been attributed to high levels of housework, early marriage, and security risks (Velasco, 2001). Keng (2004) noted additional reasons at individual and household levels (e.g., students’ and parents’ low educational aspirations). Recently, No et al. (2016) expanded the focus on the influence of multiple factors, and highlighted similar reasons impacting dropout in Phnom Penh and Kampong Speu. However, studies are either limited in capturing opinions of only a couple stakeholders (e.g., dropout students, or parents, and/or teachers; Keng, 2004; No & Hirakawa, 2012; Velasco, 2001) or lack a theoretical frame (e.g., Keng, 2004; No & Hirakawa, 2012; No et al., 2016). Given the paucity of empirical research in this area, our study sought to understand how multiple person-context factors support or hinder male and female students’ participation and attendance in two NGO sponsored schools: a junior high school and a high school in the rural areas of Siem Reap in Cambodia. Moreover, although some steps have been taken to develop a “girl’s counselor scheme in UNICEF-supported schools” (Creative Associates International, 2011, p. 58; MoEYE & UNICEF, 2005), there is a limited research addressing the role of school counseling within the Cambodian school system. Thus, in this study, we also focus on identifying implications for the role of counselors within the Cambodian school systems.
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Personalization in tag ontology learning for recommendation making

Personalization in tag ontology learning for recommendation making

Web site. Usually, information may be input explicitly by users or implicitly gathered by software agent. In the context of this paper, user profile data will be bu[r]

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Consumer Decision Making in Knowledge-Based Recommendation

Consumer Decision Making in Knowledge-Based Recommendation

decision-making processes. Nicholas Bernoulli developed the first consumer decision making theory. The basic assumption of this theory was that consumers make buying decisions based on the expected results of their purchases [17]. According to Bernoulli, consumers select that option which will provide maximum satisfaction. Bernoulli’s Utility theory was later extended by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern [18]. In their Expected Utility Theory they introduced four axioms which define a rational decision maker: completeness (a decision maker has well defined preferences), transitivity (preferences are consistent), independence (preferences hold independently of the outcome) and continuity (given a middle option there is a "tipping point" between being better than and worse than this reference option). Von Neumann and Morgenstern stated that the preferences of a rational decision maker can be represented by a utility function. In the 1950s, Herbert Simon developed an alternative model of consumer decision making: “Satisficing” [19]. This model takes into account the fact that consumers stop the decision making process when they have found a product they consider as “good enough”, rather than to identify the best solution. Simon argued that the idea of the rational decision maker requires cognitive information processing skills that people do not possess. According to Simon, deci- sion makers lack the ability and resources to arrive at the optimal solution and typically operate within a bounded rationality. Since 1960s various consumer decision-making models have been developed [20]. In the following we will discuss selected models with a special relevance in the context of recommender applications. Traditional Economic Models. Based on the rationality aspects of Utility Theory [18], traditional economic models are assuming that all users are able to take decisions that are optimal and that have been derived on the basis of rational
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The Heuristics of Obesity: Influences on Physician Decision-Making

The Heuristics of Obesity: Influences on Physician Decision-Making

The possible impact these heuristics and guidelines can have on patients’ treatment paths is highlighted by the ease with which they can be changed. For example, in November of 2017, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association announced new standards for the assessment and treatment of hypertension. Previously, hypertension was defined as having blood pressure at or above 140/90 mmHg; the change lowered the threshold for hypertension to 130/80 mmHg (Welton et al., 2017). On the one hand, this could allow more patients who would benefit from the treatment to be tested for hypertension, but may have been missed under the previous guidelines. On the other hand, it could lead to over-medication of patients who are perhaps mildly hypertensive or happened to have a higher blood pressure at the time it was measured. Regardless of the policy change, the cutoff itself could lead to under-treatment of individuals just below the cutoff, or over-treatment of individuals just above it. This is the fundamental issue with heuristic decision- making in medicine: if these arbitrary guidelines are strictly adhered to, some patients may be under diagnosed while others may be over-treated, which could lead to nontrivial disparities in health outcomes.
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